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I use the tools of ecology, ethology, and genetics to understand how social life affects the evolution and dynamics of ant populations, primarily in the southwestern and southern US. Ants are obligately social animals, organized into highly structured colonies containing one or more reproductive queens and a large number of female but reproductively sterile workers. The only component of the ant life cycle in which solitary life is possible is when young queens leave their parent nests to found their own new colonies, yet even at this stage queens of many species choose to join forces with other queens to form group nests rather than live solitarily.

By living together, ants interact with their environment as a group, which can dramatically change their ability to tolerate environmental extremes, their interactions with members of their own and other species, and their patterns of dispersal and reproductive behaviors. Our investigations focus on two main study systems. The first is the desert harvester ant Messor pergandei, in which the behavior of queens switches abruptly from solitary colony founding to group colony founding across its range in southern California.

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Our second project is social insect hybrid zones, where the interaction between social structure and interspecific hybridization has led to some surprising and unique forms of interspecific interactions. From that period, the various types of heraldic helmet are purely driven by convention, and no longer tied to improvements or fashions in armoury.


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The practice of indicating rank through the display of barred or open-face helmets appears around These barred helmets were restricted by the imperial chancellery in Vienna to the nobility and certain doctors of law or theology, while the jousting helm was freely adopted by anyone. The direction a helmet faces and the number of bars on the grille have been ascribed special significance in later manuals, but this is not a period [ clarification needed ] practice. Historically, [ clarification needed ] the helmet was not specifically granted in an achievement of arms, but was naturally assumed by appropriate rank as a matter of "inherent right", so a helmet with torse and mantling would not be misplaced even above a shield which had no crest to place above it.

Open or barred helmet, reserved for members of the nobility.

Closed or tilting helm, used by medieval knights , also adopted by English esquires and gentlemen , as well as on burgher arms. The usage of heraldic helmets in Britain is as follows: The norms of Russian heraldry regarding helmets diverge greatly from the Western European tradition. Alongside the traditional Western open helmet silver with gold details for titled nobility, steel with gold details for everyone else , as well as the closed helmet sometimes granted by the state, "ethnic" helmets were also in use, not found anywhere else. From the 19th century onwards, ancient Russian families began to use the yerikhonka , the "cap of Jericho", a medieval conical Slavic helmet similar to the Middle Eastern shishak.

These followed their own colour system, not corresponding with the use of tinctures for Western helmets: The House of Romanov itself used a unique yerikhonka called the "helmet of Alexander Nevsky" , based on the royal helmet of Michael I once mistakenly believed to have belonged to Alexander Nevsky , hence the name. Asian noble families non-Slavic origin who were integrated in the Empire were also allowed an ethnic helmet, usually a misyurka , similar to the yerikhonka in shape but rounder and with an obtuse tip.

Helmet (heraldry)

In the modern Russian Federation , the Russian Heraldic Council allows both Western and ethnic helmets called sheloms in modern Russian heraldic language , but only in their simplest forms, and stripped of any details that may be perceived as symbols of nobility. For Western helmets, this means using commoner kettle hats as opposed to them more aristocratic open and close helmets, while sheloms are to be used without nasal bars, cheekpieces or neck guards, which were sometimes found on older "ethnic" helmets.

On the other hand, a commoner helmet may be complemented with a mail coif below. All colours except for steel are forbidden, with the exception of the lining, for which other tinctures may be used purpure is recommended. However , none of these restrictions apply to direct descendants of old Russian aristocracy, who can use the same helmets as their ancestors alongside the rest of their family arms.

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Both in Imperial and republican Russian heraldry, the direction of the helmet plays no role: In the Roman Catholic Church , clerics entitled to a coat of arms use a galero instead of a helmet, which is considered too belligerent for men in holy orders. Galero gules with fifteen tassels per side, used by cardinals in place of a helmet and patriarchal cross. Galero vert with ten tassels per side, used by archbishops in place of a helmet and patriarchal cross.

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Galero vert with six tassels per side, used by bishops in place of a helmet and single-barred cross. Galero sable with one tassel per side and blank shield , used by armigerous priests in place of a helmet. In the same way, clerics of the Anglican Communion entitled to a coat of arms use a similar black hat in place of a helmet.

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Hat sable with cords purpure and three tassels per side, used by Anglican archdeacons in place of a helmet. Hat sable with cords purpure and three tassels gules per side, used by Anglican deans in place of a helmet. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.