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European scholars began with the oldest Indian texts they knew: Whitney two volumes of the Atharva-Veda in and In , he became a reader at the University of Prague and became full professor in They ought to be shamed by it into a more fruitful scholarship. But for Muir and Cowell, they would be nowhere. In , Weber did this in Berlin, as did Roth in in Tubingen.
I may hand over the manuscripts to you if you give reasonable compensation. I hope you will avail yourself of the occasion. There are hundreds of these combinations—each, in effect, a separate letter. While studying in Paris, Franz Bopp complained about the high cost of Sanskrit materials.
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In , the image of the Buddha appeared on the first cover of the Zeitschrift fur Ethnologies In the foyer to the Berlin Ethnological Museum was a huge statue of the Buddha. What we wish is this, however: Starting in , these congresses met for about a week in September every two or three years. Accordingly, Paris and London were the sites for the first two congresses. At each congress, after welcoming speeches by dignitaries at a general meeting, participants met in smaller sections for the rest of the week to present papers and discuss developments within their subspecialties.
For example, Berlin Indologist Albrecht Weber was elected president of this section at the congress in Berlin, and the vast majority of the presentations were by German scholars. German scholars acknowledged their debts to their English colleagues in the East India Company, the source of the works such as Sakontala, and continued to praise the English trail- blazers such as Colebrooke. This attitude toward the English is not particularly surprising, considering the colonial rule the English had over modern India, a crucial source of manuscripts.
Many German Indologists had a close relationship to the English for this reason. As mentioned earlier, Max Muller and Friedrich Rosen worked for most of their professional lives in England. The venue as well as the content of the articles created a furor; they appeared in the journal Curtius Studien that Brugmann was temporarily editing for Professor Curtius. The Junggrammatiker rebelled against the search for origins and even against the methods of Franz Bopp and his successors. The Junggrammatiker replaced the old idea that language was an organic entity—being born, living, decaying, and dying—with the concept of a language as a social construction that existed only within the people who speak it.
Experts diversified their studies by investigating Sanskrit linguistics, Vedic and Jain scriptures, mythology, and Buddhism. Archaeology rose to even greater prominence around the turn of the century with the four expeditions to Turfan in central Asia. They made these claims in introductions to their Indological books and articles, in letters, and in speeches. These three themes had been established by Romantics and had little to do with science.
By maintaining these Romantic arguments about India, indological professors were able to capture the imagination and curiosity of a wide, educated audience. One prominent example is Wilhelm von Humboldt, who maintained a close friendship with Franz Bopp and studied Sanskrit seriously. A great friend of his, Friedrich Rosen, had begun the same work. So Mendelssohn knew all about the Sacred Hymns of the Brahmans, and talked very intelligently about the Veda. He knew all about it, and had so much to tell me about the oldest book of mankind, that I had hardly a chance to say anything myself.
One example of a philologist-poet was Friedrich Ruckert , professor of Orientalistik at the university in Berlin from to Eine indische Geschichte in They contain relics of the childlike and naive conceptions then prevailing. Schlegel thought Kalidasa had written Sakuntala during the second century BCE, five hundred years earlier than he actually had written it. Windisch and most academic Indologists supported Bopp: Before long, however, painful efforts freed them from these Romantic superstitions.
Aesthetic claims about Indian material extended to Sanskrit itself, to both its alphabet and its grammatical structure. It is too late. By claiming a more refined purpose of seeking intellectual treasures—a part of their Indian dominion that the English had cast aside, as pointed out in chapter 2—Germans could also claim a moral superiority to the British who were after mere material goods.
Yet even if English and Germans used different methods, they shared a mutual aim: So Sir William Jones believed. It has given the West more than it has received. Another justification that Sanskritists made for their studies was the claim that a uniquely close ancestral relationship existed between ancient India and modern Germany.
For example, German Sanskrit scholars maintained that both ancient Indians and modern Germans were especially erudite. Positing such a connection helped to justify the study of ancient India within modern Germany. Some scholars emphasized the debt Greek culture owed to India in mathematics, philosophy, music, and religion. Yet Indologists agreed that the Romantic literary interest in India served as the stimulus for the scientific, linguistic analysis of Indian languages.
Beyond these Romantic interests, there were newer colonial and missionizing motivations.
Sagen und Maerchen Altindiens, Band 2 Alois Essigmann
While it is true that Germans did not have colonies themselves until the s and were not colonizers in India, they sympathized with the British who were there. As soon as they are unveiled from the mysterious darkness surrounding them till now, and made accessible to all, all the untruths shall be automatically revealed, and this shall, in time, put an end to the sorry plight of religious decadence of India.
First of all, Weber himself was religious. The ministry itself oversaw not only cultural activity but religious as well. Furthermore, Karl Otto von Raumer was himself a conservative, religious man who was involved in the growth of church activity, including missionary work. Also disturbing for the professors was the appearance of Buddhist organizations led by their former students. This chapter examines these dynamics by focusing on two of these students: Karl Eugen Neumann and Karl Seidenstiicker. The most useful include those by Hecker , , , Slepcevic , Baumann , Notz , Almond , and Welbon These materials include works by Leifer , the Wheel , Schumann , and Peiris These widely varying groups drew upon Buddhist ideas for very different projects.
Yet all their efforts reflected a basic challenge that Buddhism provided to Europeans. The Growth of European Buddhism and Its Critics During the latter half of the nineteenth century, the English led the way in the development of Buddhist studies in Europe, just as they had with Sanskrit studies at the end of the previous century. Hodgeson collected hundreds of original manuscripts that he sent to libraries in London and Paris, thus allowing European Indologists to look for themselves at the Buddhist materials.
The study of Buddhism came much later than the Sanskrit comparative linguistics of the s and the Vedic studies of the s. In Germany, the career of Hermann Oldenberg was indicative of the arrival of Buddhist studies within the academic establishment. By , the publisher Triibner had printed thirty editions.
Oxford professor Friedrich Max Muller began editing these works in , and they eventually numbered forty-nine volumes. Many Germans developed an interest in Buddhism after first reading Schopenhauer. Richard Wagner began planning a play about the Buddha called Die Sieger. Nietzsche believed the struggle in ancient India of the Buddha against the Brahmin guardians of the old Vedic order had its modern parallel in the late nineteenth century. Admirers of Nietzsche came from many divergent points of view: Of the many movements and intellectual flurries of importance during this period, Social Democracy and Theosophy particularly illustrated the connection of Indological ideas to wider social developments and the association of the orthodox Indological mandarins with conservatism.
In the course of this century in Europe alone a powerful literature about this man has grown. Every newspaper wants a story about Buddha, every society a lecture. Raymond Schwab describes "two parallel sects that did not mix. The cultural crisis of the s reinforced these conservative values. From the s, Victorians had a polarized interest in Buddhism: A similar attitude of attraction and revulsion developed in Germany. Thus Indo- logical professors also opposed Buddhist groups because of their own commitment to Christianity.
Jakobi church, edited eleven issues of Protestantische Zeitstimmen. The more one learns about the scope of Buddhism, the more oiie also sees its weaknesses that cannot stand before criticism. I know no religion and no philosophy that would even begin to take the place of Christianity for us. In he studied with the Indologist Richard Pischel in Halle and published his dissertation on Des Sarasangaho , a fourteenth-century Pali text. Although he never found a university post in India or Europe, he translated and published ten books about Buddhism in his spare time while working as a banker.
He died of illness on his fiftieth birthday in He was very polite to me. He switched to philology in after working with Win- disch. His interest in Buddhism went far beyond just the academic, however. He assumed the post of general-secretary. Later, he had a falling out with another co-founder, Walter Markgraf, because Markgraf wanted to promote a more monastic Hinayana- based Buddhism, while Seidenstucker favored a Mahayana Buddhism more open to lay members. He wrote fifty articles for these magazines. Academicians based their authority on their philological skill as scholars, to edit and interpret ancient texts hermeneutically.
Thus the academic Indologists were interested in Buddhism as it had existed millennia ago. Perhaps most importantly, there was a direct and personal connection between Buddhist monks on Ceylon and the Bund fiir huddhistisches Lehen Association for Buddhist Life in Germany.
Seidenstucker noted in one of his Buddhist periodicals Our executive committee member, Mr. He plans to collect experiences and impressions of the old, honorable place of the pure Pali-Buddhism, so as to better realize our efforts to spread these old and true teachings of the Buddha. This work allowed him to complete his degree in with the approval of Windisch and Professor Karl Brugmann.
If Windisch disapproved of these activities, why did he allow Seidenstiicker to graduate? Buddhism provoked such interest in Europe and Germany because of factors specific to the late nineteenth century. But why did the larger public have any interest in these obscure Asian texts?
There were three main reasons: A voracious reading public in Europe, increasingly attuned to a larger world, was ever eager to absorb new exploits of discovery. Jesus denied the devil three times, just as the Buddha had denied the temptations of Mara, lord of Samsara. Both religious leaders taught similar ethics of compassion and love. These elements of the lives of Buddha and Jesus were so close that they led to debates about the question of whether one set of stories influenced the other in antiquity.
During the early s in Germany, the Buddhist speaker Nisikanta Chattopadhyhyaya faced opposition from Christians in his audience: Seidens- tiicker pointed this out in Die Buddischische Welt: Who let it be known that the Buddhist influence in Germany is already fairly strong, reveal the situation that Christian apologetics will become ever more active in this [Buddhist] direction. He took the first from a spiritualist publication that praised the artistic achievement in a Japanese Buddhist Amitabha statue, saying "how highly developed Buddhist art is.
Here we undoubtedly have a work of art of great beauty before us, one that would even make a deep impression on a Christian. In this temple there were five hundred idols. I will never forget that strange, peculiar feeling that came over me in this temple as I saw only these grisly heathen idols surrounding me It appeared to me as if the entire atmosphere was filled with Satan, and I felt an inner trembling. In July in Elberfeld in the Wuppertal, r. Wilhelm Hiibbe-Schleiden , a senior civil servant rom Hamburg and a lobbyist for German Imperialism, founded the first German Theosophical Society.
Notovitch fell far too easy a victim to their jokes. Like the rest of the Indological community, Leopold von Schroeder welcomed his role in opposing the "big fat lie of the Russian N. He is punished with well-deserved contempt. The more we become familiar with the ancient literature of the East, the less we find of Oriental mysteries, of esoteric wisdom, of Isis veiled or unveiled.
Theosophists claimed that they had access to the teachings of this inner circle through writings and descendents of ancient disciples. Indologists such as Muller opposed these claims, instead maintaining that the Buddha himself spoke out against the idea that any of his teachings were secret. With this unclear and uncritical endeavor, neither the truth nor the welfare of mankind is served. The light of science must dispel these phantoms At the end of his book Buddha und Christus: A Buddhist Apologetic , Seidenstiicker listed a number of Theosophical publications.
The Sphinx ran monthly for ten years from to and was the official organ of the German Theosophical Society from to By October , the Theosophischer Wegweiser filled the void left by the defunct Sphinx and became the new official organ of the German Theosophical Society. Like the professional Indologists, Seidenstiicker came to disapprove of some inaccurate statements Theosophists made misrepresenting key Buddhist concepts.
As a result, in Seidenstiicker set a firm boundary between the Spiritualists and the Buddhism advocated by the Buddhistische Mis- sions-Verein in Deutschland. Most Europeans had only a rudimentary level of knowledge about Buddhism, a deficit which was frustrating for European Buddhists, as Seidenstiicker revealed: It was particularly difficult for early researchers to determine the Buddhist connection to other Indian religions such as Brahmanism and Jainism.
Wilhelm von Humboldt and A. Even later scholars such as Horace H. By the end of the century, the Germans Biihler and Jacobi were able to show the distinction between Buddhism and Jainism, although other scholars did not universally accept their theory. The s were a period of discontent throughout much of Europe and North America.
Nietzsche enthusiasts, vegetarians, nudists, nature clubs and park committees, youth and hiking groups, many of whom also advocated a new type of individualism. Buddhists in Europe themselves made many references to the s cultural critique of modernity in their literature. The Bund fiir buddhistische Leben stated that the various elements of the life reform movement were an integral part of their program.
The lay Buddhist will therefore be a follower of all important reforms, including vegetarianism, pacifism, and the freeing of medicine from the horrors of vivisection. He will champion temperance and the protection of children and animals, the rights of women and the right to found a family early, since only in this way can licentiousness and prostitution be curbed. He chastened the Christian church for remaining silent on the issue of vivisection. Emperor Kaiser Wilhelm II and chancellors such as Hohenlohe devoted much of their energy thwarting the power of the socialists.
What is clear is that he wanted to prevent an intellectual union between the two. It seems likely that the association between Buddhism and Social Democracy has more to do with the Indologists than with any actual interest from Social Democrats. And the great pessimists in history have all become aristocrats. The interest in the exotic, religious differences and the climate of cultural crisis help to explain the interest in Buddhism during this period. They cited the use of Buddhist ideas by Theosophists, and even by Social Democrats. The presence of groups actively spreading information about Buddhism as a viable alternative to Christianity troubled academic Indologists.
The Indologists, instead of helping to reconstruct a family tree from the past, were helping to bring into existence a future potentially dominated by a non-European, Asian religion. Earlier chapters of this book have traced reasons for the German interest in Indian languages and literature.
But they are constructed to serve the society in which they exist. This chapter traces the boundaries of the Indo-German connection by presenting three ways in which this construction limited itself over the course of the nineteenth century: German Indology and Modern India It may come as a surprise to those not familiar with the history of German Sanskrit studies or Indology that there has been any Indo- German connection at all. Imperial Germany had no colonies at all until ; when it did acquire its few overseas holdings, none were in India.
His towering personality, great scholarship and love for India. They all have an interest in promoting a connection. One can challenge the depth and limits of this purported Indo- German connection by examining the discourse embedded in this cultural trope. As cultural embassies, the Goethe Institute provides German language instruction, libraries, art exhibits, and stimulating cultural events for local citizens worldwide.
India is the only country in the world where the Goethe Institute has adopted a different name. Yet the choice of Muller is also problematic: I am not arguing that there was no connection; certainly there were Germans who made a contemporary, living connection, especially missionaries and travel writers, most of whom I have excluded from this study. Indo-German enthusiasts cite the interest in India by major literary figures such as Goethe and Nietzsche to prove the importance of the connection.
Germans such as Goethe sought a vast world literature in which India was a part of a larger Orient. Goethe wrote a short stanza on Sakontala, but he devoted an entire book to the Arab world, the East-West Divan. But he knew Persian and Arabic just as well as Sanskrit, and also wrote extensively about these cultural worlds. The size and influence of these organizations was limited. For instance, in the early twentieth century, there were many different Buddhist organizations in Germany, such as the Mahabodhigesellschaft Mahabodhi Society and the Bund fur Buddhistische Leben Association for Buddhist Life , but the same very small group of people including Karl Seiden- stiicker, Walter Markgraf, and Wolfgang Bohn founded them and formed the core of the limited membership.
Even the archetypal representative of the Indo-German connection, Max Muller , never went to India. Berlin-trained Hermann Oldenberg and Heinrich Liiders made the trip. The health hazards of the tropics may have dissuaded Indologists from risking the heat and disease in India. He wrote a scathing account of his stay in Indische Reiseskiz- zen , To complete the picture, he found the real Orient to be a repugnant and distasteful place that was distinctly inferior to Europe.
To most Indians, the sahib was a sahib, and whether he was German or English did not matter in the least. Yet scholars of indological and Orientalist topics often do not see the difference. It certainly has not been sufficiently illuminated by modern scholars. How influential was it? We are not inclined to put too high an estimate on the poetry that arose under its influence.
One can see this emphasis on ancient India by examining enrollments in modern Indian language courses at Berlin and in scholarly rejection of missionary knowledge about contemporary Indian languages. In Berlin, official interest in modern Indian languages was slight. The instructor hired to teach one or more of these courses was Friedrich Rosen between and , Herr Ghori until , and thereafter, until , Ardeshir Vacha, a young Parsee from Bombay. There was little student interest in modern Indian languages at the University of Berlin.
German merchants needed modern Indian languages to bolster their contacts with Indian traders who spoke these languages in German East Africa. Nevertheless, today it is spoken and written by million Indians, that is, by more than a third of the entire population of India, and has become virtually the Indian language of commerce, it will accordingly be seriously considered for the oriental instruction of other states, in the first case naturally in England but also in France.
They maintained this avid interest in modern Indian languages mostly so they could translate religious writings into local languages to better proselytize the natives. Trumpp mainly worked for the British, but during the s he was a professor at Munich for Semitic languages because they did not have a position for modern South Asian languages. Ferdinand Kittel spent ten years in India as a missionary, beginning in the mids.
Attitudes varied with each university tradition. Still, one can say that there was a bias among academic Indologists against the work of missionaries. One example of this critical attitude was the rejection of missionary work by A. Finally, the missionary advised Schlegel to use the word Bramine, or its Tamil version, Bramene or Biramene instead of the classical Sanskrit words Brahmane or Brachmane, which he said had gone out of use in India long ago. Like James Mill, Schlegel felt he knew India better from his closet in Europe than from actually being Schlegel rejected the Indological interests of missionaries, but he did show a preference for the work of the Indian grammarian Panini, author of the Astadhyayi, a codification of Sanskrit that set classical Sanskrit s form.
One can trace a division of opinion to the first chairhold- ers of Sanskrit studies in Germany, Schlegel and Bopp. That comes from a lack of classical training. At the beginning of his foreword he speaks disparagingly of Indian grammarians, with whom he is not even familiar. They also earned the continuing scorn of Berlin-trained Sanskritists.
Wilhelm von Humboldt thought the English Sanskritist Cole- brooke degraded himself through his dependence on native experts. The man did not have the power to free himself from the Indian grammarians and win an independent opinion. Professor Albrecht Weber in Berlin, a follower of Roth, opposed Pischel who preferred to rely on the commentators and the Indian literary tradition.
Much as I am sorry that he should have been displaced, I can yet heartily rejoice that it is Rost who has won the succession: For what the literature contains, the literature itself suffices; we can understand it and present it vastly better than Panini could. There is in his book as complete an absence of like historical element as in Panini or Vopadeva. I think of giving a talk at our next Or. In addition to questioning the use of Panini by modern scholars, German Sanskritists also criticized the Indian scholarly tradition for not having an awareness of history.
The vast cyclical aeons conceived by Indian religious systems were very different from the European conception of linear, historical time. Other scholars such as Hegel, Karl Marx, and Jacob Grimm developed projects with crucial historical dimensions.
The Brahmins have no conscience in respect to truth. Berlin professor Albrecht Weber worked during the s cataloging the collection of Sanskrit manuscripts in Berlin. Finding the Homeland of the Indo-Europeans A factor that worked to distance modern Germany from modern India was the search for the ancient homeland of the Indo-Europeans or, as they became known later in the nineteenth century, Aryans.
At the beginning of the century, scholars thought the Indo-European homeland was in India. By the end of the nineteenth century, almost no one believed this. Most scholars thought it was somewhere in the Caucasus or elsewhere in southern Russia. Nationalism and racism influenced other scholars to place the homeland in central Europe or Scandinavia.
They linked ancient Aryans with blonde hair, blue eyes, and a drive to dominate. Two theories emerged to explain the subsequent migrations. Another linguist, Johannes Schmidt, developed a second model, a wave-theory of languages spreading outward from centers. His model consisted of a series of interlocked circles. During the course of the nineteenth century, the consensus of scholarly opinion about the location of the Indo-European homeland shifted from Asia to Europe.
New theories about the origins of Aryans appeared as early as , shifting the origin westward to Europe. The location remained a hotly debated topic, and the debate was not resolved. Even today scholars have still not fully worked it out, although Southern Russia receives the consensus as the most likely place. The debates over the Indo-European homeland were driven primarily by nationalism, the ambiguity of the evidence, and racism. Even with these clues, however, there were still many areas to which these examples could apply.
Tilak, who argued that the original Indo-European homeland was the North Pole. The Rig Veda does portray conflict between Aryas and ugly, dark-skinned, irreligious dasas or dasyus. From the s, scholars who objected to the Asian origin of the Indo-Europeans consistently based their arguments on racist categories.
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Measuring skull sizes was of great interest to European scholars. For example, the Berlin ethnologist Rudolf Virchow was a prominent advocate of skull measurement. Under the pressure of nationalism and racism, scholars during the nineteenth century reinterpreted ambiguous linguistic data to move the Indo-European homeland from India to Northern Europe. Pott believed the Indo-European homeland to be slightly more westward than India, in Oxus and Jaxartes, the area from the northern Himalayas to the Caspian Sea.
Even Hegel, who denigrated Indian philosophy in the s and saw Asia as an early, immature stage in the development of history culminating in European supremacy, still did not deny that Asia was the origin of world civilization. Latham moved the site of origin even further west, arguing that the original homeland was in central Europe. The separation of Aryan from European may just as well be due to a spread and migration of the former into Asia as of the latter into Europe: Eurocentric scholars countered with a passage from Herodotus that indicated the presence of lions in Europe.
He noticed that there was no identical name for autumn in the Indo-European languages, and thought it paralleled the Roman Tacitus, who observed the Germans had no word for autumn. He placed the precise homeland as the Pripet marshes in western Russia. In Vienna at the end of the s, liberals lost their position to mass parties of nationalist, working class, and Catholic interests. The stock market crash of and subsequent decades of economic depression until the s fed into the resentment that fueled mass parties.
A disciplinary gulf fueled the antagonism: Even though Herman Hirt and Otto Schrader may have had disagreements about location of the Indo-European homeland, they were united against racist arguments in linguistics. For example, Hirt opposed Penka s use of race: German Sanskntists were also divided on these issues. The legacy of nineteenth-century Indol- ogy, hke so much in German history, is complex and multivalent.
The degree to which Indologists contributed to racist theories, and thus helped to lay the intellectual groundwork for National Socialism, is unclear. We need to look at individual cases and explore the alternatives to the metanarrative of domination. In Berlin and Leipzig, there is an ambiguous picture. Scholars in Leipzig also showed complicity as well as tension with the regime. Friedrich Weller maintained a low profile during the Nazi period, low enough to continue with his work during the DDR. Furthermore, he promoted Aryan solar myths in his work. Yet he had a furious court case with Mathilde Ludendorff — , the second wife of the famous general of the First World War.
One cannot make sweeping claims about Sanskrit studies the way Pollock does because Sanskrit scholars had a mixed record: Several important, prominent Sanskrit scholars perpetuated racist claims about ancient Aryans. Although less explicitly racist in his judgments about skin pigmentation than later generations, he did link the development of ancient Indian civilization with the Aryans.
Only a few peoples of the Earth showed the ability to take part in this independent development; from the peoples of other races it was only the Chinese and Egyptians, and from the Caucasus only the Semites and Indo-Germans. He listed six of the seven civilizations in Eurasia as being formed at least in part from Aryans. Men and peoples come rapidly to maturity in that land, like the plants of the tropical world, only just as rapidly to fall asleep both bodily and spiritually.
In in an article in a popular magazine, Oldenberg claimed that racial mixing was a key to the shift. Mixing with the dark-colored natives changed the immigrants, making the Aryan into a Hindu. They have been the prominent actors. They have perfected society and morals In continual struggle with each other and with Semitic and Turanian races, these Aryan nations have become the rulers of history, and it seems to be their mission to link all parts of the world together by the chains of civilisation, commerce, and religion. What can it Teach Us? Frankenstein, Mtil- ler realized how hard it was for him to stop the monster he had helped to build.
For example, in , Moriz Winternitz, serving as reader in Indo-Aryan philology and ethnology at the University of Prague, argued strenuously against the use of race. There are definite links between the early study of linguistics, nationalism, and Nazism in Germany, revealing a connection between Indology and Indomania.
Several scholars have condemned the German study of India in the nineteenth century as a direct contributor to twentieth- century Nazi ideology. Arguments casting Schlegel as a proto-Nazi ignore these complexities and other cultural interactions that Sanskrit studies had in Germany, such as those with Buddhism in chapter 6. Ultimately, however, there are limits to the ability of historians to trace the roots of Nazism. Liebenfels oversaw a hierarchy of offices within his order, assigning the rank of the brothers based on their degree of racial purity.
Rather, the Theosophical Society provided a direct conduit into Europe for Indian culture and ideas from modern India, unfiltered through the prism of German Indology. In the Theosophical duo formally converted to Buddhism and founded new branches of the Theosophical Society in Ceylon Sri Lanka , to the delight of large crowds.
The former is nearly one million years old; the latter is a small sub-race some 8, years of age and no more. Blavatsky did draw upon translations, but most were by English Orientalists such as H.
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Yet in India today it does not carry the negative emotional charge it does in Europe and the United States. It is a word of Indian origin and has its history and definite meaning in India Likewise, by the first decade of the twentieth century, Buddhist periodicals printed in Germany also prominently featured the swastika. For example, the cover of Der Buddhist featured a swastika in the center of a wheel-like design see figures 4 and 5.
Theosophical ideas about the swastika dovetailed well with those of the volkisch camp. Academic historians agreed that these courts had existed in the past and even dated back to pre-Christian times. Liebenfels gave him a some free copies and a little money for a ride home. An associate of List, Heinrich Winter, had a rough gravestone with a swastika in Hamburg in The Munich party of the Bavarian National Socialists adopted it soon after a joint meeting in Salzburg in August, He designed the colors of the Nazi flag and recommended a left-handed swastika, which based on his studies of Buddhism meant fortune and health.
However, the swastikas used by List and the Thule society had been right-handed, so both directions had been in use in the volkisch tradition. But to what degree was Wiist typical? The interaction between German Indologists and the Nazi regime itself is a complicated relationship. Academics volunteered their services for the regime, especially in the area of racial pseudoscience. Virtually all of them were absolutely convinced of the value of their research. Most of them could have said no. He earned a PhD in and a university appointment in He became a full professor in Frankfurt in During the s he published Die alten Arier: Coming to the conclusion that Christianity was not the only religious path with truth, Hauer went to Oxford to learn Sanskrit in and ended up earning a doctorate at Tubingen in , where he became a professor in Beyond the collaborators and those avoiding controversy, there also were Indologists who were opponents of the Nazi regime.
A handful of German Indologists were targets of the regime,! Pollock argues that the vectors of domination in the case of German Indology were directed inward toward Germany instead of outward, such as toward South Asia in the case of Indology in England. I believe a clear historical evaluation of this hypothesis is difficult, as German Sanskrit scholars depended on and aided English colonialism in India. Yet these scholars also were part of the growth of Wissenschaft in Europe, much of which was used to dominate populations in Europe as well as the rest of the world.
He then went as a reader to the University of Prague, where he became full professor from until his retirement in He died there in before the Nazi occupation of Czechoslovakia in March In he was forced out of the position and went to Ankara, Turkey, and Santiago de Chile in before returning to Humboldt University in East Berlin in Walter Neisser studied Indology at Breslau and Gottingen and although he did not pursue a university career, was a private scholar who worked on a Vedic dictionary in Breslau. When the Nazis occupied Prague in , they removed him from his post because he was Jewish.
Unable to leave, the Nazis transported Stein and his wife to Lodz ghetto in Poland where they died in Right before the First World War, he went to Calcutta University as a professor of Comparative Philology, but was interned in Ahmednagar from to because he was German, an enemy alien. After the war he returned to Germany, gaining a position at Breslau University in , which he lost in because he was Jewish.
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