Matthew came first, being written in the late fifties. Luke followed in about A. Mark was written in the late sixties. The Gospel of John appeared some time during the late eighties. The church needed to have an authoritative account of the first thirty years of its history and the activity of the Holy Spirit during this time. To meet this need, Acts was written in A.
This came in the form of the Apocalypse in A. Such documents are referred to as autographs or autographa. From the divine standpoint, the reason for their nonexistence is probably to remove the human tendency to worship them. From the human side, these documents were probably destroyed through persecution and the wear caused by repeated use of the fragile materials.
The New Testament scholar is not significantly hampered without the autographa due to the aid science and textual criticism. Though we lack the autographs, we can surmise with a good bit of confidence what they must have looked like. A large number of Egyptian documents dating from the New Testament period have been discovered. These furnish a good idea of what form the New Testament autographs must have taken. Some of the Old Testament books by this time had been written on vellum or parchment, which is a writing material made by processing animal skins, but this undoubtedly was too expensive.
It was produced by mixing soot with gum and diluting it with water. This ink was long-lasting, and because it did not immediately sink into the fiber of the papyrus sheet, it could be washed off or scraped away while still fresh.
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This made the correction of copying or writing errors convenient. In 3 John 13, a further detail of the physical format of the autographs is reflected. After being used it was called bublos or biblos. A short writing was called to biblion. A collection of short writings was called ta biblia , the neuter plural of the same noun.
In Old Latin this became biblia from which we have received our English word Bible. To manufacture a scroll, sheets of papyrus were pasted together end to end and rolled up.
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The roll was held by being tied with a thread or string. Sealing with wax was utilized only for official documents. Normally the scroll had writing only on one side with the outside of the roll being used to note the address of the addressee. For example, Tertius was the amanuensis whom Paul used for Romans Rom On the other hand, Paul wrote Galatians himself Gal 6: The only postal service available in that day was for official government use.
Therefore the New Testament books had to be delivered by a messenger who was in full sympathy with the purpose of the letter. Thus, it is difficult for the modern reader to tell where one word ends and another begins. Occasionally a writer might leave a slight space to indicate a break in thought, but the general rule was not to do this. Conservation of space was necessary due to the expense of writing materials.
Simply stated, they were not nearly as available as they are today. In addition, punctuation was hardly used. Sometimes a horizontal line above the words would indicate an abbreviation. A horizontal line below would indicate a new paragraph. Yet, such occurrences were rare. In reality the canon was complete when the last book i. However, the church did not recognize this authority immediately.
Recognition took time as the books continued to circulate. It was read by the addressee s repeatedly, but went no farther. Exceptions to this general rule include those books which were circular letters. Built into such encyclical letters was a mechanism which necessitated immediate circulation to a number of churches.
Revelation, Galatians, and 2 Corinthians were of this type. Ephesians also was probably a circular letter to all the churches in the Roman province of Asia cf. Evidence for such collections begins at a very early time, a time even before a number of the 27 books were composed. As stated earlier, the autographs were written on papyrus sheets which were joined together into a roll.
In a codex, sheets were laid one on each other very much along the lines of a modern book.
The sheets were then folded down the middle and fastened together either by sewing or gluing. Some of the codices became quite large. One of the largest is p45, one of the Chester Beatty series, which originally contained 59 sheets or leaves. Advantages of the codex format included the possibility of writing on both sides of the sheet, thereby conserving space. Another advantage was that of quick reference when looking for a given passage. A third type of format used in circulation of the New Testament writings was the parchment codex.
To accomplish this, he needed to import a large amount of papyrus from Egypt. Eumenes therefore had to resort to the use of animal skins, which had been specially processed to make them suitable for writing. Its advantages, however, began to assert themselves and to outweigh the disadvantages in the circulation of the New Testament writings during the fourth century A.
These included the possible manufacture of it in any part of the world, its flexibility permitting a more presentable codex format, its durability, and its resistance to moisture content in the air. Papyrus could not be preserved outside the dry climate of Egypt. Codex Sinaiticus and Codex Vaticanus are examples of the parchment-codex form. Yahweh says to Moses: Again in Hosea God does not intend to destroy or unleash his wrath on Israel but disciplines them with a heavy heart when they disobey.
He does not take lightly his decision to punish sin. Likewise, it is the loving Jesus who exhibits his anger when he cleanses the Temple of the money changers and traders John 2: His righteous anger reveals that Jesus is no pacifist, contrary to popular belief. Jesus continually quotes from the Old Testament, validating its authority. Jesus affirms this in Mark When Jesus was asked by the high priest if he was the Messiah, he answers in the affirmative: There is one and only one God whose character does not change.
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The narrative draws on the most iconic figure in the Old Testament, Abraham, the father of the Jewish people. Once again, Jesus connects the Old Testament faith with that of the New. He clearly indicates that there is judgment ahead and we are held accountable for our actions. Jesus himself affirms that no one can escape the judgement of God and that there is justice for the poor and marginalized. Three Crucial Questions Grand Rapids: Baker Books, , Fretheim, The Suffering of God: Lamb, God Behaving Badly: InterVarsity Press, , The God of the Old Testament: Another Earth, Jeremiah You are commenting using your WordPress.
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Making of the Bible P1
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Claude Mariottini — Professor of Old Testament. Longman, Making Sense of the Old Testament , The Instant Executioner Share this: June 29, at 3:
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