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The monarchy was deposed after annexation, and an Iraqi governor installed. United States president George H. Bush ultimately condemned Iraq's actions, and moved to drive out Iraqi forces. Iraq's invasion and annexation was deemed illegal and Kuwait remains an independent nation today.
In March , Russia annexed most of the Crimean Peninsula , part of Ukraine , and administers the territory as two federal subjects — the Republic of Crimea and the federal city of Sevastopol.
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On most maps there had been an unclaimed area between Queen Maud Land's borders of and the South Pole until June 12, when Norway formally claimed to have annexed that area. Annexation of Portuguese India by India in Western New Guinea was formally annexed by Indonesia in Indonesia annexed East Timor in Morocco officially annexed Western Sahara in Crimea was annexed by Russia in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the incorporation of additional territory into a nation state. For the incorporation of additional territory into an urban area, see Municipal annexation.
Jerusalem, Capital of Israel , passed by the Knesset on 30 July Two examples of unilateral annexation laws. Annexation of Portuguese India. West New Guinea dispute. Political status of Western Sahara. Jordanian annexation of the West Bank. Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation. Instead of a State seeking to relinquish territory, annexation occurs when the acquiring State asserts that it now holds the territory.
Annexation will usual follow a military occupation of a territory, when the occupying power decides to cement its physical control by asserting legal title. The annexation of territory is essentially the administrative action associated with conquest. Mere conquest alone is not enough, but rather the conquering State must assert it is now sovereign over the territory concerned. For example, the defeat of Germany and Japan in led to their occupation by the Allies for a number of years, but the States themselves were not absorbed by the Allied Powers part of their respective territories.
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Examples of annexation in contemporary practice are not common, and are generally viewed as illegal. It is one of the principal modes of acquiring territory Under present international law, annexation no longer constitutes a legally admissible mode of acquisition of territory as it violates the prohibition of the threat or use of force. Therefore annexations must not be recognized as legal.
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Conquest and annexation are not synonymous either. The latter term is used within and outside the context of armed conflicts, to designate a unilateral decision adopted by a State in order to extent its sovereignty over a given territory. In many cases, the effective occupation of a terra nullius was followed by a declaration of annexation, in order to incorporate the territory under the sovereignty of the acquiring State. In the context of armed conflicts, annexation is the case in which the victorious State unilaterally declares that it is henceforth sovereign over the territory having passed under its control as a result of hostilities.
This attempt at producing a transfer of sovereignty through the exclusive decision of the victor is not generally recognized as valid, both in classical and in contemporary international law. An example of a case of annexation preceding the adoption of the UN Charter is the annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina by the Austro-Hungarian Empire in The annexation was not recognized by the major Powers and required a modification of the Treaty of Berlin which had simply granted Austria-Hungary the right to administer the territory. Another example is the annexation of Ethiopia by Italy in Examples of purported contemporary annexations are the Golan Heights annexed by Israel in and Kuwait by Iraq in , both declared null and void by the Security Council, or the incorporation of Crimea and the City of Sebastopol in the Russian Federation.
Retrieved 20 March Unlike cession, whereby territory is given or sold through treaty, annexation is a unilateral act made effective by actual possession and legitimized by general recognition. States are under a legal obligation to abide by the Stimson Doctrine and not to recognize as lawful territorial changes effected by means of annexation. Moreover, even the annexation of the entire territory of a State does not result in the automatic extinction of that State as a subject of international law notwithstanding that it no longer has the capacity to act as such since it cannot exercise sovereign and effective control over any territory.
Geneva, 12 August Status and treatment of protected persons Section III: Commentary on Part III: Retrieved 17 July Retrieved 15 August Berger, Ora Ahimeir A Historical Atlas of Jordan. The Rosen Publishing Group. Understanding the Holy Land: Answering Questions about the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict.