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Jackson was in poor health when he became president, and few believed that he would have the strength or inclination to seek a second term. The question of the succession was, therefore, certain to attract early attention. One obvious candidate was Vice President John C. The harmony of the new administration was marred from the outset by the rivalry between Calhoun and Van Buren.

Moreover, Jackson learned in that during the cabinet debates in Calhoun had urged that Jackson be censured for his invasion of Florida. In that episode Jackson had captured the Spanish forts at St.

Andrew Jackson Biography

Marks, Pensacola, and several other towns, and claimed the surrounding territory for the United States. Jackson, though considered a hero in many parts of the country for this action, was severely criticized by Congress. Calhoun was the most prominent of these critics, and Jackson concluded that he could no longer trust him. From that time, Van Buren was generally recognized as the probable successor of Jackson as president. The feud between Jackson and Calhoun assumed momentous importance in when Calhoun openly espoused the cause of South Carolina in its opposition to a high protective tariff.

Feeling in South Carolina was so intense that there were covert threats that the state would attempt to prevent collection of the tariff within its borders. The issue of the tariff drifted unresolved, however, until , when congressional leaders sought a compromise in the form of a moderate reduction of the tariff. South Carolina was not satisfied and in reply adopted a resolution declaring the tariffs of and null and void and prohibiting the enforcement of either within its boundaries after February 1, Jackson accepted the challenge, denounced the theory of nullification , and asked Congress for authority to send troops into South Carolina to enforce the law.

The president believed the tariff to be too high, however, and urged Congress to reduce the rates it had enacted a few months earlier. On March 1, , Congress sent to the president two companion bills. One reduced tariff duties on many items. The other, commonly called the Force Bill , empowered the president to use the armed forces to enforce federal laws. South Carolina repealed its nullification ordinance, but at the same time it declared the Force Act null and void.

Whatever the motives, Jackson had preserved the integrity of the Union against the most serious threat it had yet faced. In contrast, he was remarkably complacent when Georgia defied the federal government. In Georgia extended its jurisdiction to about 9,, acres 4,, hectares of land that lay within its boundaries but was still occupied by the Cherokee Indians. In two separate cases, the Supreme Court ruled against Georgia, but Georgia ignored those decisions and continued to enforce its jurisdiction within the territory claimed by the Cherokees.

The Cherokee, left without a choice, signed another treaty in giving up their land in exchange for land in the Indian Territory west of Arkansas. Three years later, having been rounded up by Gen. Winfield Scott , some 15, Cherokees were forced to wend their way westward, mostly on foot, on a journey that became known as the Trail of Tears. On the way, during the cold and wet of winter, nearly a quarter of them died of starvation, illness, and exposure. The Indian Removal Act of authorized Jackson to grant these Indian tribes unsettled western prairie land in exchange for their homelands.

When members of the so-called Five Civilized Tribes , including the Cherokees, refused to relocate, military coercion was employed to force compliance. Even more reluctant to leave their Florida home were the Seminoles, who would resist resettlement in the Second Seminole War — In the meantime, Jackson acquiesced to the pressure of friends and sought a second term.

The charter of the Bank of the United States was due to expire in The president had not clearly defined his position on the bank, but he was increasingly uneasy about how it was then organized. More significant in an election year was the fact that large blocs of voters who favoured Jackson were openly hostile to the bank. The question before Jackson actually was whether the veto message should leave the door open to future compromise. Few presidential vetoes have caused as much controversy in their own time or later as the one Jackson sent to Congress on July 10, Efforts to persuade Congress to enact legislation limiting the circulation of bank notes failed, but there was one critical point at which Jackson was free to apply his theories.

Nearly all purchasers of public lands paid with bank notes, many of which had to be discounted because of doubts as to the continuing solvency of the banks that issued them. Partly to protect federal revenues against loss and partly to advance his concept of a sound currency, Jackson issued the Specie Circular in July , requiring payment in gold or silver for all public lands.

This measure created a demand for specie that many of the banks could not meet; banks began to fail, and the effect of bank failures in the West spread to the East. By the spring of the entire country was gripped by a financial panic. The panic did not come, however, until after Jackson had had the pleasure of seeing Van Buren inaugurated as president on March 4, The North Portico, which had long been advocated by James Hoban , its architect, was added to the mansion.

The appropriation that Jackson obtained for this work included a sum for refurbishing the interior of the building, and the public rooms were refitted on a grand scale. A system of iron pipes was also installed in order to convey water from a well to a small reservoir on the grounds from which it could be pumped to various parts of the building. Jackson retired to his home, the Hermitage. For decades in poor health, he was virtually an invalid during the remaining eight years of his life, but he continued to have a lively interest in public affairs.

Jackson had left office more popular than when he entered it. The widespread approval of his actions exercised a profound effect on the character of U. His success appeared to be a vindication of the new democracy. Powerful voices still questioned the wisdom and morality of democracy in ; there were few who would question it in Jackson had likewise established a pattern that future candidates for the presidency attempted to imitate.

Birth in humble circumstances, experience on the frontier, evidence of being close to the mass of the people, a devotion to democracy, and, if possible, some military exploits were all valuable assets for any candidate. The intensity of the political struggles from to led to the revival of the two-party system. Jackson never thought of himself as a master politician, but he and his associates proved themselves the most skillful political leaders of that generation. When Jackson was elected president in , he was the candidate of a faction rather than of a party.

When he retired from the presidency he left a vigorous and well-organized Democratic Party as a legacy. The table provides a list of cabinet members in the administration of President Andrew Jackson. We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. Therefore, Adams chose not to attend the inauguration. He also promised to pursue "reform" by removing power from "unfaithful or incompetent hands. Thousands of spectators overwhelmed the White House staff, and minor damage was caused to fixtures and furnishings.

Jackson's populism earned him the nickname "King Mob. Jackson devoted a considerable amount of his presidential time during his early years in office responding to what came to be known as the "Petticoat affair" or "Eaton affair. Salacious rumors held that Peggy, as a barmaid in her father's tavern, had been sexually promiscuous or had even been a prostitute.

Calhoun, refused to socialize with the Eatons. Allowing a prostitute in the official family was unthinkable—but Jackson refused to believe the rumors, telling his Cabinet that "She is as chaste as a virgin! Jackson was also reminded of the attacks that were made against his wife. These memories increased his dedication to defending Peggy Eaton. Meanwhile, the cabinet wives insisted that the interests and honor of all American women was at stake.

They believed a responsible woman should never accord a man sexual favors without the assurance that went with marriage. A woman who broke that code was dishonorable and unacceptable. Historian Daniel Walker Howe notes that this was the feminist spirit that in the next decade shaped the woman's rights movement. He could now see his main chance to strike hard; he took the side of Jackson and Eaton.

In the spring of , Jackson, at Van Buren's suggestion, demanded the resignations of all the cabinet members except Barry. Van Buren himself resigned to avoid the appearance of bias. Calhoun blocked the nomination with a tie-breaking vote against it, claiming the defeated nomination would " He will never kick, sir, never kick.

The Kitchen Cabinet emerged as an unofficial group of advisors to the president. Its existence was partially rooted in Jackson's difficulties with his official cabinet, even after the purging. Throughout his eight years in office, Jackson made about 70 treaties with Native American tribes both in the South and the Northwest.

The northwest tribes include the Chippewa , Ottawa , and the Potawatomi. Relations between Indians and Americans increasingly grew tense and sometimes violent as a result of territorial conflicts. There had developed a growing popular and political movement to deal with the issue, and out of this policy to relocate certain Indian populations. Jackson, never known for timidity, became an advocate for this relocation policy in what many historians consider the most controversial aspect of his presidency.

The Act authorized the president to negotiate treaties to buy tribal lands in the east in exchange for lands farther west, outside of existing state borders. Jackson, Eaton, and General Coffee negotiated with the Chickasaw, who quickly agreed to move. Lacking Jackson's skills at negotiation, they frequently bribed the chiefs in order to gain their submission. The tactics worked, and the chiefs agreed to move. The removal of the Choctaw took place in the winter of and , and was wrought with misery and suffering.

In December , this dispute began the Second Seminole War. The war lasted over six years, finally ending in The state of Georgia became involved in a contentious dispute with the Cherokee, culminating in the Supreme Court decision in Worcester v. Chief Justice John Marshall , writing for the court, ruled that Georgia could not forbid whites from entering tribal lands, as it had attempted to do with two missionaries supposedly stirring up resistance amongst the tribespeople. Remini argues that Jackson did not say it because, while it "certainly sounds like Jackson Ridge was not a widely recognized leader of the Cherokee, and this document was rejected by some as illegitimate.

Subsequently, as many as 4, out of 18, Cherokees died on the " Trail of Tears " in In an effort to purge the government of corruption, Jackson launched presidential investigations into all executive Cabinet offices and departments. He believed appointees should be hired on merit and withdrew many candidates he believed were lax in their handling of monies. Jackson's Postmaster General Barry resigned after a Congressional investigation into the postal service revealed mismanagement of mail services, collusion and favoritism in awarding lucrative contracts, as well as failure to audit accounts and supervise contract performances.

Jackson repeatedly called for the abolition of the Electoral College by constitutional amendment in his annual messages to Congress as president. So important do I consider these changes in our fundamental law that I can not, in accordance with my sense of duty, omit to press them upon the consideration of a new Congress. Although he was unable to implement this goal, Jackson's time in office did see a variety of other reforms.

He supported an act in July that enabled widows of Revolutionary War soldiers who met certain criteria to receive their husband's pensions. Jackson enforced the Tenure of Office Act , signed by President Monroe in , that limited appointed office tenure and authorized the president to remove and appoint political party associates.

Jackson believed that a rotation in office was actually a democratic reform preventing father-to-son succession of office and made civil service responsible to the popular will. Jackson's approach incorporated patriotism for country as qualification for holding office. Having appointed a soldier who had lost his leg fighting on the battlefield to postmaster, Jackson stated, "[i]f he lost his leg fighting for his country, that is Jackson's theory regarding rotation of office generated what would later be called the spoils system.

Supervision of bureaus and departments whose operations were outside of Washington such as the New York Customs House; the Postal Service; the Departments of Navy and War; and the Bureau of Indian Affairs, whose budget had increased enormously in the previous two decades proved to be difficult. In , Congress had approved the " Tariff of Abominations ", which set the tariff at an historically high rate.

Southern planters, who sold their cotton on the world market, strongly opposed this tariff, which they saw as favoring northern interests. The South now had to pay more for goods it did not produce locally; and other countries would have more difficulty affording southern cotton. The issue came to a head during Jackson's presidency, resulting in the Nullification Crisis , in which South Carolina threatened disunion.

President Andrew Jackson Biography

The South Carolina Exposition and Protest of , secretly written by Calhoun, asserted that their state had the right to "nullify"—declare void—the tariff legislation of Although Jackson sympathized with the South in the tariff debate, he also vigorously supported a strong union, with effective powers for the central government. Jackson attempted to face down Calhoun over the issue, which developed into a bitter rivalry between the two men. One incident came at the April 13, , Jefferson Day dinner, involving after-dinner toasts. It must be preserved! Calhoun clarified his position by responding "The Union: Next to our Liberty, the most dear!

Calhoun's and Jackson's relationship deteriorated further. By February , the break between Calhoun and Jackson was final. Responding to inaccurate press reports about the feud, Calhoun had published letters between him and Jackson detailing the conflict in the United States Telegraph. Jackson and Calhoun began an angry correspondence which lasted until Jackson stopped it in July. After it took the side of Calhoun, Jackson needed a new organ for the administration.

He enlisted the help of longtime supporter Francis Preston Blair , who in November established a newspaper known as the Washington Globe , which from then on served as the primary mouthpiece of the Democratic Party.


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Jackson supported a revision to tariff rates known as the Tariff of It was designed to placate the nullifiers by lowering tariff rates. It passed Congress on July 9 and was signed by the President on July The bill ultimately failed to satisfy extremists on either side. Navy warships to Charleston harbor, and threatened to hang any man who worked to support nullification or secession. Senator for South Carolina. Hayne in the Senate, who would then become governor.

Hayne had often struggled to defend nullification on the floor of the Senate, especially against fierce criticism from Senator Daniel Webster of Massachusetts. In December , Jackson issued a resounding proclamation against the "nullifiers," stating that he considered "the power to annul a law of the United States, assumed by one State, incompatible with the existence of the Union, contradicted expressly by the letter of the Constitution, unauthorized by its spirit, inconsistent with every principle on which it was founded, and destructive of the great object for which it was formed.

Jackson also denied the right of secession: To say that any State may at pleasure secede from the Union is to say that the United States are not a nation. Jackson asked Congress to pass a " Force Bill " explicitly authorizing the use of military force to enforce the tariff. It was introduced by Senator Felix Grundy of Tennessee, and was quickly attacked by Calhoun as "military despotism.

A bill sponsored by the administration had been introduced by Representative Gulian C. Verplanck of New York, but it lowered rates more sharply than Clay and other protectionists desired. Clay managed to get Calhoun to agree to a bill with higher rates in exchange for Clay's opposition to Jackson's military threats and, perhaps, with the hope that he could win some Southern votes in his next bid for the presidency.

Calhoun, Clay, and several others marched out of the chamber in opposition, with the only dissenting vote coming from John Tyler of Virginia. He signed both bills on March 2, starting with the Force Bill. The next pretext will be the negro, or slavery question. Addressing the subject of foreign affairs in his First Annual Address to Congress, Jackson declared it to be his "settled purpose to ask nothing that is not clearly right and to submit to nothing that is wrong. When Jackson took office, spoliation claims, or compensation demands for the capture of American ships and sailors, dating from the Napoleonic era , caused strained relations between the U.

The French Navy had captured and sent American ships to Spanish ports while holding their crews captive forcing them to labor without any charges or judicial rules. Rives , through diplomacy was able to convince the French government to sign a reparations treaty on July 4, , that would award the U. By , the non-payment of reparations by the French government drew Jackson's ire and he became impatient. In his December State of the Union address , Jackson sternly reprimanded the French government for non-payment, stating the federal government was "wholly disappointed" by the French, and demanded Congress authorize trade reprisals against France.

Jackson described in lengthy and minute detail the history of events surrounding the treaty and his belief that the French government was purposely stalling payment. The French accepted Jackson's statements as sincere and in February , reparations were paid. In addition to France, the Jackson administration successfully settled spoliation claims with Denmark , Portugal , and Spain.

Jackson's state department was active and successful at making trade agreements with Russia , Spain , Turkey , Great Britain , and Siam. The trade agreement with Siam was America's first treaty between the United States and an Asiatic country. Butler was later replaced toward the end of Jackson's presidency. In , the Texas Revolution began when pro-slavery American settlers in Texas fought the Mexican government for Texan independence.

By May , they had routed the Mexican military, establishing an independent Republic of Texas. The new Texas government legalized slavery and demanded recognition from President Jackson and annexation into the United States. Jackson was hesitant in recognizing Texas, unconvinced that the new republic could maintain independence from Mexico, and not wanting to make Texas an anti-slavery issue during the election. The strategy worked; the Democratic Party and national loyalties were held intact, and Van Buren was elected president.

Jackson failed in his efforts to open trade with China and Japan and was unsuccessful at thwarting Great Britain's presence and power in South America. The presidential election demonstrated the rapid development and organization of political parties during this time period. The Democratic Party's first national convention, held in Baltimore, nominated Jackson's choice for vice president, Van Buren.

Clay was, like Jackson, a Mason, and so some anti-Jacksonians who would have supported the National Republican Party supported Wirt instead.


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  • Its stock was mostly held by foreigners, he insisted, and it exerted an unfair amount of control over the political system. Jackson used the issue to promote his democratic values, believing the Bank was being run exclusively for the wealthy. Jackson stated the Bank made "the rich richer and the potent more powerful. Its only power would be to issue bills of exchange. Thomas Hart Benton, now a strong supporter of the President despite the brawl years earlier, gave a speech strongly denouncing the Bank and calling for open debate on its recharter.

    Webster led a motion to narrowly defeat the resolution. Shortly afterward, the Globe announced that Jackson would stand for reelection. Despite his misgivings about the Bank, he supported a plan proposed in late by his moderately pro-Bank Treasury Secretary Louis McLane , who was secretly working with Biddle, to recharter a reformed version of the Bank in a way that would free up funds which would in turn be used to strengthen the military or pay off the nation's debt.

    This would be done, in part, through the sale of government stock in the Bank. Over the objections of Attorney General Roger B. Taney , an irreconcilable opponent of the Bank, he allowed McLane to publish a Treasury Report which essentially recommended rechartering the Bank. Clay hoped to make the Bank an issue in the election, so as to accuse Jackson of going beyond his powers if he vetoed a recharter bill. He and Webster urged Biddle to immediately apply for recharter rather than wait to reach a compromise with the administration.

    On January 6, Biddle submitted to Congress a renewal of the Bank's charter without any of the proposed reforms. Biddle's recharter bill passed the Senate on June 11 and the House on July 3, Many moderate Democrats, including McLane, were appalled by the perceived arrogance of the bill and supported his decision. Van Buren, is trying to kill me. But I will kill it.

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    It attacked the Bank as an agent of inequality that supported only the wealthy. At Biddle's direction, the Bank poured thousands of dollars into a campaign to defeat Jackson, seemingly confirming Jackson's view that it interfered in the political process. Clay proved to be no match to Jackson's ability to resonate with the people and the Democratic Party's strong political networks. Democratic newspapers, parades, barbecues, and rallies increased Jackson's popularity.

    Jackson won the election by a landslide, receiving 54 percent of the popular vote and electoral votes. Clay received 37 percent of the popular vote and 49 electoral votes.

    Andrew Jackson - HISTORY

    Wirt received only eight percent of the popular vote and seven electoral votes while the Anti-Masonic Party eventually declined. In , Jackson attempted to begin removing federal deposits from the bank, whose money-lending functions were taken over by the legions of local and state banks that materialized across America, thus drastically increasing credit and speculation. He replaced McLane with William J. Signalling his intent to continue battling the Bank, he replaced Duane with Taney.

    The moves were intended to force Jackson into a compromise. At first, Biddle's strategy was successful, putting enormous pressure on Jackson. When people came to him complaining, he referred them to Biddle, saying that he was the man who had "all the money. Biddle's strategy backfired, increasing anti-Bank sentiment. In , those who disagreed with Jackson's expansion of executive power united and formed the Whig Party , calling Jackson "King Andrew I," and named their party after the English Whigs who opposed seventeenth British monarchy.

    The censure was a political maneuver spearheaded by Clay, which served only to perpetuate the animosity between him and Jackson. Polk , declared on April 4 that the Bank "ought not to be rechartered" and that the depositions "ought not to be restored. Jackson called the passage of these resolutions a "glorious triumph. Polk ran for Speaker of the House to replace Andrew Stevenson. The national economy following the withdrawal of the remaining funds from the Bank was booming and the federal government through duty revenues and sale of public lands was able to pay all bills.

    On January 1, , Jackson paid off the entire national debt, the only time in U. In , in response to increased land speculation, Jackson issued the Specie Circular , an executive order that required buyers of government lands to pay in "specie" gold or silver coins. The result was high demand for specie, which many banks could not meet in exchange for their notes, contributing to the Panic of His destruction of the Second Bank of the United States had removed restrictions upon the inflationary practices of some state banks; wild speculation in lands, based on easy bank credit, had swept the West.

    To end this speculation, Jackson in had issued a Specie Circular The first recorded physical attack on a U. He had ordered the dismissal of Robert B. Randolph from the navy for embezzlement. During a stopover near Alexandria , Randolph appeared and struck the President. He fled the scene chased by several members of Jackson's party, including the writer Washington Irving. Jackson declined to press charges. On January 30, , what is believed to be the first attempt to kill a sitting president of the United States occurred just outside the United States Capitol.

    Davis , Richard Lawrence , an unemployed house painter from England, aimed a pistol at Jackson, which misfired. Lawrence then pulled out a second pistol, which also misfired. Historians believe the humid weather contributed to the double misfiring. Lawrence offered a variety of explanations for the shooting. He blamed Jackson for the loss of his job. He claimed that with the President dead, "money would be more plenty," a reference to Jackson's struggle with the Bank of the United States and that he "could not rise until the President fell.

    Afterwards, the pistols were tested and retested. Each time they performed perfectly. Many believed that Jackson had been protected by the same Providence that also protected their young nation. The incident became a part of Jacksonian mythos. Jackson initially suspected that a number of his political enemies might have orchestrated the attempt on his life. His suspicions were never proven. During the summer of , Northern abolitionists began sending anti-slavery tracts through the postal system into the South.

    Jackson wanted sectional peace, and desired to placate Southerners ahead of the election. He supported the solution of Postmaster General Amos Kendall, which gave Southern postmasters discretionary powers to either send or detain the anti-slavery tracts. Jackson initially opposed any federal exploratory scientific expeditions during his first term in office. Harriman on the Red River of the North. Jackson's predecessor, President Adams, attempted to launch a scientific oceanic exploration in , but Congress was unwilling to fund the effort.

    When Jackson assumed office in he pocketed Adams' expedition plans. Eventually, wanting to establish his presidential legacy, similar to Jefferson and the Lewis and Clark Expedition , Jackson sponsored scientific exploration during his second term. Jackson put Secretary of the Navy Mahlon Dickerson in charge, to assemble suitable ships, officers, and scientific staff for the expedition; with a planned launch before Jackson's term of office expired. Dickerson proved unfit for the task, preparations stalled and the expedition was not launched until , during the presidency of Van Buren.

    In spite of economic success following Jackson's vetoes and war against the Bank, reckless speculation in land and railroads eventually caused the Panic of Two other Jacksonian acts in contributed to the Panic of Jackson's Specie Circular, albeit designed to reduce speculation and stabilize the economy, left many investors unable to afford to pay loans in gold and silver. The same year there was a downturn in Great Britain's economy that stopped investment in the United States. As a result, the U. Jackson appointed six Justices to the Supreme Court. His first appointee, John McLean , had been nominated in Barry's place after Barry had agreed to become postmaster general.

    His next two appointees— Henry Baldwin and James Moore Wayne —disagreed with Jackson on some points but were poorly regarded even by Jackson's enemies. Both were confirmed by the new Senate. Sandford largely overshadows his career. Two new states were admitted into the Union during Jackson's presidency: Arkansas June 15, [] and Michigan January 26, This was in keeping with the tradition that new states would support the party which had done the most to admit them.

    In , after serving two terms as president, Jackson was replaced by his chosen successor Martin Van Buren and retired to the Hermitage. He immediately began putting it in order as it had been poorly managed in his absence by his adopted son, Andrew Jr. Although he suffered ill health, Jackson remained highly influential in both national and state politics.

    Jackson continued to denounce the "perfidy and treachery" of banks and urged his successor, Van Buren, to repudiate the Specie Circular as president. As a solution to the panic, he supported an Independent Treasury system, which was designed to hold the money balances of the government in the form of gold or silver and would be restricted from printing paper money so as to prevent further inflation. During the delay, no effective remedy had been implemented for the depression.

    Van Buren grew deeply unpopular. The Whigs' campaign style in many ways mimicked that of the Democrats when Jackson ran. They depicted Van Buren as an aristocrat who did not care for the concerns of ordinary Americans, while glorifying Harrison's military record and portraying him as a man of the people. Jackson campaigned heavily for Van Buren in Tennessee. No nominee was chosen, and the party chose to leave the decision up to individual state electors. Harrison won the election, and the Whigs captured majorities in both houses of Congress. Jackson was encouraged because Tyler had a strong independent streak and was not bound by party lines.

    Jackson strongly favored the annexation of Texas , a feat he had been unable to accomplish during his own presidency. While Jackson still feared that annexation would stir up anti-slavery sentiment, his belief that the British would use Texas as a base to threaten the United States overrode his other concerns. Walker of Mississippi, acting on behalf of the Tyler administration, which also supported annexation, Jackson wrote several letters to Texas President Sam Houston , urging him to wait for the Senate to approve annexation and lecturing him on how much being a part of the United States would benefit Texas.

    A treaty of annexation was signed by Tyler on April 12, , and submitted to the Senate. When a letter from Secretary of State Calhoun to British Ambassador Richard Pakenham linking annexation to slavery was made public, anti-annexation sentiment exploded in the North and the bill failed to be ratified. Van Buren decided to write the "Hamlet letter," opposing annexation. This effectively extinguished any support that Van Buren might previously have enjoyed in the South.

    If the plan failed, Jackson warned, Texas would not join the Union and would potentially fall victim to a Mexican invasion supported by the British. He then pointed directly at a startled Polk, telling him that, as a man from the southwest and a supporter of annexation, he would be the perfect candidate. Polk called the scheme "utterly abortive," but agreed to go along with it.

    Dallas was selected for vice president. Jackson convinced Tyler to drop his plans of running for re-election as an independent by promising, as Tyler requested, to welcome the president and his allies back into the Democratic Party and by instructing Blair to stop criticizing the president.

    Jackson died at his plantation on June 8, , at the age of 78, of chronic dropsy and heart failure. When the messenger finally came, the old soldier, patriot and Christian was looking out for his approach. He is gone, but his memory lives, and will continue to live. Jackson had three adopted sons: Theodore, an Indian about whom little is known, [] Andrew Jackson Jr.

    Lyncoya died of tuberculosis on July 1, , at the age of sixteen. The Jacksons also acted as guardians for eight other children. Andrew Jackson Hutchings was Rachel's orphaned grand nephew. They came to live with the Jacksons after the death of their father. Emily was married to Andrew Jackson Donelson, who acted as Jackson's private secretary and in ran for vice president on the American Party ticket. The relationship between the President and Emily became strained during the Petticoat affair, and the two became estranged for over a year.

    They eventually reconciled and she resumed her duties as White House hostess. It was the only time in history when two women simultaneously acted as unofficial First Lady.


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    • Sarah took over all hostess duties after Emily died from tuberculosis in Jackson used Rip Raps as a retreat. Jackson's quick temper was notorious. Brands notes that his opponents were terrified of his temper: His close associates all had stories of his blood-curdling oaths, his summoning of the Almighty to loose His wrath upon some miscreant, typically followed by his own vow to hang the villain or blow him to perdition.

      Given his record—in duels, brawls, mutiny trials, and summary hearings—listeners had to take his vows seriously. On the last day of his presidency, Jackson admitted that he had but two regrets, that he "had been unable to shoot Henry Clay or to hang John C. Jackson also had an unruly shock of red hair, which had completely grayed by the time he became president at age He had penetrating deep blue eyes. Jackson was one of the more sickly presidents, suffering from chronic headaches, abdominal pains, and a hacking cough. Much of his trouble was caused by a musket ball in his lung that was never removed, that often brought up blood and sometimes made his whole body shake.

      Jackson was a Freemason , initiated at Harmony Lodge No. He was the only U. His Masonic apron is on display in the Tennessee State Museum. An obelisk and bronze Masonic plaque decorate his tomb at the Hermitage. Jackson remains one of the most studied and controversial figures in American history. Historian Charles Grier Sellers says, "Andrew Jackson's masterful personality was enough by itself to make him one of the most controversial figures ever to stride across the American stage.

      He has been lauded as the champion of the common man, while criticized for his treatment of Indians and for other matters. Trying to sum up the contradictions in his subject, he wrote:. Andrew Jackson, I am given to understand, was a patriot and a traitor. He was one of the greatest generals, and wholly ignorant of the art of war. A brilliant writer, elegant, eloquent, without being able to compose a correct sentence or spell words of four syllables.

      The first of statesmen, he never devised, he never framed, a measure. He was the most candid of men, and was capable of the most profound dissimulation. A most law-defying law-obeying citizen. A stickler for discipline, he never hesitated to disobey his superior. Jackson was criticized by his contemporary Alexis de Tocqueville in Democracy in America for flattering the dominant ideas of his time, including the mistrust over the federal power, for sometimes enforcing his view by force and disrespect towards the institutions and the law:.

      Far from wishing to extend the Federal power, the President belongs to the party which is desirous of limiting that power to the clear and precise letter of the Constitution, and which never puts a construction upon that act favorable to the government of the Union; far from standing forth as the champion of centralization, General Jackson is the agent of the state jealousies; and he was placed in his lofty station by the passions that are most opposed to the central government. It is by perpetually flattering these passions that he maintains his station and his popularity.

      General Jackson is the slave of the majority: General Jackson stoops to gain the favor of the majority; but when he feels that his popularity is secure, he overthrows all obstacles in the pursuit of the objects which the community approves or of those which it does not regard with jealousy. Supported by a power that his predecessors never had, he tramples on his personal enemies, whenever they cross his path, with a facility without example; he takes upon himself the responsibility of measures that no one before him would have ventured to attempt.

      He even treats the national representatives with a disdain approaching to insult; he puts his veto on the laws of Congress and frequently neglects even to reply to that powerful body. He is a favorite who sometimes treats his master roughly. In the 20th century, Jackson was written about by many admirers.

      Remini paints a generally favorable portrait of Jackson. As such it has inspired much of the dynamic and dramatic events of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in American history— Populism , Progressivism , the New and Fair Deals, and the programs of the New Frontier and Great Society. This new man was no longer British. He no longer wore the queue and silk pants. He wore trousers, and he had stopped speaking with a British accent. Jackson's initiatives to deal with the conflicts between Indians and American settlers has been a source of controversy.

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      Starting mainly around , Jackson came under attack from some historians on this issue. Howard Zinn called him "the most aggressive enemy of the Indians in early American history" and "exterminator of Indians. Because both Jefferson and Jackson were slave owners, as well as because of Jackson's Indian removal policies, many state party organizations have renamed the dinners. Brands argues that Jackson's reputation suffered since the s as his actions towards Indians and African Americans received new attention. He also claims that the Indian controversy overshadowed Jackson's other achievements.

      Noting shifting attitudes on different national issues, Brands notes that he was often hailed during his lifetime as the "second George Washington," because, while Washington had fought for independence, Jackson confirmed it at New Orleans and made the United States a great world power. Over time, while the Revolution has maintained a strong presence in the public conscience, memory of the War of , including the Battle of New Orleans, has sharply declined. Critically ill after a stroke, Crawford was essentially out, and Speaker of the House Henry Clay who had finished fourth threw his support behind Adams, who later made Clay his secretary of state.

      Andrew Jackson won redemption four years later in an election that was characterized to an unusual degree by negative personal attacks. Jackson and his wife were accused of adultery on the basis that Rachel had not been legally divorced from her first husband when she married Jackson. Shortly after his victory in , the shy and pious Rachel died at the Hermitage; Jackson apparently believed the negative attacks had hastened her death. A major battle between the two emerging political parties involved the Bank of the United States , the charter of which was due to expire in Andrew Jackson and his supporters opposed the bank, seeing it as a privileged institution and the enemy of the common people; meanwhile, Clay and Webster led the argument in Congress for its recharter.

      In , South Carolina adopted a resolution declaring federal tariffs passed in and null and void and prohibiting their enforcement within state boundaries. While urging Congress to lower the high tariffs, Jackson sought and obtained the authority to order federal armed forces to South Carolina to enforce federal laws. Violence seemed imminent, but South Carolina backed down, and Jackson earned credit for preserving the Union in its greatest moment of crisis to that date. In contrast to his strong stand against South Carolina, Andrew Jackson took no action after Georgia claimed millions of acres of land that had been guaranteed to the Cherokee Indians under federal law, and he declined to enforce a U.

      Supreme Court ruling that Georgia had no authority over Native American tribal lands. In , the Cherokees signed a treaty giving up their land in exchange for territory west of Arkansas , where in some 15, would head on foot along the so-called Trail of Tears. The relocation resulted in the deaths of thousands. After leaving office, Jackson retired to the Hermitage, where he died in June Start your free trial today. We strive for accuracy and fairness. But if you see something that doesn't look right, contact us!

      Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present. Andrew Johnson , the 17th U. Johnson, who served from to , was the first American president to be impeached.