At one point, Walker ordered two deserters shot and two others flogged and driven from camp. Finally, unable to proceed, he gave it up and turned back. Arriving back in San Vicente, Walker learned a lesson in real power: He found that local outlaws had slaughtered the 20 men he had left behind, and those same outlaws now made it their business to plague Walker.
Faced with the prospect of total destruction, the self-styled president of Sonora led his remaining 33 men to the American border, where on his 30th birthday—May 8, —Walker surrendered to Major J. McKinstry, commander of the American military post at San Diego. Walker remained in California and again took up the practice of law—albeit briefly. He next set his sights on Nicaragua.
New York railroad and shipping magnate Cornelius Vanderbilt saw in Nicaragua the possibility of a waterway connecting the Caribbean with the Pacific and obtained the rights to dig a canal. When this proved unfeasible, he established the Accessory Transit Company to convey passengers across the isthmus by steamboat and coach to the Pacific port of San Juan del Sur. The company opened in mid and proved profitable, carrying tens of thousands of passengers annually. Many Americans thus perceived Nicaragua as a land of boundless opportunity.
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Having heard of Walker, the underdog Democrats hired him to help defeat the Legitimists. Walker attracted a small band of volunteers—referred to by admirers as the Immortals—and on May 4, , he sailed for Nicaragua with 57 men. Walker met with heavy resistance, prompting his Nicaraguan troops to flee. But the phalanx held fast. Fighting was fierce, often hand to hand, and it ranged through the narrow city streets, where Legitimist troops poured volley after volley of small-arms fire into the outnumbered American force.
All told, the Americans suffered 11 dead and five wounded, leaving Walker with only 35 men in the field. Though he had acquitted himself bravely in his first combat action, Walker—who had had no previous military training or experience—proved disastrous as a commander.
He had formed no real strategy, did no reconnaissance and apparently had no idea of the size or location of the opposition. And he abandoned his wounded men to a vengeful enemy. Walker nonetheless managed once again to emerge unscathed and with his reputation intact. He took the Legitimists by surprise, and after negotiating a truce with the enemy commander, General Ponciano Corral, he assumed the rank of major general and commander in chief of the Army of the Republic and appointed a puppet president, Don Patricio Rivas.
But it was only the calm before the storm. Walker attempted a pre-emptive strike against Costa Rica, but his forces were defeated at Santa Rosa. The Costa Rican army then invaded Nicaragua and occupied Rivas. But his luck held: Cholera swept the Costa Rican army, and rather than pursue and destroy Walker and his men, the invaders returned home—where the disease spread with devastating results. Meanwhile, inspired by the stories of derring-do that had filtered back to the States, hundreds of American volunteers boarded steamers and sailing ships and made their way to Nicaragua to serve under the now-legendary General Walker.
Despite his protestations of populist sympathy, Walker had no feeling for the people whose lands he claimed as his own. Events were about to take an ominous turn for the filibuster. Walker then assumed the presidency of Nicaragua, declared English the national language and again legalized slavery. But Walker had made a critical mistake.
Roche, James Jeffrey, By-ways of War: the Story of the Fil… | Flickr
In so doing he made an enemy of the richest and most powerful man in America. With few options left, Walker again entered Rivas, where the combined opposition forces—which now included American mercenaries in the pay of Cornelius Vanderbilt—kept him bottled up from December to May Finally, the captain of the U. There was no splitting the difference. On March 2, a Friday, the Senate took up the bill.
The 64th Congress had three days left before it expired. In a long article that was later printed in the Congressional Record , La Follette offered the speech he would have given if he had had a chance. The arming of ships was sure to entangle America in the war, he wrote, but in a one-foot-in, one-foot-out sort of way. The British were just as bad as the Germans, and if they needed American supplies so desperately, let them use their own ships. The principal shipping company backing the bill, the American Line, was owned by British interests.
It would essentially be British officials ordering American sailors to fire on German subs. Germany, he argued, had not invaded the United States. There was no danger that it would invade the United States. America had no quarrel with Germany. Giving the president authority to arm ships as he saw fit would give him the authority to make war as he saw fit, destroying the legitimate war-making power of Congress.
It would undermine the republic.
And what, he asked in a dozen different ways, would it actually accomplish? Congress, he said, was being stampeded into passing this bill in the hectic last days of its term, given no time to consider or consult on the issue. He was not the insatiable monster of cruelty that his enemies have painted. He was a man of deep, if narrow, learning, fertile resources, and grand audacity.
He was calm and temperate in words and actions, and mercilessly just in exacting obedience from the turbulent spirits who linked their fortunes with his.
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He lacked worldly wisdom; nothing could induce him to forego the least of his rights to gain a greater ultimate advantage. He would maintain the dignity of his office, though it cost him the office itself. The action was, doubtless, the result of an honest belief in that " divine institution," as well as of a desire to show his sympathy with his devoted friends in the United States; but the effect was only to put another weapon into the hands of his foreign enemies, without materially strengthening him at home. It was a defiance to his powerful British oppo James Jeffrey Roche Dimensions: