Intellectual property rights have always been a confusing aspect of the inventing process for the majority of individual inventors. It can be virtually impossible to navigate without professional help. By nature and for good reason, the healthcare industry is incredibly risk averse. As one doctor said: Healthcare workers have high-stress jobs and often work long hours. In the healthcare sector, it is difficult for a product developer or individual inventor to generate data on how the product affects not only direct treatment but also the downstream healthcare supply chain, which means that determining the true value of a new innovation idea is difficult.
Within healthcare, those traditionally tasked with product development ie engineers and technical experts are generally not the same people who are actually living with or treating a particular healthcare challenge. As this list demonstrates, there are numerous and significant barriers to healthcare innovation, but there are also common themes throughout: Consumer product inventors face many daunting challenges, but the institutional, industrial and knowledge barriers that confront innovators in the healthcare field are unique.
To truly optimise healthcare innovation, individual inventors and companies must find a way to overcome these barriers. A successful collaboration among all parties — manufacturers, providers, the NHS and patients — is critical. Are you a member of our online community? Success with Limited Resources. By Rufino L Macagba this can be the single e-book on hand this day in English on winning administration of a sanatorium with constrained assets in nations outdoor the industrialized international. The e-book offers a whole set of ideas and techniques field-tested effectively in additional than forty years.
PDF In particular designed to aid applicants revise for the MRCS examination, this ebook beneficial properties unmarried top resolution a number of selection questions, masking the entire syllabus. These drivers can be summarised as shown in table 1. Examples of external and internal drivers for Lean innovation in healthcare projects.
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The governance of the public hospitals aligned with UAE government. The hospital has been driven in line with governance plans that regulate its operating framework. Expectations were raised and targets were set. This cultivated the process further by focusing on quality and efficiency. Access and waiting time are top priority; Lean innovation is well established as a powerful tool to address these challenges. The pressure to enhance hospital reputation through improvement in patient services, and hence increase in satisfaction, customer loyalty and employee engagement is a major driver for Lean implementation.
This has driven the hospital to rethink its methods of providing effective and efficient healthcare services through Lean innovation approaches. Corporate social responsibility CSR can be seen as an innovation in itself. With the aim of behaving ethically and contributing to economic sustainable development while improving the quality of life of the people and society, Lean innovation projects were the best choice in the hospital.
These goals fit well with Lean innovation through engaging employees in identifying and eliminating non value-added NVA activities, particularly when environmental wastes are included. By adding environmental wastes to Lean's deadly wastes, hospitals can control the powerful drivers behind Lean innovation projects to make services more competitive while decreasing environmental wastes and impacts.
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Hospital management was driven by the vision of structural strategic changes in an effort to remain sustainable in order to gain higher competitive advantage, by focusing on generating long-term innovation capability in the hospital instead of focusing on short-term operational benefits. Lean innovation projects that focus on continuous improvement processes were the strategic decision to maintain the competitive edge in the highly competitive UAE market. Joint Commission International JCI standards expect performance improvement with innovative processes.
Government hospitals in the UAE are expected to receive JCI accreditation; the intent is to obtain a thorough assessment of service providers and to have an international benchmark. This markedly raises the bar with expectations of adherence to JCI standards. Patients are the core of all activities.
Value is defined by the patients. Activities that do not add value to the patient are considered as waste. Patient safety and optimal clinical care drive innovative Lean projects tremendously. They give the employees a sense of focus and purpose. Employee satisfaction and empowerment are the foundation and enabler to quality of care and patient safety.
Lean is all about involving all staff and empowering them. Hospital management was driven by these principles in order to create a new innovative culture at the project level built on a new leadership and empowerment where all employees are involved in innovative improvement efforts. It is often expected that patient value is attained by improving strategic employees function and decreasing their dissatisfaction. Transforming an organisation into an innovative culture with supporting processes and infrastructure to benefit both patients and employees and creating a great healthcare culture was one of the main drivers for change towards a Lean innovation adoption in the hospital.
An essential element of an effective, lean-driven culture is lean leadership. Lean leadership is the commitment of an organisation's leaders to empower its employees to continuously identify and implement changes that will improve customer value. Taking this approach, the application of lean principles contributes to the creation of an organisational culture in which continuous improvement is the rule and not the exception.
Long-term changes of organisational culture are based on changing the mindset of the people that sustainable change and improvement drive and encourage Lean innovation projects in the hospital.
Hospital management was driven by the applicable process improvement, leadership and project management skills to drive the changes for longer term sustainability. Lean with its principles and techniques provides creative tools for project management.
Hospital Lean projects are structured to deliver services while maximising value and minimising waste that will ensure the effective management of hospital projects to offer a sustainable improvement mainly in patient quality of care and safety. Strict key performance indicators KPIs were set by governance and in line with the hospital competitive targets.
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This led to a multidisciplinary team meeting, brainstorming and implementation of creative strategy. Hospital management was driven by a vision of development of the overall system's performance. To fulfil this vision, hospital management stresses the requirement of a cultural change built on new human and sociotechnical aspects of the high-performance work system which lies in the Lean innovation approach. Similar metrics were used to follow progress of performance in Lean projects in all departments of the hospital.
All in all, attention must be paid to the different forces within and outside the hospital using sense-making information since these might create opportunities for innovation. As the UAE population grows and changes and develops different healthcare needs, the demand rises for more patient-focused healthcare plans. The hospital plan aimed at improving healthcare quality and patient safety through Lean innovation projects.
Lean management improves the current business performance, as well as prepares the hospital to meet the challenges of the next customer's demands and of steadily developing opportunities for innovative healthcare services. A Lean innovation tool engaging employees is seen as a critical aspect of the hospital plan. Thus, it offers an opportunity for tapping into the creative ideas of hospital staff, mainly through the value stream mapping tool that gives members a chance to visualise the opportunities allowed to improve the current process by converting waste into value from the customer's viewpoint.
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As well, kaizen methodology that effectively can help everyone, managers and employees to develop innovative products and processes and improve existing ones. Moreover, since the Lean leadership style motivates people to take responsibility, it also becomes a process for turning organisations into dynamic and innovative teams.
By its efforts to transform everyone to become a master problem-solver, Lean creates a vast organisational capability to generate innovative ideas and solutions all the time. A systematic review was carried out to find publications on CSFs frameworks for diffusion of Lean innovation in healthcare. Databases of journals useful for reviewing or critiquing frameworks were used and an effort was made to develop a conceptual model illustrating the successful diffusion of Lean innovation in healthcare projects.
No frameworks specifically for diffusion of Lean innovation in healthcare projects were found. However, two less specific conceptual models were found and these will be examined below using the CSFs approach. For that matter, recognising CSFs for diffusion of Lean innovation is useful. For example, support of top management is generally involved on a list of CSFs. There are several studies on CSFs correlated to the success of Lean innovation implementation.
Some studies are discussed below. A recent study predicted four key factors that are fundamental and critical for the successful Lean innovation diffusion. Of these factors, the authors have recognised leadership and management commitment of the most important championing roles in regulating the success of Lean innovation at a project level.
In another study, the researchers scrutinised the following CSFs in small and medium-sized enterprises SMEs in the UK in order to define the implementation status in the context of project management in that country. In addition, Lean innovation links business strategy to customer satisfaction and human resources. Comprehensive research by Organizational Behavior in Healthcare OBHC to study organisational factors influencing diffusion of Lean innovation in a Lean public health projects 21 has found that the key organisational factors are: Two less specific conceptual models were found in the literature to be analysed against CSFs related to diffusion of Lean innovation.
They are briefly described below. The development of the model was based on the literature and on Furterer's experience as a consultant. The justification and validation were unclear and detailed guidance linked to implementation of Lean in the public sector was not provided. Moreover, Furterer's research symbolised the application of several Lean tools to explain the problems present in the Government's work. He suggested that the framework has to be installed and validated.
Meanwhile, a new conceptual model was developed specifically for SMEs context. In both conceptual models, it can be seen that the models are particularly weak in their explanations and justifications with respect to the successful Lean innovation implementation. This is what motivated the researchers to develop a specific conceptual model with detailed CSFs for diffusion of Lean innovation aimed at the needs of healthcare projects. Several organisational factors influence the degree of successful diffusion of Lean innovation that focuses on continuous improvement processes for sustainable development.
Some of these factors have been identified by the researchers as CSFs, in line with the aim of this paper and based on some of the elements of the two models mentioned above, and in specialist journals in the area of Lean innovation in general and in healthcare specifically. The conceptual model elements that are found to be critical to the successful diffusion are: The model success factors for Lean innovation diffusion will be examined in terms of leadership commitment and management support, openness of the culture and the degree of transparency and communication skills, a broad range of employee involvement and their direct impact towards a successful diffusion, and a correct application of Lean tools and techniques in healthcare projects.
In addition, the financial capability will be examined in terms of training and education support and rewarding, and the measurements in terms of measuring for the progress of Lean innovation implementation which will explain the diffusion and success of Lean innovation. These CSFs are summarised in a continuous cycle of the proposed conceptual model as shown in figure 3. A proposed conceptual model.
Critical success factors for diffusion of Lean innovation in healthcare projects. Leadership and management qualities with excellent project management styles would enable the integration of all the basic physical and organisational structures needed for the operations within an organisation. Poor leadership and a lack of continuous support and commitment from top management are considered challenges faced through Lean innovation diffusion.
Therefore, at a project level, line managers and senior managers must always retain the authority and responsibility for Lean projects implementation. A Lean project manager will play a champion role to make Lean process innovations stick. With his management support and efficient and frequent communications, he will have the ability to inspire people and organisational excellence, as well as to build and attain a similar vision towards a strategy of a successful performance of Lean innovation. To adopt a Lean innovation project effectively within a positive environment with willingness to change for the better, which will ensure the freedom to diffuse innovative ideas, a clear link should be established between organisational goals, key objectives and Lean project activities, in addition to transparency so that everyone can see everything.
Other than leadership style and management support and commitment, employee involvement as well has been recognised as a champion for the success of Lean innovation and long-term sustainability of the continuous improvement process. In general, for the purpose of success in any project, financial capability is considered an important factor. The researchers have identified this element as one of the CSFs for diffusion of Lean innovation as a measure for the progress of Lean innovation implementation in healthcare projects, which will explain the diffusion and success of Lean innovation by using time as the best overall measure; and a regular review and measurement of progress against predetermined targets.
Both projects were planned and implemented in a tertiary healthcare centre and a government hospital in Abu Dhabi city, UAE. The data were collected using an interpretive case study methodology. Primary data came from interviews conducted in the hospital and the information collected from the interviewees was reviewed and verified by a Lean project leader at the hospital, while secondary data came from peer-reviewed publications-related work.
The researchers will investigate the implementations and diffusion of Lean principles in the case study based on the proposed conceptual model. The adoption of Lean principles by management is examined as to its role in setting the foundation to leverage innovation in healthcare projects, as a means to reach long-term sustainability and gain higher competitive advantage. Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in the UAE. Prompt reperfusion access is essential for patients who have myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation as they are at a relatively high risk of death.
A multidisciplinary meeting involving concerned stakeholders was called in order to determine the project's viability as a Six Sigma project, prior to the creation of the project charter which authorised, formalised and assigned responsibilities within the project. A viability matrix was formed and the total score based on the agreed matrix is 4.
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Having a score greater than 3 meant that the process would lend itself well to Lean Six Sigma. The choice of Lean Six Sigma methodology was based on the remarkable wastes noted; limited resources and the significant variation of the process. Specific steps in STEMI care were determined, time goals were established, and processes were changed to reduce each step's duration.