Auditory driving of the autonomic nervous system: Listening to theta-frequency binaural beats post-exercise increases parasympathetic activation and sympathetic withdrawal. Frontiers in Cognitive Science , November, Quantifying emergency department visits from sport with a focus on the lower extremity and knee. International Journal of Exercise Science: Connecting Mind and Body for Optimal Performance. Competition effects on physical performance.
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Synergies involve inherent neural pathways, muscle and limb biomechanical properties, and learned behaviors. Synergistic actions reduce degrees of freedom and simplifies CNS planning. Objectives 3, 4, 5. Synergies in muscle activation and timing are seen in wrist out-of- phase movements transitioning into in-phase movements during rapid movements. Thus, the need for a centralized command system arising out of brain structures: Feedback from sensory systems comes back into the brain centers but is largely used to prepare or modify the next movement.
The initiation of movement is purely open loop because there has been no preceding movement to provide feedback. Schema theory posits a generalized motor program GMP and schemas. Newer hierarchical models center on internal models. Plans are sent to the to the controlled object CO , for example, spinal interneurons or motor units.
Plans are revised based on comparator differences. Objectives 3, 4, 6. Constraints may be task, environmental, or individual. Walking to running demonstrates that high speeds or workloads destabilize the stable walking pattern and forces a transition to running —Speed is a control parameter, which are those factors that when they change may cause a wholesale change throughout the entire system.
Coordination, gait repatterning, and vertical center of mass movement are order parameters.
Strength training aims to cause tissue breakdown to promote new tissue growth. Destabilization does not always have positive outcomes. Perceptual systems determine ways to take constraints into account for movement planning and execution.
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Planning and action information are part of the environment and revealed when interacting with the environment. Consider the wall-climbing actions afforded each person in the picture. Mismatched virtual reality hallway speed caused the person to walk faster or slower to match the environment. Models fall into open- hierarchical and closed-loop heterarchical systems.
Interactions among the human operator and the task and the environment are worked out based on the ideas of constraints, affordances, and perception—action coupling. W Design should have following quality attribute: Functionality Usability Reliability Performance Supportability extensibility,. Chapter 3 Motor Ability Concept: A variety of abilities underlie motor skill learning and performance success.
Variation and Variability Variation - a broad repertoire of behaviors for a specific motor function Variability the capacity to select from the repertoire.
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Matching brain and body dynamics Daniel Wolpert: