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Dear Bill, I am happy to say most of your objections to the reality of the Apollos are old and easily refuted, as I have done many times in the pages of this blog. A couple were new to me:. I am not sure if I agree with your reasoning here. Which option gets you wetter; if you run in the rain and your journey takes 5 minutes then you get under cover exposed to the rain for 5 minutes or walk the same course in the rain so that the journey takes 20 minutes and then under cover exposed to the rain for 20 minutes?

When I fast forwarded the video in which thy landed on moon and kept their first foot, I saw that it was like normal people walking and. The way someone fell in the video was so perfect too. The marks made by their shoes were also so perfect. The moon landing was real.. They reacted it to use as proof.. They cant show the original footage bc there were objects on the footage that would make people go crazy so they could not show us..

They saw things they couldnt understand or ex plain. Dear Elmo, thanks for your comment. If the Lunar landings were broadcast live and we saw the astronought taking his first step onto the Lunar surface, who set the camera up to take the photographs. This is covered as item 3 in our article 5 Goofy Moonlanding Hoax Theories link.

I have a trivial question, but one that has always interested me. I believe it was with Apollo 12, though I could be wrong. Some of the photographs show that the external mylar sheathing has been damaged, torn away, revealing the gray painted metal underneath.

Richard Branson

Do you happen to know? Were there any overheating issues doe to this damage? Hi Victor, There is no such thing as a trivial question! I am familiar of the damage you are referring to with the Apollo mission. The boom guy was a bit clumsy and actually snagged the fabric, and ripped it, revealing the gray painted sheet metal underneath. Unfortunately, the filming set crew just never got around to repairing it for further filming.

There is a not a single bit of verifiable evidence to indicate that any of the Apollo landings were fake, There are millions of data points that clearly demonstrate the reality of the Apollo landings. The United States of America is the only country in the world where a sizeable portion of the population think Professional Wrestling is real, but the moon landings were faked.

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I believe the moon landing did happen but as you read this article and statement by NASA you will read how they erased the original video to attempt to clean it up and then replaced it with a digital remake of what happened a fake copy. Apollo 11 astronauts left reflectors on the lunar surface. You can bounce Lazer light off of the reflectors and detect the Lazer light as it bounces back to the surface of the earth. Speaking of being disrespectful. Think of the disrespect being posted on here targeting brave Americans that risked lives to achieve this goal of the entire nation.

Set in motion by a courageous President. The death of the American imagination was the death of the American space program. Hopefully, not the death of the nation itself. Fair winds and following seas Neil, Buzz and Mike. Buzz Aldrin was and is a very spiritual person.

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Aldrin and Armstrong were the first men to land on the moon!! I think that grants you the right to say something meaningful and personally important!! Without fully knowing their fate whether they would be able to fire the engine on the LM to successfully dock with the CM in order to return home Buzz did what came naturally to him… said a prayer. He also partook of holy communion as to him, this moon landing was more than just technology at work.

He was a man of faith and also recognized the tremendous significance that their mission had to ALL mankind. Many astronauts have since spoken of the spiritual moments they had whilst experiencing the sights from space. All 3 astronauts on Apollo 8 quoted from Genesis. Well said Debbie, Buzz Aldrin probably believed the record in the Gospel of John chapter one 1 — 5 confirming the deity of Christ as partaking in the creation of all things yet becoming man for our sakes.

The person who left the original comment was invited to explain their concern but never did, so we may never know. Ya it I very helpful especially for home work or school project like my school that was my topic space exploratory. Dear Harsh, thank you for your comment, unfortunately what you are saying is rather unclear.

Could you say it again in another way? While giving a speech about the orion mission to Mars. This spans out to beyond , miles. Now isnt the moon about , miles away? I have not heard of this speech, could you provide more information about who said this and where and when it was said? If so I have discussed this before at length in this comments section see question by IknowYouTroll on 16 April and my response. This is not actually correct I would be interested to know where you heard this. The Van Allen Belts vary in size but at their largest the outer belt only extends out about 60 km 37 miles from Earth.

I have heard it. It was on a youtube video quite a while back,but they later craftily edited it out. I should have downloaded it as evidence. But I definitely heard him say places like Mars and the moon the first time around,no doubt,clear as a bell. Well a total of 24 astronauts have travelled to the moon not all actually walking on it so that is 48 times there and back a human has already passed thought it. So why the sudden interest in if a human can safely pass through it or not?! Can give any details at all of this speech you believe has been edited? Better still would be if you can send me a link to the edited version so I can look into this.

You can read our articles about Orion EFT-1 at this link and this link I would just correct you by noting that the first Orion mission was not dedicated solely to studying the Van Allan Belts, it was a complete test flight for a new spacecraft. The video you link to is very clear about this.

I think too that 27 astronauts have been to the vicinity of the Moon Apollos 8, , each with a three person crew. If moon is brighter than watts bulb, how can human can see the objects there. If moon is such a bright planet, then it must be hot and we cannot stand there nor survive.. Then, How apollo 11 can be possible?

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  • This does not really mean anything, where did you hear this said? I cannot find statistics for a W bulb but according to Wikipedia the filament of a 60W bulb is mm long uncoiled and 0. This means its total surface area is about 0. The side of the Moon illuminated by the Sun has an area of about 19 million square km equivalent to 19 trillion square metres.

    On average the Moon is emitting W per square metre about 50 times less per square metre that a 60W light bulb. The highest temperature there is about degree C at noon. This is in no way an impossible hazard to astronauts. There is no evidence for fakery. Ahhh the Stefan-Boltzmann law luminosity is proportional to the fourth power of the temperature. Dear My Name, thank you for your comments.

    Sadly you have also been misinformed. It was a stiff flag so it was permanently stuck in that position………. Dear Jay, thank you for your comment. The Apollo flags were very basic nylon flags purchased off the shelf, they were fitted with a stiffening rod though. I believe the previous admin has given plenty of further reading and explanations about the flag on the moon.

    Please read all the above comments sent by admin. There is a video of the myth busters doing the moon landing it is very helpful if you think the landing is fake still. Out of all those hours upon hours of supposed video footage, it NEVER shows them exiting or returning!

    Dear Christopher, thank you for your comments but once again I detect a lack of rigor in your research. Dear Jimmy, you are right to be suspicious of how TV programmes describe science. That is why the historical truth is not based on TV programmes. Dear Jimmy, thank you for your comments.

    Sadly you seem to have just accepted the same old tales without any research or critical thinking. The lunar module was successfully tested in space on Apollo missions 5 unmanned , 9, and 10 before being used to land for Apollo 11 and the ensuing missions except Apollo 13, of course, when it became a lifeboat for the astronauts to get home in. This is the biggest headache of NASA since they cannot debunk it in the usual manner….

    Why are you so stupid I mean the flag was moving and the Americans said there was no wind in space and the supposed moon rock given to the dutch prime minister of the time was found to be fake and was in facts wood and stop acting like a robot because if you want to say something search it up stupid. This is not correct, see our article 5 Goofy Moonlanding Hoax Theories link and its comments section for more details. Who told you these fake facts? There is a brief account of the truth about this story in this Wikipedia article link. May I ask why you feel that you need to communicate in this rude and aggressive manner?

    Could it be a sign that you know that your arguments are weak and you need to compensate for their lack of factual support? Not to mention ALL the primitive technology around at that time! Dear Christopher, thank you for your comments but I feel that you ought to broaden your research, starting with checking on when the Moon missions happened reading the article that you are commenting on might help you. Computers were used throughout the Apollo project notably the Apollo Guidance Computer. If you are interested in researching this further, you could start with the Computer Weekly article at this link.

    Russias Luna 3 was the first spacecraft to land on the moon luna 8 was the first to send back pictures from the moons surface and luna 10 was the first to orbit the moon 3 yrs before America who copied russian technology to achieve their first landing. You must be thinking of Luna 9 which made the first successful landing by a probe on 3 February By first landing do you mean the Surveyor or Apollo missions? Dear Jack, thanks for your comment. My thanks as well. I was there during those amazing years.

    Still am tickled to hear all the pokes made to negate what was done by these brave men. Most of the questions can be easily answered with serious research. The whole mission flew with less computer capability than a basic cell phone now has. My personal thanks to the admin for refereeing this site! Dear Sol Cutta, thank you for your question. Thank you for your comment and respect. I was a kid when this took place. So, which Aldrin did what he did, proves that human spirituality is always present in the most important moments of mankind.

    Comment will not be published- Will, if you wish to participate here, never try to post comments like that. Dear Iqra, the original poster made his comment in September but has never returned to explain it despite being invited to. My best guess is that he was referring to item 9 in the article. Why would it be disrespectfull for a man to include his God and king jesus in giving thanks for a safe landing? The Moon Walk Mythos is comical. I fell for it for 36 years. Akin to Moses parting the sea and Jesus rising from the dead. I have some ocean front property in Oklahoma for you to buy.

    Dear Dan, thank you for your comments, however are you sure that they are not simply reflecting your opinions rather than facts? Does knowing that fact help you? The whole thing sounds very fictional. Reading these makes me ever more doubtful about the whole thing. This is science fiction manipulation. Your email address will not be published. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed. Here you will find the latest news and views from all those who work in our organisation, from the fascinating worlds of astronomy and space exploration.

    We hope you will come here to learn what is hot and exciting, profound or even weird from worlds beyond ours. So that's the introduction out of the way, now on with the Universe! About Arras WordPress Theme. We all know of the pioneering journey of Neil Armstrong , Buzz Aldrin and the sometimes forgotten third astronaut Michael Collins. Suit for a moonwalk Image credit: The leaden hand of bureaucracy or a joke? Posted December 15, at 4: You are so interesting! Posted December 10, at 6: Posted November 24, at Posted October 28, at 9: Only Russian will tell u the truth if u belive them by their space experiences credits.

    Posted October 18, at 9: Posted October 16, at Posted October 3, at 4: Posted September 1, at 8: Posted October 24, at 8: Posted June 26, at 1: Posted November 25, at 7: Posted June 13, at 6: Posted June 8, at 7: Posted January 5, at 6: He did that before they left the craft. Posted April 15, at 6: Posted April 8, at I definitely love this site. Posted April 6, at 8: Posted February 9, at 6: Posted January 3, at 5: Posted December 8, at 2: Posted December 8, at 7: Posted November 15, at 7: Posted November 16, at Neil armstrong is not the first astronaunt who land on the mood.

    Posted November 10, at Posted November 14, at I hope this has helped you. Posted October 30, at 4: Posted October 28, at Posted October 31, at 8: Posted August 31, at Posted October 20, at Posted October 19, at 7: Posted October 3, at 6: Who is the second person in the foot of moon. Posted October 4, at 8: Posted September 24, at 8: Posted September 26, at 9: Posted September 21, at 6: Posted September 17, at 6: Awesome staff there , God is self existing and you cannot deny it.

    Posted September 12, at 1: Posted September 12, at 8: Posted September 5, at 2: Posted September 7, at 3: Posted September 4, at 3: Posted September 5, at 1: Posted September 2, at 7: Posted September 2, at 3: Dear Partha, thank you for your questions and comments. I hope this has helped. Posted September 4, at 2: Dear Vinay, thank you for your comments but sadly you have been misinformed. This is not correct, what was your source for this? NASA would have found it impossible to map out the exact locations of all stars for the hoax without being rumbled, and therefore left them out Stars are literally millions of times further away than the Moon is from the Earth, so stars seen from the Moon show no difference in position from their positions as seen from the Earth.

    This Is My Display Name. Posted September 21, at 7: Posted August 24, at 7: Posted August 19, at 9: Posted July 30, at 4: Posted August 1, at 7: Posted July 30, at 2: Posted September 24, at 9: Posted July 21, at 4: Posted July 22, at 8: Posted July 20, at 6: Posted July 17, at Posted July 19, at 9: Posted July 17, at 7: Posted July 18, at Posted June 25, at 5: Posted June 27, at 7: Posted June 21, at 3: Posted June 22, at 7: Dear Really, thank you for your questions. Posted May 30, at 6: Every photo showing ther flag that flag flooting how it will floot when there is no air.

    Posted May 31, at 8: Posted May 24, at 6: Posted May 25, at 9: Posted May 25, at 4: Posted May 26, at 8: Posted May 24, at Posted May 24, at 2: Posted May 23, at 8: Posted May 24, at 8: I hope you find this helpful.

    11 Strange Facts You Didn't Know About the First Moon Landing | Astronotes

    Posted May 22, at 6: Posted May 23, at 9: Posted May 17, at 7: Posted May 18, at 7: Posted May 10, at Posted May 10, at 9: Posted May 10, at 1: This may be said but only by people who have not researched this topic. USA have so many area were no one have the permission to see inside the restricted area infact the satellite can also not capture a picture of that area and the aeroplane or helicopter are not allowed to go from there … I think you will find that most countries have areas off-limits to the general public, not just the USA.

    If the moonlanding is true then can you tell in zero gravity why the flag is waving, I know the reason but I wanna know how you prove it Is there really zero gravity on the Moon? Posted May 9, at 3: Posted May 9, at 8: Posted May 6, at 3: Posted May 9, at Posted May 4, at 2: Posted May 5, at 9: Dear Flowin71, thank you for your questions. Posted April 20, at 3: Posted April 20, at 7: Posted April 28, at 6: Posted April 15, at 9: Posted April 15, at Posted April 14, at 4: Dear Tony, thank you for your question. Posted April 14, at I hope this answer has helped you.

    Posted April 13, at 5: Posted April 14, at 8: Posted April 13, at 4: Posted March 18, at Posted March 21, at 1: Dear Kris, thanks for your comments and questions. I rather think that NASA used some studio stills and had them prepared for use in case the Hasselblad camera shots on the moon were poor Sorry but that is your opinion and it is unsubstantiated by the facts. Apollos had colour video cameras. Posted March 9, at 2: Posted March 9, at Posted March 9, at 3: Posted March 8, at 7: Posted March 8, at 8: I found my comments.

    I was looking at the wrong page. And I think I saw the red rectangular nebula. Say hey to the family. Posted March 8, at 1: Posted March 8, at 2: Posted March 5, at 2: Posted February 14, at 9: Posted February 17, at Posted February 12, at 3: Posted February 17, at 9: Posted February 10, at 6: Posted February 7, at Posted January 30, at Posted February 1, at 9: Posted January 28, at 1: This is all great but can you make the words a bit bigger they are so tiny!

    Posted January 28, at Posted January 27, at Posted January 27, at 5: Hi Semaj, thanks for your questions. Posted January 27, at 7: Posted February 2, at No, while the LM was on the Moon it was experiencing lunar gravity. Posted January 19, at 5: Posted January 4, at Eight of them are still living as of Posted December 18, at 2: Posted December 29, at Dear Pavan, thank you for your question. Posted December 11, at 9: Posted December 14, at Posted December 10, at 8: Posted November 21, at Posted November 23, at Posted November 17, at 6: Posted November 13, at 3: Posted November 11, at 1: Posted November 12, at 9: Posted January 6, at 4: Posted January 6, at 9: Posted November 5, at 4: Posted November 9, at 9: I hope that this has helped you.

    Posted November 4, at 6: Posted October 22, at 4: Posted October 23, at 5: Posted September 21, at 3: Posted October 21, at 6: Always wants to know the untold story.. Posted October 9, at 2: Posted October 6, at 6: Posted October 6, at Posted October 5, at Posted September 22, at Posted July 6, at 7: Posted July 14, at 9: Posted August 21, at 1: Posted August 21, at 8: Posted July 2, at 1: Posted July 14, at Posted June 22, at 2: Posted June 21, at Posted May 25, at 5: Posted May 23, at 7: Posted July 6, at 2: Posted March 17, at 9: Posted March 5, at I hope you have found this helpful.

    Posted July 6, at 1: Posted February 19, at 2: Posted February 11, at 5: Posted February 12, at Posted November 4, at 2: Posted November 4, at 9: Posted May 22, at 8: Dear Gareth, just a couple of additional comments. Posted January 14, at 7: Posted April 15, at 4: Posted October 17, at 9: Posted October 19, at 9: Dear Curious old soldierman, the astronauts are the threatening lifeforms.

    Posted January 5, at Posted January 5, at 1: Posted December 31, at 5: I too heard that the moon landing is fake and the pictures are taken only from the studio. Posted January 5, at 9: Posted June 7, at 4: Posted June 7, at 7: Posted March 3, at 9: On the bright side, the race to the moon is still OPEN! Posted March 3, at A couple were new to me: Are you really sure about this? So I believe the moon landings were fake.

    Posted March 12, at 3: Posted March 14, at 7: Posted December 9, at 3: Posted December 10, at 9: Posted December 2, at 4: Posted December 2, at 1: Posted February 27, at 4: Yours is the best argument yet. Posted August 5, at 7: I thought it was a fake as well but it turned out it was real from a video I watched on you tube. Posted October 1, at 8: Posted October 2, at 8: I am afraid that you will need evidence before anyone will accept that claim. Posted January 17, at Posted November 11, at 4: Posted November 16, at 5: Posted March 1, at 9: Posted November 2, at Posted November 3, at 9: Posted September 27, at 8: Posted September 29, at 9: Posted October 19, at 1: Posted September 19, at 4: Posted January 22, at 1: Posted January 22, at 5: Posted June 16, at 1: Posted June 16, at 8: Dear Nick, thank you for your comment.

    I am not sure that I agree with what you are saying. Posted December 10, at 5: Posted December 13, at Dear John, thank you for your comments. The engineer in the video you link to clearly says …radiation like this can damage the guidance system, onboard computers and other electronics on Orion… then goes on to discuss the shielding. Posted July 22, at 5: Posted July 26, at V, thank you for your question but I am afraid that it is based on a misconception. Posted October 19, at 2: Posted December 10, at 3: Posted June 26, at 7: My name is none of your business.

    Posted October 18, at 3: Posted October 18, at 7: Posted November 23, at 8: Posted November 25, at Posted September 24, at 5: Yeah , friend you are right the landing was fake! And there is no air in space. Posted September 27, at Posted September 29, at 7: Posted September 30, at 2: Posted March 7, at 9: That smells really fishy right there!

    Posted March 7, at Posted January 31, at 9: Posted August 12, at 7: Posted August 12, at 9: Posted August 23, at 2: Posted January 18, at 9: Posted May 12, at 8: Posted September 12, at 5: Posted February 17, at 8: Posted February 22, at 9: Dear Eddie, thanks for your comment but I think you perhaps need to read the article again! Posted March 3, at 8: Dear Bill, thanks for your comments. Can you give me an example of this? Posted December 18, at 7: Posted December 19, at Dear ABCD, thank you for your comments.

    I mean the flag was moving… This is not correct, see our article 5 Goofy Moonlanding Hoax Theories link and its comments section for more details. Posted April 6, at 1: Posted October 28, at 5: And the biggest proof of that is that the Russians knew it and did not dispute it. Dear Bill, unless you have evidence for this claim it is hard to take it seriously. Posted October 22, at 2: I was wondering a bought that too I think the Russians landed on the moon.

    Posted November 4, at 8: Posted November 5, at 9: Dear Stewart, thank for your comments, however I need to point out that Russias Luna 3 was the first spacecraft to land on the moon is not correct. Russia was the first to land a space craft on the moon and the first to orbit the moon. Posted November 9, at Posted January 17, at 3: Posted April 12, at 5: Posted April 17, at 6: Totally Agree with Sue!!

    Thankfully We still have People like Admin , which cause admiration, beautiful work! Posted August 6, at 9: Posted August 8, at 9: Posted September 13, at 5: Posted September 15, at Posted June 12, at 8: Posted July 30, at Posted April 4, at Posted October 28, at 6: Posted November 4, at 3: Posted January 25, at 7: Posted March 24, at Posted June 9, at 9: Posted June 10, at 8: Radioisotope thermoelectric generators could be used as backup and emergency power sources for solar powered colonies. The FSP system concept uses conventional low-temperature stainless steel , liquid metal-cooled reactor technology coupled with Stirling power conversion.

    Helium-3 mining could be used to provide a substitute for tritium for potential production of fusion power in the future. Solar energy is a possible source of power for a lunar base. Many of the raw materials needed for solar panel production can be extracted on site. However, the long lunar night hours or This might be solved by building several power plants, so that at least one of them is always in daylight.

    Another possibility would be to build such a power plant where there is constant or near-constant sunlight, such as at the Malapert mountain near the lunar south pole, or on the rim of Peary crater near the north pole. Since lunar regolith contains structural metals like iron and aluminum, solar panels could be mounted high up on locally-built towers that might rotate to follow the sun. A third possibility would be to leave the panels in orbit , and beam the power down as microwaves. The solar energy converters need not be silicon solar panels. It may be more advantageous to use the larger temperature difference between Sun and shade to run heat engine generators.

    Concentrated sunlight could also be relayed via mirrors and used in Stirling engines or solar trough generators, or it could be used directly for lighting, agriculture and process heat. The focused heat might also be employed in materials processing to extract various elements from lunar surface materials. Fuel cells on the Space Shuttle have operated reliably for up to 17 Earth days at a time. Fuel cells produce water directly as a waste product.

    Current fuel cell technology is more advanced than the Shuttle's cells — PEM Proton Exchange Membrane cells produce considerably less heat though their waste heat would likely be useful during the lunar night and are lighter, not to mention the reduced mass of the smaller heat-dissipating radiators. This makes PEMs more economical to launch from Earth than the shuttle's cells. PEMs have not yet been proven in space. Even if lunar colonies could provide themselves access to a near-continuous source of solar energy, they would still need to maintain fuel cells or an alternate energy storage system to sustain themselves during lunar eclipses and emergency situations.

    Conventional rockets have been used for most lunar explorations to date. The construction workers, location finders, and other astronauts vital to building, would have been taken four at a time in NASA's Orion spacecraft. Proposed concepts of Earth-Moon transportation are Space elevators.

    Lunar colonists would need the ability to transport cargo and people to and from modules and spacecraft, and to carry out scientific study of a larger area of the lunar surface for long periods of time. Proposed concepts include a variety of vehicle designs, from small open rovers to large pressurized modules with lab equipment, and also a few flying or hopping vehicles. Rovers could be useful if the terrain is not too steep or hilly. The Soviet Union developed different rover concepts in the Lunokhod series and the L5 for possible use on future crewed missions to the Moon or Mars.

    These rover designs were all pressurized for longer sorties. If multiple bases were established on the lunar surface, they could be linked together by permanent railway systems. Both conventional and magnetic levitation Maglev systems have been proposed for the transport lines. Mag-Lev systems are particularly attractive as there is no atmosphere on the surface to slow down the train , so the vehicles could achieve velocities comparable to aircraft on the Earth.

    One significant difference with lunar trains, however, is that the cars would need to be individually sealed and possess their own life support systems. For difficult areas, a flying vehicle may be more suitable. Experience so far indicates that launching human beings into space is much more expensive than launching cargo. One way to get materials and products from the Moon to an interplanetary way station might be with a mass driver , a magnetically accelerated projectile launcher.

    Cargo would be picked up from orbit or an Earth-Moon Lagrangian point by a shuttle craft using ion propulsion , solar sails or other means and delivered to Earth orbit or other destinations such as near-Earth asteroids, Mars or other planets, perhaps using the Interplanetary Transport Network. A lunar space elevator could transport people, raw materials and products to and from an orbital station at Lagrangian points L 1 or L 2. Chemical rockets would take a payload from Earth to the L 1 lunar Lagrange location.

    From there a tether would slowly lower the payload to a soft landing on the lunar surface. Other possibilities include a momentum exchange tether system. A cis-lunar transport system has been proposed using tethers to achieve momentum exchange. For long term sustainability, a space colony should be close to self-sufficient. Mining and refining the Moon's materials on-site — for use both on the Moon and elsewhere in the Solar System — could provide an advantage over deliveries from Earth, as they can be launched into space at a much lower energy cost than from Earth.

    It is possible that large amounts of cargo would need to be launched into space for interplanetary exploration in the 21st century, and the lower cost of providing goods from the Moon might be attractive. In the long term, the Moon will likely play an important role in supplying space-based construction facilities with raw materials. On Earth, the gas bubbles rise and burst, but in a zero gravity environment, that does not happen. The annealing process requires large amounts of energy, as a material is kept very hot for an extended period of time.

    This allows the molecular structure to realign. Exporting material to Earth in trade from the Moon is more problematic due to the cost of transportation, which would vary greatly if the Moon is industrially developed see "Launch costs" above. One suggested trade commodity is helium-3 3 He which is carried by the solar wind and accumulated on the Moon's surface over billions of years, but occurs only rarely on Earth.

    In the future 3 He harvested from the Moon may have a role as a fuel in thermonuclear fusion reactors. To reduce the cost of transport, the Moon could store propellants produced from lunar water at one or several depots between the Earth and the Moon, to resupply rockets or satellites in Earth orbit.

    O'Neill , noting the problem of high launch costs in the early s, came up with the idea of building Solar Power Satellites in orbit with materials from the Moon. This proposal was based on the contemporary estimates of future launch costs of the space shuttle. In , when it became obvious NASA's launch cost estimates for the space shuttle were grossly optimistic, O'Neill et al. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Moonbase disambiguation. Exploration of the Moon and List of missions to the Moon.

    Geology of the Moon. Peak of Eternal Light. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. December Learn how and when to remove this template message. Spaceflight portal Moon portal. Retrieved 12 June Retrieved 11 August Russia Shoots for Moon, Mars". Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century.

    Lunar and Planetary Institute. Archived from the original on June 15, Retrieved January 12, Archived from the original on Rinehart's floating moonbase ". Moon initiatives International meetings: The Planetary Society Blog. Archived from the original on 8 December Archived from the original on 7 January Archived from the original on 13 February Retrieved 30 September Retrieved May 19, Downloaded July 18, Downloaded July 19, Archived from the original on 3 September Archived from the original on November 24, Almost Certainly, New Research Shows". California Institute of Technology.

    Archived from the original on 6 November Retrieved 27 March Goddard Space Flight Center. Archived from the original on 7 November Retrieved 16 February Archived from the original on 9 December Retrieved 29 December Retrieved 9 May Kosmicheskaia biologiia i aviakosmicheskaia meditsina. Archived from the original on 23 September Archived from the original on February 13, Retrieved 12 November No ice found at lunar poles See above ".

    Retrieved December 11, Lin, cited via James, Barry A look at how regolith could be the key to permanent outposts on the moon". Applications of Lunar Glass Structural Components". Retrieved February 20, Archived from the original on 3 February Retrieved 1 February Retrieved 3 October Archived from the original on July 19, Retrieved July 9, An astronaut with space suit weighs about kilograms.

    The Internet Encyclopedia of Science. The energy of this motion for one kilogram is one half the square of the speed, 1,, watt seconds or 0. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Colonization of the Moon. Exploration of the Moon Tourism on the Moon. Category Moon portal Earth sciences portal Solar System portal.

    Colonization of the Moon

    Spacecraft missions to the Moon. Chang'e 4 en route. Chang'e 4 rover en route. Apollo 15 16 17 Lunokhod 1 2 Yutu. Apollo 11 12 14 15 16 17 Luna 16 20 Apollo 11 12 14 15 16 17 List of Apollo astronauts. Retrieved from " https: Exploration of the Moon Moon in fiction Colonization of the Moon.