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Sir Richard Page was also accused of having a sexual relationship with the Queen, but he was acquitted of all charges after further investigation could not implicate him with Anne. November at Whitehall and the following month at Eltham. On 2 May , Anne was arrested and taken to the Tower of London by barge.
In the Tower, she collapsed, demanding to know the location of her father and "swete broder", as well as the charges against her. Your Grace's displeasure, and my imprisonment are things so strange unto me, as what to write, or what to excuse, I am altogether ignorant. Whereas you send unto me willing me to confess a truth, and so obtain your favour by such an one, whom you know to be my ancient professed enemy.
I no sooner received this message by him, than I rightly conceived your meaning; and if, as you say, confessing a truth indeed may procure my safety, I shall with all willingness and duty perform your demand. But let not your Grace ever imagine, that your poor wife will ever be brought to acknowledge a fault, where not so much as a thought thereof preceded. And to speak a truth, never prince had wife more loyal in all duty, and in all true affection, than you have ever found in Anne Boleyn: Neither did I at any time so far forget myself in my exaltation or received Queenship, but that I always looked for such an alteration as I now find; for the ground of my preferment being on no surer foundation than your Grace's fancy, the least alteration I knew was fit and sufficient to draw that fancy to some other object.
You have chosen me, from a low estate, to be your Queen and companion, far beyond my desert or desire. If then you found me worthy of such honour, good your Grace let not any light fancy, or bad council of mine enemies, withdraw your princely favour from me; neither let that stain, that unworthy stain, of a disloyal heart toward your good grace, ever cast so foul a blot on your most dutiful wife, and the infant-princess your daughter. Try me, good king, but let me have a lawful trial, and let not my sworn enemies sit as my accusers and judges; yea let me receive an open trial, for my truth shall fear no open flame; then shall you see either my innocence cleared, your suspicion and conscience satisfied, the ignominy and slander of the world stopped, or my guilt openly declared.
Moth To The Flame: The Story of Anne Boleyn by Angela Warwick
So that whatsoever God or you may determine of me, your grace may be freed of an open censure, and mine offense being so lawfully proved, your grace is at liberty, both before God and man, not only to execute worthy punishment on me as an unlawful wife, but to follow your affection, already settled on that party, for whose sake I am now as I am, whose name I could some good while since have pointed unto, your Grace being not ignorant of my suspicion therein. But if you have already determined of me, and that not only my death, but an infamous slander must bring you the enjoying of your desired happiness; then I desire of God, that he will pardon your great sin therein, and likewise mine enemies, the instruments thereof, and that he will not call you to a strict account of your unprincely and cruel usage of me, at his general judgment-seat, where both you and myself must shortly appear, and in whose judgment I doubt not whatsoever the world may think of me mine innocence shall be openly known, and sufficiently cleared.
My last and only request shall be, that myself may only bear the burden of your Grace's displeasure, and that it may not touch the innocent souls of those poor gentlemen, who as I understand are likewise in strait imprisonment for my sake. If ever I found favour in your sight, if ever the name of Anne Boleyn hath been pleasing in your ears, then let me obtain this request, and I will so leave to trouble your Grace any further, with mine earnest prayers to the Trinity to have your Grace in his good keeping, and to direct you in all your actions. From my doleful prison in the Tower, this sixth of May;.
Four of the accused men were tried in Westminster on 12 May Weston, Brereton, and Norris publicly maintained their innocence and only the tortured Smeaton supported the Crown by pleading guilty. Three days later, Anne and George Boleyn were tried separately in the Tower of London, before a jury of 27 peers. She was accused of adultery , incest, and high treason. The other form of treason alleged against her was that of plotting the king's death, with her "lovers", so that she might later marry Henry Norris. When the verdict was announced, he collapsed and had to be carried from the courtroom.
He died childless eight months later and was succeeded by his nephew. According to a legal review by Schauer and Schauer, "there is little if any evidence, apart from Smeaton's possible torture, that the rules of the time were in any way bent in order to assure Anne Boleyn's conviction". On 14 May, Cranmer declared Anne's marriage to Henry null and void. Although the evidence against them was unconvincing, the accused were found guilty and condemned to death. George Boleyn and the other accused men were executed on 17 May William Kingston , the Constable of the Tower , reported Anne seemed very happy and ready to be done with life.
Henry commuted Anne's sentence from burning to beheading, and rather than have a queen beheaded with the common axe, he brought an expert swordsman from Saint-Omer in France, to perform the execution. On the morning of 19 May, Kingston wrote:. This morning she sent for me, that I might be with her at such time as she received the good Lord, to the intent I should hear her speak as touching her innocency alway to be clear. And in the writing of this she sent for me, and at my coming she said, 'Mr. Kingston, I hear I shall not die afore noon, and I am very sorry therefore, for I thought to be dead by this time and past my pain.
And then she said, 'I heard say the executioner was very good, and I have a little neck,' and then put her hands about it, laughing heartily. I have seen many men and also women executed, and that they have been in great sorrow, and to my knowledge this lady has much joy in death. Sir, her almoner is continually with her, and had been since two o'clock after midnight. Her impending death may have caused her great sorrow for some time during her imprisonment.
The poem " Oh Death Rock Me Asleep " is generally believed to have been authored by Anne and reveals that she may have hoped death would end her suffering. Shortly before dawn, she called Kingston to hear mass with her, and swore in his presence, on the eternal salvation of her soul, upon the Holy Sacraments , that she had never been unfaithful to the king. She ritually repeated this oath both immediately before and after receiving the sacrament of the Eucharist.
On the morning of Friday, 19 May, Anne Boleyn was executed within the Tower precincts, not upon the site of the execution memorial, but rather, according to historian Eric Ives, on a scaffold erected on the north side of the White Tower , in front of what is now the Waterloo Barracks. Good Christian people, I am come hither to die, for according to the law, and by the law I am judged to die, and therefore I will speak nothing against it.
I am come hither to accuse no man, nor to speak anything of that, whereof I am accused and condemned to die, but I pray God save the king and send him long to reign over you, for a gentler nor a more merciful prince was there never: And if any person will meddle of my cause, I require them to judge the best.
And thus I take my leave of the world and of you all, and I heartily desire you all to pray for me. O Lord have mercy on me, to God I commend my soul. This version of her speech is found in Foxe 's Actes and Monuments  and an almost identical version in Ives She gracefully addressed the people from the scaffold with a voice somewhat overcome by weakness, but which gathered strength as she went on. She begged her hearers to forgive her if she had not used them all with becoming gentleness, and asked for their prayers.
It was needless, she said, to relate why she was there, but she prayed the Judge of all the world to have compassion on those who had condemned her, and she begged them to pray for the King, in whom she had always found great kindness, fear of God, and love of his subjects. The spectators could not refrain from tears.
Lancelot de Carle, a secretary to the French Ambassador, Antoine de Castelnau , was in London in May ,  and was an eyewitness to her trial and execution. It is thought that Anne avoided criticising Henry to save Elizabeth and her family from further consequences, but even under such extreme pressure Anne did not confess guilt, and indeed subtly implied her innocence, in her appeal to those who might "meddle of my cause".
The ermine mantle was removed and Anne lifted off her headdress, tucking her hair under a coif. The execution consisted of a single stroke. Most of the King's Council were also present. He made no serious attempt to save Anne's life, although some sources record that he had prepared her for death by hearing her last private confession of sins, in which she had stated her innocence before God.
She was then buried in an unmarked grave in the Chapel of St Peter ad Vincula. Her skeleton was identified during renovations of the chapel in , in the reign of Queen Victoria , and Anne's grave is now identified on the marble floor. Nicholas Sander , a Catholic recusant born c. In his De Origine ac Progressu schismatis Anglicani The Rise and Growth of the Anglican Schism , published in , he was the first to write that Anne had six fingers on her right hand. Her frame was described as delicate, approximately 5'3", with finely formed, tapering fingers.
Anne Boleyn was described by contemporaries as intelligent and gifted in musical arts and scholarly pursuits.
She was also strong-willed and proud, and often quarrelled with Henry. To us she appears inconsistent—religious yet aggressive, calculating yet emotional, with the light touch of the courtier yet the strong grip of the politician—but is this what she was, or merely what we strain to see through the opacity of the evidence?
As for her inner life, short of a miraculous cache of new material, we shall never really know. Yet what does come to us across the centuries is the impression of a person who is strangely appealing to the early 21st century: A woman in her own right—taken on her own terms in a man's world; a woman who mobilised her education, her style and her presence to outweigh the disadvantages of her sex; of only moderate good looks, but taking a court and a king by storm.
Perhaps, in the end, it is Thomas Cromwell's assessment that comes nearest: No contemporary portraits of Anne Boleyn survive. A bust of her was cast on a commemorative medallion in , believed to have been struck to celebrate her second pregnancy. Following the coronation of her daughter as queen, Anne was venerated as a martyr and heroine of the English Reformation, particularly through the works of John Foxe, who argued that Anne had saved England from the evils of Roman Catholicism and that God had provided proof of her innocence and virtue by making sure her daughter Elizabeth I ascended the throne.
An example of Anne's direct influence in the reformed church is what Alexander Ales described to Queen Elizabeth as the "evangelical bishops whom your holy mother appointed from among those scholars who favoured the purer doctrine". As a result, she has remained in the popular memory and has been called "the most influential and important queen consort England has ever had. Because of Anne's early exposure to court life, she had powerful influences around her for most of her life.
These early influences were mostly aristocratic women, who were engaged with art, history, and religion. Eric Ives described the women around Anne as "aristocratic women seeking spiritual fulfillment". These women along with Anne's immediate family members, such as her father Thomas Boleyn , may have had large influences on Anne's personal faith. Another clue into Anne's personal faith could be found in Anne's book of hours , in which she wrote, " le temps viendra " ["the time will come"].
Alongside this inscription she drew an astrolabe , which at the time was a symbol of the Renaissance. The inscription implies that Anne was a Renaissance woman, exposed to new ideas and thoughts relating to her faith since it was written in her book of hours. Anne Boleyn's last words before her beheading was a prayer for her salvation, her king, and her country. She said, "Good Christian people! I am come hither to die, for according to the law, and by the law, I am judged to death; and therefore I will speak nothing against it. I come hither to accuse no man, nor to any thing of that whereof I am accused and condemned to die; but I pray God save the king, and send him long to reign over you, for a gentler, or a more merciful prince was there never; and to me he was ever a good, a gentle, and a sovereign lord..
Foxe also believed a sign of her good faith was God's blessing unto Anne's offspring, Elizabeth I , and allowing her daughter to prosper as queen. Many legends and fantastic stories about Anne Boleyn have survived over the centuries. One is that she was secretly buried in Salle Church in Norfolk under a black slab near the tombs of her ancestors. This legend was often told for the benefit of foreign travellers. In , Major General J. Dundas of the 60th Rifles regiment was quartered in the Tower of London.
As he was looking out the window of his quarters, he noticed a guard below in the courtyard, in front of the lodgings where Anne had been imprisoned, behaving strangely. He appeared to challenge something, which to the General "looked like a whitish, female figure sliding towards the soldier". The guard charged through the form with his bayonet, then fainted. Only the General's testimony and corroboration at the court-martial saved the guard from a lengthy prison sentence for having fainted while on duty.
Pakenham-Walsh , vicar of Sulgrave , Northamptonshire, reported having conversations with Anne. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other people named Anne Boleyn, see Anne Boleyn disambiguation. Late Elizabethan portrait, possibly derived from a lost original of —36 . Cultural depictions of Anne Boleyn. Ancestors of Anne Boleyn Sir Geoffrey Boleyn —? Sir Geoffrey Boleyn —c. Sir William Boleyn ?
Thomas Hoo, 1st Baron Hoo and Hastings? James Butler, 4th Earl of Ormond — Thomas Butler, 7th Earl of Ormond —? Joan Beauchamp — 5. Lady Margaret Butler c. Sir Richard Hankford — Lady Anne de Montagu — 1. Sir Robert Howard of Tendring? John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk — Lady Margaret de Mowbray 6. Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk — Sir William Moleyns — Catherine Moleyns — Lady Elizabeth Howard —  Sir Frederick Tilney Elizabeth Tilney before —  Biography portal England portal Anglicanism portal.
Her Majesty's Stationery Office. The Life and Death of Anne Boleyn". Archived from the original on 1 November Retrieved 26 April Retrieved 2 November The 16th-century author William Camden inscribed a date of birth of in the margin of his Miscellany. The date was generally favoured until the late nineteenth century: Confessions of a Ci-devant. Retrieved 19 December For a masterful re-evaluation of Anne's religious beliefs, see Ives, pp. The King and His Court. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Contemporary documents call her marquess or lady marquess of Pembroke; this reflects Tudor spelling. A male peer was Marquys , marquoys , marquess and so on; his wife would be marquess , marquesse , marquisess and so on, the same ending as Duchess ; the resulting confusion was sometimes clarified by such phrases as lady marquess ; the modern distinction, by which the wife is Marchioness , was imported from Latin in her daughter's reign. A Manual of Heraldry, Historical and Popular. William Tyndale, a Biography. Six Wives, , p. Retrieved 27 November A Treasure of Royal Scandals , p. Penguin Books, New York.
Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. The Creation of Anne Boleyn. See also Starkey, pp. Schofield claims that evidence for the power struggle between Anne and Cromwell which "now dominates many modern accounts of Anne's last weeks" comprises "fly-by-night stories from Alesius and the Spanish Chronicle , words of Chapuys taken out of context and an untrustworthy translation of the Calendar of State Papers. Schauer and Frederick Schauer". O Death Rock Me Asleep.
The Misadventures of Moppet. Retrieved 15 December John Guy contends that Crispin de Milherve, who was an eyewitness to Anne Boleyn's trial and execution, and Lancelot de Carle have been shown by French scholars to be the same person. Warner Paperback Library Edition. Retrieved 14 April The Life and death of Anne Boleyn. The Anne Boleyn Files. Retrieved May 7, Retrieved May 14, Retrieved 19 May Nelson's Duchy, A Sicilian Anomaly. Retrieved 7 July The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 12 October The Boleyn Women , Amberley Publishing. The Acts and Monuments of John Foxe. The Life and Death of Anne Boleyn: Lindsey, Karen Divorced Beheaded Survived: Phaidon OCLC At the Edge of the World?: Schmid, Susan Walters March The History Press, Somerset, Anne Elizabeth I.
A Reassessment," History, Feb , Vol. The Rise and Fall of Anne Boleyn: The Lady in the Tower: The Fall of Anne Boleyn. Weir, Allison "The Lady in the Tower: Wilson, Derek Hans Holbein: Portrait of an Unknown Man London: Retrieved from " https: Views Read View source View history.
Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk — Sir William Moleyns — Lady Elizabeth Howard — . Elizabeth Tilney before — . John Boleyn I . John Boleyn II  c. Sir John Bracton . Thomas Boleyn I  c. Alice Bracton  c. Geoffrey Boleyn I  c. Sir Thomas Hoo  c. Anne Hoo  c. Thomas Butler Earl of Ormond. Thomas Howard Duke of Norfolk. Lady Margaret Butler  c. Sir Thomas Boleyn Earl of Wiltshire  c.
Sir James Boleyn — Sir Edward Boleyn b. Anne Boleyn  Queen Consort. Elizabeth I Queen of England. I find myself horrified by his words. The king has brought me here for a test? To see how I would react under this scrutiny? I cannot believe it and I am sure that the men before me believe they can play games with me but I will not stand for it. I remain silent as Norfolk looks at the people around us.
Lords and ladies of the court that up until now I have ignored. They cannot all wish me to be dead. How could any of them wish this onto a woman that favoured them all so? One after the other the men around me shout "Guilty" one man bravely speaks up "Burn the witch for her incestuous crimes" Each 'guilty' knocks life out of me.
I had already accepted that me getting past all of this is highly unlikely but to be brought here as a spectacle to the men around us, that is sickening. I feel the sting of tears in my eyes and I know the dark orbs that have mystified men from the king to a simple servant must be showing redness. They must be enjoying seeing their Queen so weak and powerless when I had enjoyed taking the control for so long before this. I am led away without a word; I am not bidden to speak again to the men before me.
I am ignored and brushed away treated like a pest finally fought back. Led toward the tower, each step I take sends shivered throughout my body. I wonder if the people that are watching me can see what is happening to me. The weakness I am showing. The smile that was always on my lips now faded and in its place a hopeless frown.
I have been given a cape, one of my finest for this trip. A green emerald and dark midnight blue cape with Swan down around the hood and trimmed down the side. Pulled up onto my head I feel a sense of safety. No one can see the tears roll down my cheeks as I keep my head cast down.
The nights seem to be the worse time for my being at the moment. I lay in silence, the deathly silence of the tower I have been so cruelly and wrongly imprisoned in. Once the Queen of England, I now await the death that surly will come and that not even the Virgin Mary herself could halt, not even the King, my husband and love could stop this execution.
The people called for my blood. How had a I wronged them so badly? How had I brought this wrath upon myself? Where are my family now? My brother already dead, his head surly resting on a spike, my father scurrying away from this mess he has blamed wholly on me. How can it be just my fault when I am not the one that forced me to play the games of court?
How can I be blamed for this when all I have done that could warrant any of this is love? I fell in love with the King which, like a moth drawn to a flame, was my undoing. Instead of being calculated, and rational about every step I would make, every word I would utter to his Majesty. I became totally erratic, and untrusting. Seeing him with women drove my heart into despair and if I had the self control that I so greatly prided myself on having. The confidence that had of course drawn Henry to me. I thought that I was the flame and he was the moth.
How wrong could I have been? I am no longer the flame, but the wilting Tudor Rose that flourished and grew under the kings' love. That lasted a mere three years, three years of my life I wish I could change in so many ways that I know I cannot. My fate has been sealed for me and I have no choice but to accept what has happened. The tears I cry now, that silently course down my cheeks, are not for me. My own actions, my unguided and unthought-of actions have brought me here.
They are not for the King, the man I once loved enough to carry out anything to try and hold him to me. The man that seemed blinded by the innocent poor Jane Seymour that will surely have my fate once she displeases the King. The tears I cry are for my own and only accomplishment. The princess and rightful heir to the throne. What will become of her now? Now she is alone in this world. Sent away from her father to live in exile never to know her mother. Or why her father will show her utter disdain when she grows into the beauty I know she will.
She will never know me. By now my name must probably be unspoken within the court and the kings' privy chambers. I am sure that he wants little or nothing to do with the execution and I doubt he will be there to witness the unlawful act being carried out upon me. Will he even remember me after a few weeks go by? Will he lie in his chambers and remember the nights we spent together. Will he cry over my death? Will he feel guilt? Will he ever forgive what I have never done? All questions that haunt my mind throughout the day and in the evening.
The memory of our love haunts my sleep, turning the sweet dreams into nightmares whenever my mind seems it fit to torture me so. As if I am being punished for loving so fiercely. Crossing the room, and looking in the mirror, Shattered from a thrown goblet that still lies on the floor un-needed and un-wanted just as I feel. The line through the mirror reflects my feelings. It betrays how I know I should not feel. I still love the King with all unknown feelings that I should not carry for him.
Nothing seems to be correct in this world. The world of feasts, masks, jousting and bedding countless people. The world of court and the games a woman must play to secure herself and her family a future. The same game I had to play at just seventeen years old. I secured the greatest future and perhaps I have created a key stone in history. Maybe I will be remembered. Maybe someone will stop and think that it was never my fault. I never wronged the king and he had simply taken fancy with someone else and that is why he looked for any reason to rid me out of his sight.
The mirror in front of me shocked me, half of my face to the right and the other to the left. Half of me felt like pleading for my life, the other, was utterly resigned to what will happen to me and what I cannot stop happening to me one way or another. The foolish child within me. The girl that wills herself to be with her sister back at Heaver castle, to never have played these dangerous deadly games.
To toy with someone's heart is surly bad, but to toy with a king's heart, that is deadly. To think that I could have held him and that he wouldn't tire of me was foolish of me. That showed the naiveties that I did and still do hold. A part of my heart hopes. No matter how much the rest of my body aches, no matter how much I cry for the King, I cannot help but to hope for him to be there tomorrow. At dawn my head will fall and I wish, I pray for him to see the utter confidence of my innocence in my eyes.
So he will know. Maybe if he sees it soon enough he could call of the execution. All thoughts of a scared women barely thirty years old. Slumping against the wall. I let myself loose all reason and the tears fall down slowly over my face.
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The world becoming blurred and my life on this earth, the hours, the minutes all counting down far too quickly. Henry awaited the news that Anne finally left this world, within him though he struggled with the thought that he was sending an innocent woman to the block, but the people around him had brought such a fantastic case against Anne that any person would be a fool if he didn't believe them.
Yet after all of this time was he really willing to let go of the woman he tore his country apart for. He cast away the loving wife he claimed in his eighteenth year, for years they had been in love and then Anne Boleyn arrived. He was captivated with her. Her intrigue, the way that she carried herself, the confidence, the laugh, the dresses, her raven black hair and dark eyes that seemed to pierce his very soul when he first laid eyes upon her so many years ago.
A good ten years of his life have been devoted to Anne could he really live without her? Already he had shown the world that he was unsure, her execution should have happened at dawn but instead he sent word to postpone until the twelve hour of the day when the sun is highest in the sky. Restless he threw on a dark fur lined coat and walked to the gardens. Hoping the walk would bring him peace, Henry stepped out into the cool morning air, and it could not be past six in the morning, the sun only just peeking out from behind the clouds. The smell of dew rested in the air, far too heavy almost a sickly sweet.
In these few moments Henry knew he could be alone. More alone than he ever had been in his life he walked to the large ornate lake. Gliding through the water gracefully, two swans, in their majestic beauty with the air of serenity Henry watched. He watched and remembered. Nearly an hour passed before the gentlemen of his privy chamber found the king much too his annoyance he was reminded that he must attend to the state business.
Today was like any other day. Other than the constant voice in his head arguing over Anne, one saying let her die, she failed you far more than Catherine ever did. She deserves to die, the other voice pleading straight from the heart, save her, save your Queen save the mother of your unmistakable child. Save the woman you so easily fell in love with. Neither voice could win, both fought in his mind driving him to suffer a migraine and demand to be left alone. Standing by the window he watched several birds fly off into the horizon. The shadow of the Tower caught his eye. Anne was there awaiting her death Much to his dismay the subject of Anne pulled at his heart.
The ache to be with her was almost uncontrollable. He wanted to bid her farewell. He wanted to save her as well but to do either would show a weakness in him and that is something that he could not and would not show. Not even too the men of state that he should trust enough to understand that loosing Anne brought about a lot of questions. Would he marry the Jane Seymour girl that he had been so drawn too?
Would he really stoop into a marriage where he would not be challenged? Jane was simple, plain Jane Seymour, which is what Anne had called her. As well as wench after she caught him and Jane together. Something he sorely regretted. If she had not walked in, if he had not dallied with Jane, then maybe now he would have a son a healthy boy instead of the horrid secret burning of a body not yet formed barely six months old in her belly. Henry felt so responsible for much of the pain that had been caused to Anne. Yet still he was willing, in his actions to let Anne die.
Less than four hours to pass and she will lose her head. Henry's trail of thought led him to forget the surroundings. He forgot Cromwell and the matter that he so crudely brought up. His cheeks burning red, his jaw tightening. He looked at Cromwell with a narrow annoyance. Your marriage with the Boleyn Whore was announced null and void. Your daughter's have been bastardized, for the greatness of your country you must have an heir within a legitimate marriage" Swallowing hard Cromwell watched the reaction of the king unsure and nervous.
He had no idea how Henry would react. The king's temper had grown more and more volatile as the execution of the whore grew closer and closer. As if he was regretting his choice ' but I will be there to stop any thought of regret no matter what that Boleyn witch must die.
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