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All these excuses for the propagation of cruelty are possible only because society is in a position to persecute animals. Some reflection of this attitude is, too, observable in relation to the persecution of those individuals who, in the spheres of morality, religion, and even pure intellect, are alien to normality or orthodoxy. The same measure of brutal treatment or persecution which would arouse the deepest resentment or indignation when applied to a kindred spirit or a close associate, if directed against one whose actions or opinions were viewed with abhorrence or disgust, would evince no words of protest, and might con- ceivably, were the circumstances suflicientiy provocative, meet with active support.

Thus the tolerance or approval of the most brutal persecutional measures accorded to criminals, to sexual perverts, to enemy aliens. The martyrdom of anyone who is associated with something out of tune with current thought or morality is not viewed with sympathy and is usually called by another and a harsher name.

It is an inevitable result of mob psychology that the sympathy and tolerance of the masses is extended only to those near them in mentality as well as environ- ment. It matters little that any such practice was, in the beginning, restricted in its application to those guilty of certain crimes which, viewed in relation to the ethical and religious reactions of the time, were considered to be as monstrous as they were dangerous. The very fact that torture had been put into operation at all suggested the possibility of its extension; and further suggested to the leaders of society a method of dealing with their re- calcitrant or rebellious members.

Thus it not infrequently happened that the individuals who had been primarily responsible for the infliction of torture against certain members of society, found themselves, as a result of the development of persecution along unforeseen lines, and for unspecified purposes, among its next victims. In the beginning torture was probably restricted to animals and to members of enemy tribes or races. A start having been made, the next steps were the extension in the quantity of subjects persecuted and developments in the technique of torture itself.

The rule that the tolerated of to-day becomes the approved of to-morrow, applies to tor- ture as well as to most things. And with toleration and approval of any specific form of persecution, in many cases, it ceases to rank as torture at all, but is accepted as a form of punishment or of penal procedure. This hap- pened all through the ages. It is for this reason that the justification of persecution has always been one of the major forces working against its abolition. The result of all this is that torture, in whatever country it is practised and wherever it is regarded as essential to the form of authority or government in vogue, must of neces- sity, if it is not to decline in its efficacy, be either continually increasing in its severity or extending in its scope.

One of the greatest evils connected with torture is that whenever and wherever it is practised, and whatever be its objects, it must inevitably develop. The judges and executioners of the Middle Ages were compelled to be continually invent- ing new and more severe forms of torture. The tortured individual is himself a potential torturer. The ill-treatment of animals by man is often to be found in conjunction with the ill-treatment of man by his fellow- men. A little over a century ago, in the British West Indies, the scavenging work was done by negro slaves guilty of some criminal offence or other.

They worked in fetters and they were treated just about as inhumanly as one human being can be treated by another, and live. They were permitted to destroy every pig they found in the streets. This they looked upon as " great sport"; in- deed they revelled in it, according to Mr. Bayley, who describes the following incident. It occurred in St.

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The enraged and savage brute immediately left his hold of the pike, and taking the other two legs of the pig, commenced pulling it in a contrary direction. At length the man gained the mastery, and having severed the head from file body, he stuck it on his pike, as if in triumph, and afterwards repaired to the market to make his bargain with the butcher. Four Years' Residence in the West Indies, , p. Persons of this nature are often the leaders in scenes of mob violence. They are not necessarily sadists, but often they are. It is important to distinguish between cruelty per se and sadism.

The popular assumption, due largely to the loose way in which the term is now used in popular fiction and in newspapers, that sadism is a synonym for cruelty in any form, is a fallacy. Sadism is a sexological term, and, strictly speaking, it should never be employed apart from its sexual connotations. This widespread misuse detracts from the term's significance, and gives rise to a good deal of mis- apprehension.

The sadist, in most cases, either practises or delights in the witnessing of cruelty, but his pleasure is concerned exclusively with and is limited entirely to sexual excitation or relief. Cruelty, in any other circumstances, does not appeal to him.

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Moreover, the moment the sexual repercussion has spent itself he takes no further interest in the practice or expression of cruelty. In addition, the sadist usually expresses his cruelty along well-defined and restricted lines. Now the individual who practises cruelty for any other purpose than sexual excitation is seldom motivated by such limitations. And for this reason he usually becomes consist- ently more and more cruel. Moreover he is cruel in a general and comprehensive rather than a limited and specialized sense. Whether his fundamental motive is primeval venge- ance, or the lust for power, matters little.

His appetite for cruelty has been created, and it may well prove to be an insatiable one. It is in this respect more perhaps than any other that the ordinary cruel person differs from the sadist. Sadism is not so abnormal a characteristic as one might well think. It is actually merely an extension or a develop- ment, along unilateral and obsessional lines, of a natural characteristic. There is a consistent and universal relation- ship between the sex act and pain in its purely objective sense. In the throes of erotic passion, however, the sensation which in any other circumstances would be characterized as pain, is not recognized as such.

Any element of suffering is obliterated and subordinated by the pleasure associated with coitus. This is apparent in the sexual act as practised by many animals. It is evidenced in the fact that in numerous cases, and especially among races where sexual relations arc of a more passionate nature than is customary in ultra- civilized society, the kiss becomes a love-bite. At the hands of her lover the female suffers treatment which, in other circumstances, would constitute rape of the most brutal kind. This perfecdy normal correlation between pleasure and pain, between cruelty and sexual expression, is the funda- ment of what in modern life is termed sadism, and which, through its association with the vicarious sexual aberrations of the psychopathologically motivated Marquis de Sade, has come to be looked upon as something monstrous beyond description.

Sadism then, as we understand it to-day, is an extension of this basic sexual cruelty, which, partly through repression and partly as a result of environmental and socio- logical conditions, so often reaches an obsessional stage. In individuals who have not the faintest knowledge of the meaning of sadism, the sight of some cruel act occasionally arouses sexual excitation. In many Other cases, too, the very fact of witnessing these exhibitions revived or developed sadistic tendencies. The gratification of the mob, exemplified in the cheering of every act of cruelty, is in many cases but an expression of the lust for power, or of the pleasure derivable from vengeance exercised upon those who differ in biological, physiological or psychological fundamentals from existent society.

It may or may not in the first instance be associated with sadism, but inevitably is there danger that an incipient tendency in that direction may be awakened or developed. Coincidentally the sadist is inevitably attracted by all such scenes of persecution. Although there are sadists who, after taking part in or witnessing acts of cruelty, experience erotic excitation which must find relief in sexual intercourse, there are others, and I believe they are in the majority, who find they are able to secure sexual relief independent of actual coitus.

They may find the act or the exhibition of cruelty itself provides all the sexual excitation expected or desired, thus forming a complete substitute for coition. Kiirten, the Dusseldorf monster, belonged to this class of sadist. In his confessions to Dr. Berg he admitted " It was not my inten- tion to get satisfaction by normal sexual intercourse, but by killing.

The position of woman is by no means so clear. Actually the popular idea that woman is less attracted by scenes of cruelty, and less inclined to practise cruelty, are both fallacies. The sadism of man is paralleled and often eclipsed by the sadism of woman. The difference, however, is that for the most part the sexual stimulation does not so much act as a substitute for coitus, or a causative factor in masturbation: In this way it is almost always associated with masochism. From Clark's Martyrologia, At the same time, the effect of public exhibitions of torture as a means of counteracting the evil potentialities inherent in any form of sadism that has no opportunities for securing relief, is manifest.

It is an ironic commentary upon civilization that just as prostitution may be looked upon as a means of protecting respectable women; so may all public exhibitions involving torture and cruelty be looked upon as being the means of lessening the incidence of lust murders, of lynchings, of animal torture, et at. The autos da fe engineered by the Inquisition were popular for the very same reason that, a thousand years before, were the Roman gladitorial contests.

The populace, instead of rearing up in hot indignation at the cruelty, the barbarity, and the inhumanity of burning alive the victims of the Inquisition, cheered with gusto as the flames con- sumed the bodies of the martyrs. What of sadism in these modern days when all such public tortures are things of the past?

Has sadism decayed with the growth of humanitarianism? I do not think so. In conformation with the change in the life of the people has there been a change in the form of sadism that manifests itself.

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After having his hand burned off and being subjected to the horrible torture of boiling oil and melted lead, for hours, to the accompaniment of his piercing screams, the whip-goaded horses dragged his limbs and body apart. Casanova, himself an eye- witness, although compelled to turn his face away and stop his cars, observed that his female companions " did not budge an inch. And coincidcntally with the dedinc in one form of mass cruelty, have there come into existence other forms of persecution: It may seem, at first glance, a far cry from the gladia- torial combats and gymnastic contests of ancient Rome to the circus performances and boxing matches of the present day, but fundamentally there is little if any essential difference.

While the twentieth-century sadist is deprived of the sight of the murderer dying the death, he has every opportunity to revel in all the gory details of the crime which preceded the execution. And there still exists, in another sphere, the essentially emotional and surrogative cannibalistic orgy, celebrated regularly throughout Christendom, in which the drinking of blood and the eating of flesh solemnize a bloody sacrificial rite. Finally, there persists, in a hundred different ways, the torture of animals. In this one field, if in no other, the sadist is to-day enabled to gratify to the full extent of his desires, any form or degree of blood lust.

The Indulgence of Private Sadism The contemplation, in connexion with sadism, of animal torture in modern life leads us inevitably to the consideration of private sadism. For even as regards animal torture, this is, in the tremendous main, exercised privately and under most effective forms of camouflage or euphemization.

Apart from and in addition to the presence of sadism which never actually functions in the shape of overt acts of torture or cruelty performed by the individual pervert, and which forms the bulk of existent sadism, there are in exis- tence numerous sadists who cannot receive satisfaction in any vicarious or subjective way; in other words, they must themselves inflict acts of violence upon some human or animal subject. Individuals of this type are undoubtedly responsible for a lot of the cruelty which exists to-day.

There are so many ways in which active sadists are encouraged, by the remarkable apathy of society in relation to certain forms of cruelty, to indulge in their perverted appetites. But, above and beyond all, they may adopt the easiest of all methods available for the indulgence of an appetite for sadism: I do not think there can be any doubt or question that a good deal of private or secret torturing of animals takes place in every civilized country. It is, of course, impossible even to guess at the extent of this type of cruelty, or at the forms it takes; but the figures relative to the convictions in the courts tell their own terrible story.

And for every one such con- viction I do not think I can be accused of the slightest exaggeration in assuming that there are a full hundred of which no one ever so much as hears. The sadist may kill or maim as a complete substitute for coitus or he may kill or maim during sexual intercourse.

Most cases of " pricking " are the work of sadists, and no doubt many of the " witch-prickers " of the Middle Ages were sexual perverts. It is noteworthy that there is a close connexion between the sight of the blood proceeding from the wounds and the sexual ecstasy of the sadist. Fere says " a large number of these perverts need effusion of blood. Some increase their pleasure by sucking the blood of the wounds they have caused.

Sadism being in part an expression of the will-to-power of the individual formulated specifically in sexual channels, may function in that form of persecution which takes shape in the imposition of disgusting tasks or moral humiliation. Fcrc, The Sexual Instinct: Its Evolution and Dissolution, University Press, , p. Rebman, New York, , p. Stekel has drawn attention to the cruelty inherent in modern therapeutics. Stekel points out, gives rise to sensations some- what similar to those of being buried alive; while psycho- analysis may easily become a sort of mental " third degree.

Fere, The Sexual Instinct, p. In masochism, as in sadism, tliis pleasure principle is limited to or intimately associated with sexual excitation. It may be accompanied by or it may form a substitute for coitus. For the most part masochism is an individual afiair. In its true psychopathological sense it is obviously not a phenomenon that can be induced in any ordinary way in masses of people. It takes a movement like the flagella- tion cult of the Middle Ages to arouse any such feelings on a wholesale scale.

Because of the existence of masochism, any wilful sub- jection to pain on the part of the individual is inevitably suspect. That, in the olden days, when submission to tor- ture was common, the term masochism was unheard of does not alter the fact that in many instances such sub- mission had a sexual content or basis. The masochist, too, often secures the acme of erotic pleasure from the fact that this pleasurable reaction follows immediately after the experiencing of pain, and by the well-known and almost universally applicable law of contrast the greater the ante- cedent pain the more intense the sexual pleasure correlated to it.

The most usual form which masochism takes is flagella- tion, and this very fact leads one to suspect that much of the so-called discipline indulged in by the saints and others connected with the Church had a masochistic funda- ment. Especially is it likely that this constituted the true ex- planation wiiere the victim was a female, for in most cases of masochism the pleasure in punishment is experienced only where that punishment is inflicted by an attractive member of the opposite sex.

There have been many scandals in Church history connected with the chastise- ment of penitents by confessors, notably the case where Father Girard flagellated the pretty Cadiere girl; and the almost equally notorious instance in which the Franciscan monk, Cornelius Hadrien, was accused of having admin- istered the discipline to naked girl pupils.

Although the connexion between religion and masoch- ism has always been a marked one, largely because there are peculiar opportunities for its indulgence, the practice is by no means restricted to the Church. Most masochists seek sexual relief by paying prostitutes to " torture " them, just as many sadists employ prostitutes to suffer the inflic- tion of mmor forms of punishment. Thus Kraftt-Ebing gives the case of a man who regularly visited a brothel where he " had himself bound hand and foot, and then flogged by the girl on the soles of his feet, his calves and buttocks ";' and Hammond instances the case of a young man who often visited a house of prostitution where he instructed three of the girls to tread upon his face and chest with their high-heeled shoes.

Hammond, Sexual Impotence in the Male, , p. It was largely die desire for atonement and the appease- ment of a sadistic god that induced the people to inflict torture upon themselves. Self-flagellation was a mode of placating an angry deity. More, in many cases of female self-flagellation, it was a means of signifying subjection to the omnipotence of God. But if one form of martyrdom has deteriorated, another has developed. Political or racial martyrdom has taken the place of religious martyrdom. The man who would scoff at the idea of sacrificing himself in the cause of a religious faith, will gleefully immolate himself to the molocn of patriotism.

Such martyrdom is, of course, conditioned by the lack of free choice in the matter. It might well be said that the religious victim of the Middle Ages was no more free to reject martyrdom than is the twentieth-cen- tury political or racial victim in a position to reject the martyrdom imposed upon him in the name of patriotism. All of which, although true, does not alter the funda- mental fact that this patriotic martyrdom of to-day is, as was the religious martyrdom of the Middle Ages, condi- tioned and largely made possible by a form of symbolic masochism which is all the more potent in its influence and in its effects through the fact that it is not recognized as such by those members of society in whom it particularly functions The tendency to-day is towards an extension of psyches logical masochism on the part of society as a whole and in all countries, whether that society is governed by a tyrannous and sadistic dictatorship or an equally tyran- nous and sadistic oligarchy; using the term sadistic here in its purely psychological and ideological significance and as a correlative of psychological masochism.

Sacrifice may be con- sidered to represent the first step towards the use of tor- ture not only as a religious but also as a patriotic embellish- ment. Into the mouths of the various deities were put demands for sacrifices. These sacrifices involved, in many cases, physical torture; and where the victim did not offer to immolate himself masochistically as a tribute to the omnipotence of the gods, they invariably involved psycho- logical torture. Sacrifice, whatever precise form it took, was a propi- tiatory act, designed to appease the anger of God, or to induce the granting of favours or indulgences.

In accord- ance with the anthropomorphic conception of the God- head, man interpreted the tastes of the deity on lines analogous to his own. It was perfectly natural that an anthropomorphic god should be conceded to possess carni- vorous tastes and, by virtue of his superiority, anthropo- phagous tastes as well. Whether animal sacrifice preceded human sacrifice is open to doubt. The evidence, such of it as is available, is conflicting. Possibly races varied in this respect. Possibly, too, deficiencies in the supply of human victims might lead, on the ground of expediency alone, to the substitu- tion of animals.

So far as the evidence provided in the Bible is concerned, the sacrifice of the first-born seems to have represented the highest form which any propitiatory act could take.

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In all contemporary cults, human or animal sacrifices, or both, formed part of the ritual, and the offering of the first-born seems to have been practised in many races. To Odin, the powerful god of the ancient Scandinavians, Aun, the Swedish king, in an attempt to secure the pro- longation of his own life, sacrificed his nine sons; and to the same god.

Earl Hakon, the Norwegian king, to secure divine help in his war upon the Jomsburg pirates, sacri- ficed his son. So, too, the Hindus and the Egyptians. The king of Mexico was continually waging war in order to secure captives for use as offerings to the gods: Amurath, says Montaigne, sacrificed six hundred young Greeks to his father's soul. Other races used as offerings enemies captured in war, but the supply in most cases was necessarily limited, and it was sporadic rather than regular, while the appetites of the gods apparently were omnivorous.

To fill the gaps, criminals, slaves, aged persons of both sexes, the weak, the crippled, the abnormal, were sacrificed. In accordance with the ritual adopted by many races, the victim was tor- tured before death, or killed in a manner which entailed long and agonizing torment. The captive was a reli- gious victim. The coming of Christianity, with its doctrine of charity and good- will, did not, strangely enough, abolish torture and persecu- tion.

The Christians persecuted their opponents with all the rigour of the Romans. Doane, Bible Myths, New York, , p. Prescott, History of the Conquest of Mexico, , Vol. Thus we read in Timothy, of Hymenaeus and Alexander, notorious heretics, being dehvered unto Satan, in order that the terrible discipline to which they would be subjected, would teach them " not to blaspheme. But though we, or an angel from heaven, preach any other gospel unto you than that which we have preached unto you, let him be accursed.

All who professed any other doctrines were heretics and idolaters. They were condemned, they were hated, and whenever opportunity offered, they were tortured until they saw the true faith; failing conversion or confession they were exterminated. There are indications that human sacrifice continued to be practised in ancient Greece and Rome, despite the efforts of Tiberius and other emperors to put an end to it.

In an ideological sense there is little distinction between religion and patriotism. The patriot, in any extreme sense, and in time of war or conditions which threaten war, is in much the same position as the religious fanatic. His obsessional interest in the cause of his own country or race engenders blind hatred for a rival or an enemy country or race.

It is at such times that the danger of torture or perse- cution is particularly likely.


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It is in such circumstances that the most Christian-like individuals will be transformed into fiends clamouring for the blood of their opponents. The story is a consistent one. The weak nation, and likewise the weak individual in that nation, has been persecuted and despised. One might say with much truth that in the history of nations nothing succeeds like persecution.

And further, one might just as truthfully say that the defeat of one form of persecution is only possible by the emergence of a stronger form. For this reason the world lives through a succession of persecutions, only the State, which, at any one time, is wielding tyraimous power, calls its persecutions by another and a far more melli- fluous name.

The Romans tortured the Christians as long as their power lasted. The fall of Rome and the rise of Christianity saw the Christians persecuting every weaker religious sect with fine impartiality. The Jews, through thousands of years of history, have been consistently persecuted. Minorities, of whatever nature, are persecuted. Here again history tells a consistent story. And it matters not at all what precisely is the nature of the minority. It may be a minority in a physical, an ethical, or an intellectual sense.

The persecution is always present in some form or other, though it may not express itself in purely physical action. Psychological persecution in these days is far more effective, if for nothing but its insidiousness, than physical persecution. The masses hate anything which they do not understand and at the same time cannot ignore, or which is repugnant to their wishes or tastes. They even hate those who tell the truth, because they do not want to know the truth. The burning of a great national newspaper during the war of 19 1 8, for telling an unpalatable truth, was a gesture as psychologically significant as the burning of the witches in the Middle Ages.

The persecution of John William Gott, in , for his criticism of the Bible, was analogous to the persecution of Galileo, three hundred years previously, for affirming that the earth circumnavigated the sun. The weakness of a minority which is out of tune with the cere- bration or psychology of the masses is a signal for the majority to turn and rend it.

Because of this danger, all unpopular movements must work more or less surrepti- tiously, the degree of secrecy exercised being in direct ratic to the extent of their unpopularity. The power of the State is not only conditioned by the persecution, in various cuphemized or psychological ways, of its own nationals, but in its exploitation of the persecuting powers of society against any dangerous rivalries, whether domestic or foreign.

In its final analysis, the propaganda which every State utilizes to some extent all the time, and on certain occasions to a pheno- menal degree, is the resuscitation or development or man- kind's fundamental liking for persecution along definite lines and towards specific ends. The power of this incipient persecution is strikingly demonstrated in the way in which a mild-mannered man or woman can be transformed, almost overnight, into a human volcano spouting hate and savagery. We have had instances of this again and again.

In the Euro- pean war of , every country concerned concentrated upon arousing the people to a state in which they were likely to inflict any form of physical cruelty upon such enemies as fell into their power. In most of these cases the persons concerned have been religious fanatics who were prepared to suffer martyr- dom in the service of their god rather than secure peace on earth, or they have been masochists who secured pleasure from experiencing physical persecution.

For every one such case, however, there must have been a full hundred instances where, whether through the fear of torture or during the actual experience of it, the prisoner confessed whatever he was expected to confess, even in circumstances where he knew such confession meant the virtual signing of his own death warrant. This fear of torture was evidenced in the attempts that were made to escape the ordeal, even to the extent of com- mitting suicide. So common were these attempts that in the days of the Roman gladiatorial contests, the criminals who were selected for fighting what was virtually a struggle in which they would be torn to pieces by wild beasts or by equally brutal human antagonists, were guarded with the utmost thoroughness in order to prevent them taking their own Hves and cheating the public of its amusement.

During the time when the Spanish Inquisition was functioning at its mightiest, the horrors of the tortures to which its victims were subjected were sufficient to cause men to go to any lengths to prevent themselves falling alive into the clutches of the Holy Office. Similarly in the early days of America, when conflicts between Indians and whites were frequent, the settlers preferred to shoot their womenfolk ana often themselves or one another rather than furnish the savages with material for torture.


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No one reaUzing its true import, unless forti- fied by a love of martyrdom transcending all ordinary standards and bordering upon the psychopathological, could be blamed for expressing fear in the face of such a threat. It is not a matter of bravery. Torture destroys the roots from which bravery, or its negation, springs. In its worst stages, it transforms a human soul into a mass of pulsating flesh devoid of conscious cerebration.

The effects of torture are conditioned by the individual, and the extent and nature of the technique employed. Thus the very threat of torture will have a powerful effect in some and indeed most cases, while in others only the actual application of some form of punishment will prove in any way effective. Generally speaking, in its initial stages, or in its milder forms, torture destroys the will. In all its forms it injures the nerve power long before the stage is reached when consciousness fails. Futility of Torture in the Securing of Confession or Evidence We have seen that torture has always been accepted as the certain means of securing confession or evidence.

When every form of persuasion or entreaty fails, the threat or the actual infliction of torture constitutes a trump card. Torture was used by savage races in all parts of the world to these ends. It was used by the ancient Romans. It was used throughout continental Europe during the Middle Ages. It was used in England in defiance of com- mon law.

It is used secredy in America to-day. Private individuals from the beginning of time have been accus- tomed to practise torture for these same express purposes.

Gladiator: Orgy Of Death: The Unexpurgated Text

There is no doubt that, on occasion, they do so at the present time. Now the evil in connexion with the use of torture for securing confession is that invariably it presupposes the guilt of the individual. All who had anything to do with the prac- tice of torture must have been well aware that its effects in relation to the securing of evidence were unilateral, for the compelling reason that the purpose of torture was to extract a confession or an admission of guilt or to secure the information that was being asked for; that behind every act of torture was a gratuitous assumption of guilt or knowledge.

In the power of torture is existent its own negation. Its evil, from a penological and a psychopathological stand- point, lies in its power to elicit fiction in the name of truth; to compel the accused to condemn himself by false evidence of his own making. It is impossible for the persecuted individual to be proved innocent as a result of the torture. So that for all practical purposes, and whichever way one looks at it, torture, for the purpose of securing confession, is an unnecessary procedure.

Its sole object is to justify the persecution and punishment of the accused. It is not administered in any hope of securing justice. From the point of view of equity therefore the procedure is unjust; from the point of view of securing the truth it is ineffective. Confession when obtained need not be the truth. Two thousand years ago Cicero demonstrated its uncertainty. All moral and ethical values are endangered under torture of any kind. It is for this reason that in so many cases the victim betrays friends, accomplices, and even close relatives under the pain of torture.

He will confess anything that the inquisitors wish him to confess: The truth of this was admitted by the inquisitors them- selves. Von Spee, who was one of those who opposed the witch persecutions of the seventeenth century, mentioned that an inquisitor had boasted that if he could place the Pope on the rack, he would guarantee to induce him to plead guilty of sorcery. Blood and Sand — through the vast ruins of its arenas and the aura of sheer sensorial ferocity which that culture generated.

Taken from Stephen Barber's ground-breaking study "Caligula: Divine Carnage", this definitive and original summation of gladitorial spectacle is the result of many years of exhaustive on-site research, across Europe, as well as into the Roman Empire's iconographical and archival records.

It offers a visceral, unprecedented experience of the culture of the Gladiator. This special ebook edition includes bonus material in the form of a history of the gladiator revolution led by Spartacus, Crixus and Oenomaus in 73BC. Overview Music Video Charts. Opening the iTunes Store.

This special ebook edition includes bonus material in the form of a history of the gladiator revolution led by Spartacus, Crixus and Oenomaus in 73BC. Kindle Edition , 40 pages. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about Gladiator , please sign up. Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Feb 20, Cynthia rated it did not like it. Unsaturated bile and sheer nonsense If you are looking for an evenhanded overview of the spectacle s in the arena, including the gladiators and the audience, than this is NOT the book for you.

Instead, you will find an angry and bile filled author trying to titillate you with wild stories of sexual perversion and gory bloodshed. In my opinion, some of the authors statements are unfounded nonsense. Yes, the phenomenon of the games,the participants and the audience were a strange part of Roman hist Unsaturated bile and sheer nonsense If you are looking for an evenhanded overview of the spectacle s in the arena, including the gladiators and the audience, than this is NOT the book for you.

Yes, the phenomenon of the games,the participants and the audience were a strange part of Roman history, but this author seems to greatly dislike the Romans and does not even try to put any perspective into his views.