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Barbara becomes the news — In October , Barbara Walters, seen at left with actress Barbra Streisand, became the first woman to co-anchor a major network evening newscast. Disco ruled the charts in the late '70s but found some unlikely superstars in the form of the Village People.

Their name was inspired by New York's Greenwich Village, which had a large gay population at the time, and the group became known for their onstage costumes and suggestive lyrics. In , their songs "Macho Man" and "Y. From peanut farmer to President — Jimmy Carter embraces his wife, Rosalynn, in November after he was elected as the 39th President of the United States. Carter, a Democrat and former governor of Georgia, defeated incumbent Gerald Ford. Since leaving the office in , he has remained active in fighting for human rights and ending disease around the world with his nonprofit organization, the Carter Center.

Based off Alex Haley's novel, "Roots" told the story of an African boy sold into slavery in America and the following generations of his family. The show was viewed by more than half of the U. The "Star Wars" franchise is still one of most lucrative and popular film series around today. Son of Sam — Serial Killer David Berkowitz, known as the Son of Sam, was arrested on August 10, , after a series of shootings and murders that police believe began in the summer of Berkowitz was convicted of killing six people and wounding seven during his crime spree, which garnered large amounts of press coverage.

He was known for targeting young women and sending cryptic, antagonizing letters to the New York police. Apple plants the seed for the digital revolution — In , Apple Computers introduced the Apple II, which became one the first successful home computers. Along with Bill Gates' Microsoft, which was founded in , Apple helped ignite the digital age we live in today. New York City goes dark — In the middle of the summer of , New York City experienced a power outage that caused much of the city to go dark.

The blackout lasted two days, from July As the city was in the midst of a financial crisis and the terror of the Son of Sam loomed over residents, many took to the streets and began looting.

How the changing media is changing terrorism

Police reported that looting in some areas of the city continued well into the daylight hours, and thousands of people were arrested. He was still touring and recording throughout the s, but his unexpected death sealed his legacy as one of the greatest cultural icons of the 20th century. Game on — The Atari was released in September , bringing the world of video games into households everywhere.

Packaged with two joystick controllers and one cartridge game, the Atari sold , units in By , 1 million units were sold. What some believed at the time to be a fad has now turned into a billion-dollar-a-year industry. Catapulted by a soundtrack containing five No. The soundtrack stayed on top of the album charts for six months, and Travolta earned an Academy Award nomination for Best Actor. A test tube produces life — Louise Brown became the world's first test-tube baby on July 25, Robert Edwards, left, and Patrick Steptoe, right, pioneered the process of in vitro fertilization, which injects a single sperm into a mature egg and then transfers the egg into the uterus of the woman.

In , Edwards won the Nobel Prize in Medicine for the development of in vitro fertilization, which has helped families conceive more than 5 million babies around the world. After 12 days of secret meetings, the two sides agreed upon a step toward peace. President Jimmy Carter, center, personally led the lengthy negotiations and discussions between the two parties. He made his first public appearance on October 16, , at St. Peter's Square in the Vatican, and before his death in he was beloved for his commitment to human rights around the world.

More than members of the cult, led by the Rev. Jim Jones, died from cyanide poisoning; it was the largest mass-suicide in modern history. Assassination of Harvey Milk — In , Harvey Milk was elected to the San Francisco Board of Supervisors, making him the first openly gay person to be elected to a public office.

Milk started his political ambitions in San Francisco in the early '70s, but he did not hold an office until he was appointed to the Board of Permit Appeals in by Mayor George Moscone. Milk's career was tragically cut short on November 27, , when he and Moscone were assassinated. Music goes mobile — The sound barrier is broken once again in the '70s, but this time at walking speed. Sony introduces the Walkman, the first commercially successful "personal stereo. The product was an instant hit.

The Walkman was a mark of coolness among consumers, setting a standard for future generations of personal devices like the Apple iPod. Bird — The national championship game between Michigan State and Indiana State still ranks as the most-watched college basketball game of all time, thanks to two up-and-coming superstars: Within days of the accident, , people evacuated their homes within a mile radius of the plant. The accident brought widespread attention to reactor safety and large protests from anti-nuclear groups.

Cleanup from the accident began in August and was not completed until December As leader of the Conservative Party, Thatcher served three terms as Prime Minister, holding the office until That made her the longest-serving British Prime Minister of the 20th century. Deadliest day in U. All people on board the plane -- and two people on the ground -- were killed, making it the worst aviation accident ever on U. The first treaty was signed in , and the second one was signed in An 'American Hustle' — Scandals shaped a large part of the '70s political atmosphere, and the decade ended on a big one.

During a two-year investigation, the FBI set up a sting operation dubbed "Abscam," videotaping politicians accepting bribes from a phony Arabian company in return for favors. The sting resulted in the conviction of six U.

The rise of ISIS, explained in 6 minutes

The operation was the inspiration for David O. Russell's film "American Hustle. From Boy Scout to murderer — Ted Bundy, one of the most notorious serial killers of all-time, stands trial in June for two of his many murders. Bundy received three death sentences for murders he committed in Florida, and he was executed on January 24, Bundy confessed to 30 murders before his death, but officials believe that number could be higher.

Embassy in Tehran, Iran. All female and African-American hostages were freed, but President Carter could not secure the other 52 hostages' freedom. Many of the clips serve a dual purpose, inspiring one group of people while disgusting and frightening another. One recent video opened with TV news coverage of the aftermath of the attacks in Paris in November, which left dead. It then segued into footage of some of the men who were responsible, filmed in Syria before the operation.

Wearing lapel microphones, they made threats against the west and then executed prisoners with knives. Another video showed a child, possibly the son of a Briton currently in Syria, detonating explosives that destroyed a car in which four alleged spies were seated. A third recent video showed a competition involving young children who raced through a labyrinth to reach captives, who they then shot. The violence depicted in these clips is becoming ever more baroque, the choreography of the savagery increasingly elaborate. As such material began to reach our screens around 18 months ago, many expressed shock that Isis had exploited modern media technology for the purposes of propaganda.

So, too, do the high production values and visual language derived from video games and Hollywood blockbusters. But terrorists have always exploited the latest technologies, whether dynamite or digital communications. But certain crucial elements have received less attention. One is the way in which new technology has shaped both the media itself and terrorist organisations in ways which are strikingly similar.

A second is the role we may be playing — albeit unthinkingly and against our better intentions — in the evolution of the media strategies of the very groups we so abhor. Neither of these possibilities is particularly comfortable to contemplate. A young follower had managed to equip a minivan with satellite television receivers and radio antennae to monitor broadcasts.

The relationship between terrorism and the media has long been clear. Terrorists aim to provoke irrational fear among large numbers of people in order to influence policymakers and thus advance their goals. Terrorism, in its modern form, has its origins in the mid to late 19th century — in the same era that saw the spread of both the mass media and democracy. Without the media, only a small number of people would know that an attack has taken place, and without democracy, those wielding power would have little reason to heed the sentiments that such violence provokes.

Terrorism continued through the first half of the 20th century, though it was overshadowed by major global conflicts between and A new surge of terrorist violence came in the immediate postwar era. This coincided with the arrival of televisions in US and European homes. Those fighting colonial regimes immediately recognised the implications. The next major wave of terrorist violence to emerge from the Middle East began in the late s but peaked in the following decade with a series of high-profile assassinations, airplane hijackings and bombings.

In Inside Terrorism , Bruce Hoffman, one of the most respected academics working in the field, points out that this coincided with a series of technological innovations that made it possible to send images cheaply and rapidly across great distances. This allowed American TV networks to provide much more comprehensive, and more gripping, coverage of events across the world. In , members of the Palestinian Black September group attacked Israeli athletes at the Munich Olympics, the first games to be broadcast live and the first to be the target of a terrorist attack.

The cameras inevitably switched their focus from the sports to the ongoing hostage crisis. Over the next decade, kidnappings and hijackings became rolling stories with vast audiences following every development. When Al-Qaida was founded by Bin Laden and a few other veteran extremists in , the means of mass communication in the Islamic world and beyond were still dominated by states and large corporations.

Only these could afford the infrastructure required to produce material and broadcast it to millions of people. Most of the time, extremists had to make do with pamphlets, audio cassettes and, eventually, videotapes passed from hand to hand, circulated in mosques or sold in specialist shops. Though these could have a potent mobilising effect on those already disposed to participation, there was still no effective way for extremists to reach a bigger audience without somehow convincing state officials or TV stations to broadcast their statements or news of their violent acts.

The former was inconceivable. The latter, though fraught with difficulty, at least allowed them to get some kind of message across to millions. From the beginning, Bin Laden had understood the importance of the media. During the war against the Soviets in Afghanistan in the s, he had helped fund and organise the propaganda efforts of the Afghan mujahideen factions.

He also constructed his public image by inviting carefully selected film-makers to spend time with him during his rare trips to the front lines. During his time in Sudan from to , Bin Laden ordered a fellow Saudi called Khalid al-Fawwaz to establish a media office in London. Issued just weeks after the al-Qaida leader had returned to Afghanistan, this call to jihad was supposed to rouse the masses of the Ummah , the global Muslim community. Its failure was manifestly obvious. By the late s, new opportunities were opening up. Local-language satellite TV channels had begun to spread across the Islamic world, allowing unprecedented numbers of people to watch content that had not been vetted by government officials.

These networks soon became hugely popular. Al-Jazeera led the way, but was only part of a broader phenomenon. These channels showed images of violence against Muslims in places such as Kosovo, Chechnya and Gaza. They also brought lively and often controversial televised debates into millions of homes, coffee shops and offices.

Bin Laden, now back in Afghanistan, was swift to grasp the potential of the new satellite and cable networks. But, once again, these videos did not have the effect that Bin Laden intended. The coverage of these often rambling communiques was, as it always had been, determined by editors, who made similar decisions, whether they were based in the Gulf or western capitals.

Some were delayed for weeks or months, others were simply not deemed newsworthy at all. The lessons for extremists were clear.

How the changing media is changing terrorism | Jason Burke | World news | The Guardian

Spectacular attacks were needed — events so shocking that no news editor could ignore them. But the practical demands of planning and executing high-profile attacks of this sort required a significant investment in training and infrastructure. They needed a stable and safe location from which they could be planned. Contrary to popular belief, Bin Laden did not operate out of caves during this period. Quite apart from being extremely uncomfortable, this would have precluded most forms of communication.

Instead, he lived with an extended family and many retainers in a series of fairly extensive barracks, compounds and camps. The camps played a vital role, offering training facilities that attracted hundreds of potential recruits. The best of these recruits, often hardened in local battles, could then be selected for advanced instruction. It is often thought that the existence of these camps led to the attacks, but the truth might be the reverse.

The need to do something that would dominate news bulletins around the world led to a strategy of spectacular violence, which in turn meant that the camps were essential. Any desire to take and hold territory was set aside. Though the aim of the organisation was in part to mobilise, radicalise and instigate through spreading an ideology, authority within al-Qaida remained centralised and hierarchical. Local groups sent in, or physically brought in, proposals which were then vetted by Bin Laden or his associates.

On the morning of Thursday, 7 July , four Islamist extremists separately detonated three bombs in quick succession aboard London Underground trains across the city and, later, a fourth on a double-decker bus in Tavistock Square. Fifty-two civilians were killed and over more were injured in the attacks. Later a dozen unexploded bombs were found in a car located in North London.

In Norway in two sequential lone wolf terrorist attacks by right-wing extremist Anders Behring Breivik were carried out against the government, the civilian population, and a Workers' Youth League AUF -run summer camp in Norway on 22 July The attacks claimed a total of 77 lives. The first part of the attack was a van bomb in Oslo. The van was placed in front of the office block housing the office of Prime Minister and other government buildings.

The explosion killed eight people and injured at least people, twelve of them seriously. He followed this attack by impersonating a police officer to access the island on which the AUF summer camp was being held and proceeded to go on a shooting spree that killed 69 people. In the British government branded the killing of a serviceman in a Woolwich street, a terrorist attack. One of his attackers made political statements which were later broadcast with blood still on his hands from the attack.

They were later tried and found guilty of murder. A fifth shooting attack did not result in any fatalities. Numerous other smaller incidents of attacks on mosques have been reported, but have not yet been directly linked to the attacks. The group that claims responsibility for the attacks, Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula , claimed that the attack had been planned for years ahead. On 7 January , two Islamist gunmen [] forced their way into and opened fire in the Paris headquarters of Charlie Hebdo shooting , killing twelve: During the attack, the gunmen shouted " Allahu akbar " "God is great" in Arabic and also "the Prophet is avenged".

Another gunman also shot a police officer on 8 January and took hostages the next day, at a kosher supermarket near the Porte de Vincennes. Three terrorists were killed, along with four hostages who died in the Vincennes supermarket before the intervention; some other hostages were injured. They killed a total of more than citizens. Hostages were taken in the concert hall "Le Bataclan" for three hours, and ninety were killed before the special police entered.

On March 22, yet another terrorist attack happened within the confines of Europe. Three nail bombs went off at the same time in Belgium, two happened at Brussels Airport in Zaventem approximately 40 seconds apart. The other nail bomb was at Maalbeck metro station also in Brussels about an hour after the airport attacks The act was carried out by 3 suicide bombers, killing 31 people and injuring people in the process.

The third nail bomb at the metro station failed to explode during the terrorist act that Tuesday and was safely deactivated. The two men who hit the Brussels Airport were brothers Ibrahim El Bakraoui and Khalid El Bakraoui while a third person was with them Najim Laachraoui who was believed to be the bomb maker also died, the suspect who had the bomb at the metro station has not yet been identified. The Brothers were both killed during the explosions along with the bomb maker, while the unidentified terrorist fled for he had the bomb that did not explode in the metro station.

Brussels responded to this attack with a level 4 alert the highest it had had since the Paris attacks mentioned above. World leaders responded by unifying and offering their aid along with sorrows for the tragedy that happened there on March 22, The attacks on Brussels had no forewarning nor did officials think an attack on that scale could ever be perpetuated. The bombing killed seventeen U. On September 11, , nineteen men affiliated with al-Qaeda hijacked four commercial passenger jets all bound for California, crashing two of them into the World Trade Center in New York City , the third into the Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia , and the fourth originally intended to target Washington, D.

Capitol into an open field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania , after a revolt by the plane's passengers. The United States responded to the attacks by launching the War on Terror. Specifically, on October 7, , it invaded Afghanistan to depose the Taliban , which had harbored al-Qaeda terrorists. On October 26, , the U. Many countries followed with similar legislation. Under the Obama administration, the U. This campaign eliminated much of al-Qaeda's most senior members, including a strike by Seal Team Six that resulted in the death of Osama Bin Laden in On Israel's northern border, after its unilateral withdrawal from southern Lebanon in May , Hezbollah launched numerous Katyusha rocket attacks against non-civilian and civilian areas within northern Israel.

It has committed numerous attacks within Iran, stating that it is fighting for the rights of the Sunni minority there. In the group attempted to assassinate Iran's president, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. Iran and other sources accuse the group of being a front for or supported by other nations, in particular the U. As the Islamic state of Syria and Iraq increases in size and power their attacks are affecting all parts of the world even in their own back yard of Turkey. Taking place in Istanbul a suicide bomber once again detonated a car bomb killing 4 people and injuring No extremist group took responsibility for the attack but the attacker Mehmet Ozturk was linked to have ties with ISIS.

This was just days after the car bomb attack in Turkeys capital of Ankara killing 37 people. Since the attacks Israel has requested that its citizens not travel to Turkey unless its necessary. On December 27, two time elected Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto was assassinated during a gathering she was having with her supporters. A suicide bomber detonated a bomb along with other extremists against her shooting off guns killing the prime minister and 14 other people.

She was immediately rushed to the hospital and was pronounced dead. The responsibility of her death falls on the president of the time Pervez Musharraf who also was the ex- military chief, She had several conversations with Musharraf about upping her security due to the increase of death threats she was receiving and he denied her request. Although AL-Qaeda took responsibility for her death it is seen in the eye of the people as former President's Pervez Musharraf's fault for not taking her concerns seriously.

However, during his trial he denies that no conversation happened between him and Benzair Bhutto about the security of her life. The Mumbai attacks were more than ten coordinated shooting and bombing attacks across Mumbai , India's largest city, by Lashkar-e-Taiba , a Pakistani Islamic terrorist organization with ties to ISI , Pakistan's secret service. The six main targets were. On January 14, a series of terrorist attacks took place in Jakarta, Indonesia resulting in 8 dead.

The responsibility of these attacks were claimed by ISIS Counter terrorism has named this type of attack 'Marauding Terrorist Firearms Attack' because of the fast reaction needed by local policemen to stop the gunfire attack from the terrorists. Indonesia is home of the "largest regional terror groups" housing seven Islamist extremist groups. Leaving the thoughts that ISIS is trying to establish a satellite city in Indonesia, due to the fact that it has the largest Muslim population. Although ISIS branches have not yet reached the land of Southeast Asia in big masses, there is the fear that it is only a matter of time until Indonesias small extremist groups grow in masses once direct contact with ISIS is made.

Once contact is established local terror groups will quickly mobilize to carry out the tasks that ISIS asks of them. ISIS will turn to Southeast Asia because it is only evident that they will lose control of the middle east. This resulted in several of the first fatalities attributed to a bioterror attack.

The more recent terrorist attack in the United States have included the San Bernardino attack , [] the Bombing of Boston Marathon by Islamic terrorists, the shooting of police officers in sniper ambushes by members of Black Lives Matter movement, and the shooting of multiple black parishioners at church and car attack on anti-fascist protesters in Charlottesville by right-wing extremists and white supremacists.

There have been calls by some analysts to describe violence committed by incels as terrorism. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 18 September Terrorism Definitions History Incidents. Ethnic violence Militia movement Resistance movement.

Designated terrorist groups Charities accused of ties to terrorism. Counter-terrorism International conventions Anti-terrorism legislation Terrorism insurance. Foot , who wrote several official histories of SOE. Jewish insurgency in Palestine , —39 Arab revolt in Palestine , and List of killings and massacres in Mandatory Palestine. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it.

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This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. September Learn how and when to remove this template message. This would end the argument that one man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter Retrieved 10 January — via NYTimes. The Foundations of Modern Terrorism: State, Society and the Dynamics of Political Violence. Walter Laqueur, The New Terrorism: Oxford University Press, , p. Retrieved 27 November The History of Terrorism: From Antiquity to al Qaeda.

University of California Press, Terrorism in Three Religious Traditions. The Castles of the Assassins. Myths of the Isma'ilis. The Secret Order of Assassins: University of Pennsylvania Press, Retrieved 10 January Terror and Toleration - History Today". Retrieved 10 January — via www. The New York Times. Retrieved May 4, A History of Terrorism. From the Fenians to Al Qaeda". Uncommon Books, , , 3. Retrieved February 25, Archived from the original PDF on Ku Klux Klan in Indiana".


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The Armenian Genocide and America's Response. Columbia University Press, Peter Lang Press, A Journey Through History. Princeton University Press, Terror Out of Zion: Archived from the original on 8 December The Society of the Muslim Brothers in Egypt: The Rise of an Islamic Mass Movement — Reports of the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo". New York Review of Books. The Politics of Repression Revisited". Cambridge University Press published Nevskii, former head of the Lenin Library, directly accused Bukharin of leading a 'terrorist center.

The Real Michael Collins. The Man Who Made Ireland. Israel, Likud and the Zionist Dream , I. The Irish Republican Army. Terror in the Mind of God: The Global Rise of Religious Violence. Berkeley, University of California Press, A History of Israel: From the Rise of Zionism to Our Time. The King David Hotel bombing". The Jerusalem Post - JPost. By Blood and Fire , G. Retrieved 29 December Haim, Frank Cass, London, , p. The Israeli Response to Jewish terrorism and violence.

Manchester University Press, The Society of the Muslim Brothers. Oxford University Press, Cornell University Press, Pacification in Algeria, — Harvard University Press, Federation of American Scientists, One Day in September: The Palestinian Liberation Organisation: