Geographical information about where this report originated or about its content. Programs and Benefits , report , January 26, ; Washington D. Description This report describes three kinds of unemployment benefit programs: Physical Description 19 pages. Who People and organizations associated with either the creation of this report or its content.
Authors Whittaker, Julie M.
Analyst in Income Security. Publisher Library of Congress. About Browse this Partner. What Descriptive information to help identify this report.
- Not For Sale (Mills & Boon Modern).
Identifier Unique identifying numbers for this report in the Digital Library or other systems. Collections This report is part of the following collection of related materials. The popular measures were to combat the increasing influence of the Labour Party among the country's working-class population.
The Act gave the British working classes a contributory system of insurance against illness and unemployment. It only applied to wage earners, however, and their families and the unwaged had to rely on other sources of support, if any. By the time of its implementation, the benefit was criticized by communists, who thought such insurance would prevent workers from starting a revolution, while employers and tories saw it as a "necessary evil". The scheme was based on actuarial principles and it was funded by a fixed amount each from workers, employers, and taxpayers.
It was restricted to particular industries, particularly more volatile ones like shipbuilding, and did not make provision for any dependants. The Unemployment Insurance Act created the dole system of payments for unemployed workers. Unemployment benefits were introduced in Germany in , and in most European countries in the period after the Second World War with the expansion of the welfare state. Unemployment insurance in the United States originated in Wisconsin in In Argentina , successive administrations have used a variety of passive and active labour market interventions to protect workers against the consequences of economic shocks.
The government's key institutional response to combat the increase in poverty and unemployment created by the crisis [ clarification needed ] was the launch of an active unemployment assistance programme called Plan Jefas y Jefes de Hogar Desocupados Program for Unemployed Heads of Households. In Australia , social security benefits, including unemployment benefits, are funded through the taxation system. There is no compulsory national unemployment insurance fund. Rather, benefits are funded in the annual Federal Budget by the National Treasury and are administrated and distributed throughout the nation by the government agency, Centrelink.
Benefit rates are indexed to the Consumer Price Index and are adjusted twice a year according to inflation or deflation. There are two types of payment available to those experiencing unemployment.
- Religion without God.
- Unemployment benefits - Wikipedia;
- Perspectives on Thinking, Learning, and Cognitive Styles (Educational Psychology Series).
- Come usare le forze della tua mente. Pensa e crea la tua vita (Edizione illustrata) (Self-Help e Scienza della Mente) (Italian Edition).
- Psalms Commentary Volume 2 (The Bible Believers Commentary Series);
- "Unemployment Insurance: Programs and Benefits" by Julie M. Whittaker and Katelin P. Isaacs!
The first, called Youth Allowance, is paid to young people aged 16—20 or 15, if deemed to meet the criteria for being considered 'independent' by Centrelink. Youth Allowance is also paid to full-time students aged 16—24, and to full-time Australian Apprenticeship workers aged 16— People aged below 18 who have not completed their High School education, are usually required to be in full-time education, undertaking an apprenticeship or doing training to be eligible for Youth Allowance.
The second kind of payment is called Newstart Allowance and is paid to unemployed people over the age of 21 and under the pension eligibility age. This does not include supplemental payments such as Rent Assistance. The system in Australia is designed to support recipients no matter how long they have been unemployed. In recent years the former Coalition government under John Howard has increased the requirements of the Activity Agreement, providing for controversial schemes such as Work for the Dole , which requires that people on benefits for 6 months or longer work voluntarily for a community organisation regardless of whether such work increases their skills or job prospects.
Since the Labor government under Kevin Rudd was elected in , the length of unemployment before one is required to fulfill the requirements of the Activity Agreement which has been renamed the Employment Pathway Plan has increased from six to twelve months. There are other options available as alternatives to the Work for the Dole scheme, such as undertaking part-time work or study and training, the basic premise of the Employment Pathway Plan being to keep the welfare recipient active and involved in seeking full-time work.
The name was changed in , in order to alleviate perceived negative connotations. In , Canadian workers pay premiums of 1. Bennett as an attempted Canadian unemployment insurance programme. It was, however, ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court of Canada as unemployment was judged to be an insurance matter falling under provincial responsibility. After a constitutional amendment was agreed to by all of the provinces, a reference to "Unemployment Insurance" was added to the matters falling under federal authority under the Constitution Act, , and the first Canadian system was adopted in Because of these problems Canada was the last major Western country to bring in an employment insurance system.
It was extended dramatically by Pierre Trudeau in making it much easier to get.
Unemployment Insurance: Programs and Benefits
It was also in that the UI program was first opened up to maternity and sickness benefits, for 15 weeks in each case. At the same time, the federal government gradually reduced its financial contribution, eliminating it entirely by The EI system was again cut by the Progressive Conservatives in and , then by the Liberals in and Amendments made it harder to qualify by increasing the time needed to be worked, although seasonal claimants who work long hours over short periods turned out to gain from the replacement, in , of weeks by hours to qualify.
The ratio of beneficiaries to unemployed, after having stood at around 40 percent for many years, rose somewhat during the recession but then fell back again to the low 40s.
The length of time one could take EI has also been cut repeatedly. The and changes contributed to a sharp fall in Liberal support in the Atlantic provinces in the election. In , the federal government increased parental leave from 10 to 35 weeks, which was added to preexisting maternity benefits of 15 weeks.
In , it allowed workers to take EI for compassionate care leave while caring for a dying relative, although the strict conditions imposed make this a little used benefit. In , the Province of Quebec opted out of the federal EI scheme in respect of maternity, parental and adoption benefits, in order to provide more generous benefits for all workers in that province, including self-employed workers. Since , there is no government contribution to this fund.
The amount a person receives and how long they can stay on EI varies with their previous salary, how long they were working, and the unemployment rate in their area. A bit over half of EI benefits are paid in Ontario and the Western provinces but EI is especially important in the Atlantic provinces, which have higher rates of unemployment. Many Atlantic workers are also employed in seasonal work such as fishing, forestry or tourism and go on EI over the winter when there is no work. There are special rules for fishermen making it easier for them to collect EI.
EI also pays for maternity and parental leave , compassionate care leave , and illness coverage. The programme also pays for retraining programmes EI Part II through labour market agreements with the Canadian provinces. Premiums were reduced much less than falling expenditures - producing, from onwards, EI surpluses of several billion dollars per year, which were added to general government revenue.
The Conservative Party ,  chose not to recognize those EI surpluses after being elected in Instead, the Conservative government cancelled the EI surpluses entirely in , and required EI contributors to make up the , and annual deficits by increasing EI premiums. On 11 December , the Supreme Court of Canada rejected a court challenge launched against the federal government by two Quebec unions, who argued that EI funds had been misappropriated by the government. The level of benefit is set between the minimum wage and the minimum living allowance by individual provinces , autonomous regions and municipalities.
Each Member State of the European Union has its own system and in general a worker should claim unemployment benefits in the country where they last worked. For a person working in a country other than their country of residency a cross-border worker , they will have to claim benefits in their country of residence. Two systems run in parallel, combining a Ghent system and a minimum level of support provided by Kela , an agency of the national government.
Additionally, there are non-union unemployment funds. The former requires a degree and two years of full-time work.
The latter requires participation in training, education, or other employment support, which may be mandated on pain of losing the benefit, but may be paid after the regular benefits have been either maxed out or not available. In order to be considered unemployed, the seeker must register at the TE-keskus as unemployed. If the jobseeker does not have degree, the agency can require the jobseeker to apply to a school.
If the individual does not qualify for any unemployment benefit he may still be eligible for the housing benefit asumistuki from Kela and municipal social welfare provisions toimeentulotuki. They are not unemployment benefits and depend on household income, but they have in practice become the basic income of many long-term unemployed. France uses a quasi Ghent system , under which unemployment benefits are distributed by an independent agency UNEDIC in which unions and Employer organisations are equally represented. Employers pay a contribution on top of the pre-tax income of their employees, which together with the employee contribution, fund the scheme.
The maximum unemployment benefit is as of March In claimants received the allowance for an average days. Germany has two different types of unemployment benefits. The unemployment benefit I in Germany is also known as the unemployment insurance. The insurance is administered by the federal employment agency and funded by employee and employer contributions.
Participation and thus contributions are generally mandatory for both employee and employer. Since , certain previously excluded workers have been able to opt into the system on a voluntary basis. The system is financed by contributions from employees and employers. The contribution level was reduced from 3. Contributions are paid only on earnings up to the social security ceiling The system is largely self-financed but also receives a subsidy from the state to run the Jobcenters.
Unemployed benefit is paid to workers who have contributed at least during 12 months preceding their loss of a job. The allowance is paid for half of the period that the worker has contributed. The maximum benefit is therefore Euros in In the federal Work Agency had revenues and expenses of After a change in German law effective since , provided their job history qualifies them, benefit recipients aged 50 to 54 now receive an unemployment benefit for 15 months, those 55 to 57 for 18 months and those 58 or older receive benefits for 24 months.
For those under the age of 50 who have not been employed for more than 30 months in a job which paid into the social security scheme, full unemployment benefit can be received for a maximum period of 12 months. Note how the duration of eligibility is variegated in Germany to account for the difficulty older people have re-entering the job market. If a worker is not eligible for the full unemployment benefits or after receiving the full unemployment benefit for the maximum of 12 months, he is able to apply for benefits from the so-called Arbeitslosengeld II Hartz IV programme, an open-ended welfare programme which ensures people do not fall into penury.
A person receiving Hartz IV benefits is paid EUR a month for living expenses plus the cost of adequate housing including heating and health care. Couples can receive benefits for each partner including their children. Additionally, children can get "benefits for education and participation". Germany does not have an EBT electronic benefits transfer card system in place and, instead, disburses welfare in cash or via direct deposit onto the recipient's bank account. People who receive Hartz 4 are obligated to seek for jobs and can be forced to take part in social programs or Mini jobs in order to receive this Hartz 4 money.
Most of these programs and Mini jobs oblige the employee to work the same hours as a normal full-time job each day, 5 days a week. The self-employed do not qualify, and neither do those with other sources of income. Eligibility since 1 January , has been further constrained in that one applying for unemployment benefits for a second or more time, must not have received more than the equivalent of days of such benefits during the last four years since the last time one had started receiving such benefits; if one has received unemployment benefits in this period for more than days then there is no eligibility while if one has received less, then one is only eligible for at most the remaining days up until the maximum of days is reached.
When receiving benefits an individual cannot be earning money from a self-employed profession. If the income increases the fixed amount, a tax authority must issue a certificate that explains that the individual has "interrupted the exercise of the profession", which must be done within 15 days. In order to receive a grant the individual must not be receiving an income from the previous liberal profession. Under the European Commission , liberal professions are professions that require specialized training and that are regulated by "national governments or professional bodies".
After the expiration of the month period an application towards long-term unemployment benefits must be submitted in the first 2 months. Long-term unemployment can only be granted if the individual can be found registered under the OAED unemployment registrar. In the most recent financial quarter, Unlike purely social-democratic states in Europe , the Nordic model that Iceland adopted borrows aspects of both a social-democratic and liberal - welfare state.
Unemployment Insurance: Programs and Benefits - Digital Library
Suggested Citation Whitaker, J. A previous version of this report can be found here: Home About Help My Account. Abstract [Excerpt] The federal-state Unemployment Compensation UC program provides income support to eligible workers through the payment of UC benefits during a spell of unemployment.