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Email to be contacted by an LN representative. However, some [ who? But the price of the textbook still isn't typically taken into account when this occurs and isn't part of the perception of the product. This fundamental difference in the market is often cited as the primary reason that prices are high. The term "broken market" first appeared in the economist James Koch's analysis of the market commissioned by the Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance.
This situation is exacerbated by the lack of competition in the textbook market. Consolidation in the past few decades [ when? Students seek relief from rising prices through the purchase of used copies of textbooks, which tend to be less expensive. Most college bookstores offer used copies of textbooks at lower prices. Most bookstores will also buy used copies back from students at the end of a term if the book is going to be re-used at the school. Textbook companies have countered this by encouraging faculty to assign homework that must be done on the publisher's website.
If a student has a new textbook, then he or she can use the pass code in the book to register on the site. If the student has purchased a used textbook, then he or she must pay money directly to the publisher in order to access the website and complete assigned homework. Students who look beyond the campus bookstore can typically find lower prices.
With the ISBN or title, author and edition, most textbooks can be located through online used book sellers or retailers. Harvard economics chair James K. Stock has stated that new editions are often not about significant improvements to the content.
Textbook publishers maintain these new editions are driven by faculty demand. The Student PIRGs also point out that recent emphasis on electronic textbooks, or "eTextbooks," does not always save students money. Even though the book costs less up-front, the student will not recover any of the cost through resale.
Another publishing industry practice that has been highly criticized is "bundling," or shrink-wrapping supplemental items into a textbook. Students do not always have the option to purchase these items separately, and often the one-time-use supplements destroy the resale value of the textbook.
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A Government Accountability Office GAO Report found that the production of these supplemental items was the primary cause of rapidly increasing prices:. While publishers, retailers, and wholesalers all play a role in textbook pricing, the primary factor contributing to increases in the price of textbooks has been the increased investment publishers have made in new products to enhance instruction and learning If publishers continue to increase these investments, particularly in technology, the cost to produce a textbook is likely to continue to increase in the future.
Bundling has also been used as a means of segmenting the used book market. Each combination of a textbook and supplemental items receives a separate ISBN. A single textbook could therefore have dozens of ISBNs that denote different combinations of supplements packaged with that particular book. When a bookstore attempts to track down used copies of textbooks, they will search for the ISBN the course instructor orders, which will locate only a subset of the copies of the textbook. Legislation on the state and federal level seeks to limit the practice of bundling, by requiring publishers to offer all components separately.
Given that the problem of high textbook prices is linked to the "broken" economics of the market, requiring publishers to disclose textbook prices to faculty is a solution pursued by a number of legislatures. No data suggests that this is in fact true.
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However, The Student PIRGs have found that publishers actively withhold pricing information from faculty, making it difficult to obtain. As for buyback on a specific campus, faculty decisions largely determine how much a student receives. If a professor chooses to use the same book the following semester, even if it is a custom text, designed specifically for an individual instructor, bookstores often buy the book back. The GAO report found that, generally, if a book is in good condition and will be used on the campus again the next term, bookstores will pay students 50 percent of the original price paid.
If the bookstore has not received a faculty order for the book at the end of the term and the edition is still current, they may offer students the wholesale price of the book, which could range from 5 to 35 percent of the new retail price, according to the GAO report. If a textbook is not going to be used on campus for the next semester of courses then many times the college bookstore will sell that book to a national used book company.
The used book company then resells the book to another college bookstore. At each step, a markup is applied to the book to enable the respective companies to continue to operate. Students can also sell or trade textbooks among themselves. After completing a course, sellers will often seek out members of the next enrolling class, people who are likely to be interested in purchasing the required books. This may be done by posting flyers to advertise the sale of the books or simply soliciting individuals who are shopping in the college bookstore for the same titles.
Many larger schools have independent websites set up for the purpose of facilitating such trade. These often operate much like digital classified ads, enabling students to list their items for sale and browse for those they wish to acquire. Also, at the US Air Force Academy , it is possible to e-mail entire specific classes, allowing for an extensive network of textbook sales to exist.
Online marketplaces are one of the two major types of online websites students can use to sell used textbooks. Online marketplaces may have an online auction format or may allow the student to list their books for a fixed price. In either case, the student must create the listing for each book themselves and wait for a buyer to order, making the use of marketplaces a more passive way of selling used textbooks.
Unlike campus buyback and online book, students are unlikely to sell all their books to one buyer using online marketplaces, and will likely have to send out multiple books individually. Online book buyers buy textbooks, and sometimes other types of books, with the aim of reselling them for a profit.
Like online marketplaces, online book buyers operate year-round, giving students the opportunity to sell their books even when campus "buyback" periods are not in effect. Students enter the ISBN numbers of the books they wish to sell and receive a price quote or offer. These online book buyers often offer "free shipping" which in actuality is built into the offer for the book , and allow students to sell multiple books to the same source. Because online book buyers are buying books for resale, the prices they offer may be lower than students can get on online marketplaces.
However, their prices are competitive, and they tend to focus on the convenience of their service. Some even claim that buying used textbooks online and selling them to online book buyers has a lower total cost than even textbook rental services.
In response to escalating textbook prices, limited competition, and to provide a more efficient system to connect buyers and sellers together, online textbook exchanges were developed. Most of today's sites handle buyer and seller payments, and usually deduct a small commission only after the sale is completed.
According to textbook author Henry L. Roediger and Wadsworth Publishing Company senior editor Vicki Knight , the used textbook market is illegitimate, and entirely to blame for the rising costs of textbooks. As methods of "dealing with this problem", he recommends making previous editions of textbooks obsolete, binding the textbook with other materials, and passing laws to prevent the sale of used books.
Obviously, this idea is completely opposed to the millennia-old tradition of the sale of used books , and would make that entire industry illegal. Another alternative to save money and obtaining the materials you are required are e-textbooks. The article "E books rewrite the rules of education" states that, alternately to spending a lot of money on textbooks, you can purchase an e-textbook at a small amount of the cost.
With the growth of digital applications for iPhone, and gadgets like the Amazon kindle, e-textbooks are not an innovation, but have been "gaining momentum".
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In-store rentals are processed by either using a kiosk and ordering books online with a third party facilitator or renting directly from the store's inventory. Some stores use a hybrid of both methods, opting for in-store selections of the most popular books and the online option for more obscure titles or books they consider too risky to put in the rental system.
Another method to help students save money that is coming up is called Textbooks Sharing. Using textbook sharing the students share the physical textbook with other students, and also the cost of the book is divided among the users of the textbook. The latest trend in textbooks is "open textbooks. Although the largest question seems to be who is going to pay to write them, several state policies suggest that public investment in open textbooks might make sense.
The other challenge involves the reality of publishing, which is that textbooks with good sales and profitability subsidize the creation and publication of low demand but believed to be necessary textbooks. On the other hand, independent open textbook authoring and publishing models are developing. Most notably, the startup publisher Flat World Knowledge already has dozens of college-level open textbooks that are used by more than institutions in 44 countries.
Mobi Kindle , PDF download, etc. Flat World Knowledge compensates its authors with royalties on these sales. However, in January, Flat World Knowledge announced their financial model could no longer sustain their free-to-read options for students. CK FlexBooks are free to use online and offer formats suitable for use on portable personal reading devices and computers - both online and offline. Formats for both iPad and Kindle are offered.
This has been very effective in Kenya, where Advance Aid have supplied 5, locally sourced emergency kits to World Vision and another 14, jerry cans to Catholic Relief Services , who distributed them in Dadaab, the refugee camp near the Somalian border. Founder David Dickie says: I'm trying to turn the market on its head by creating jobs in Africa.
Building this capacity in Africa will make a real difference to agencies, to the beneficiaries of the aid and to local businesses… [It] is a very efficient way of bringing together the development and humanitarian agendas. To carry out scientific research on sickle cell disease SCD and show that large-scale, cutting-edge genomic studies are possible in Africa. Every year, , children worldwide are born with SCD, a genetic blood disorder that can result in severe anaemia.
Seventy percent of these children, or ,, are born in Africa. However, many of these deaths could be prevented by early diagnosis and treatment. The Muhimbili Wellcome Programme originally aimed to follow children but is now following 2,, making it one of the largest, biomedical SCD resources in the world. Dr Makani says that the work "provides validation that it is possible to conduct genomic research in Africa". Professor Lorna Casselton from the Royal Society says: Dr Makani stands as a role model for other young African scientists wishing to make a difference.
To offer emergency credit through mobile phones to people who don't have access to credit cards or bank loans. Credit cards are still rarely available to Kenyans and bank loans are only authorised for large amounts of cash or as investments for buying homes or starting businesses.
M-Pepea was launched to try to bridge this gap. M-Pepea, set up in late , provides its customers with emergency funds within a few hours. The money is accessed through their mobile phones, with M-Pepea sending a special pin code to be used in cash machines. M-Pepea has currently partnered with 20 businesses and has around subscribers, and is hoping to have increased this to 20, by the end of Its partnership with Safaricom is encouraging but the company has run into problems with businesses defaulting.
The brightly coloured "Tutu Tester" van is a mobile clinic that incorporates screening for tuberculosis TB and HIV into a general health check-up in order to overcome the stigma associated with these diseases. This results in missed opportunities for prevention and increased morbidity and mortality — hence the need for new control strategies to keep the epidemic in check. The Tutu Tester is a mobile clinic that takes sophisticated testing equipment and trained staff including a nurse, a counsellor and an educator into areas without adequate health facilities.
By framing TB and HIV screening within a battery of other healthy living tests, including pregnancy, diabetes and hypertension, people are encouraged to get tested for the diseases. This suggests that ART programs, if sufficiently implemented, may greatly assist in reducing TB mortality. But as Liz Thebus, a healthcare worker at the Tutu Tester says: Breeding sweet potatoes to contain betacarotene, to help in the fight against childhood blindness. Currently aid agencies combat this problem by giving children vitamin A supplements, but addressing this issue with a locally grown food would be more sustainable.
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A new strain of sweet potato was conventionally bred which contains between four and six times as much betacarotene as a regular sweet potato — betacarotene is converted by the body into vitamin A. Similar results were obtained from a sister project in Mozambique; now the scheme is being scaled up to reach , households by A range of easy-to-use audio books designed to get potentially life-saving health messages out to millions of isolated people struggling with depression and mental health problems.
Mental health carries a huge social stigma across Africa and information booklets designed to help people with depression or mental health problems simply weren't working, especially in remote communities with high illiteracy rates. People weren't getting the help they needed — a study showed that only a quarter of the Speaking Books created a range of free books with simple audio buttons talking the user through each page. The first Speaking Book, voiced by South African actress and celebrity Lillian Dube, was called Suicide Shouldn't Be a Secret and focused on how depression is a real and treatable illness, encouraging people to get help when they need it.
Speaking Books have now produced 48 titles in 24 different languages and are now used in 20 African countries across the continent. The books now tackle a number of critical healthcare issues outside of suicide prevention such as HIV and Aids, malaria, maternal health and clinical trials. We believe that this interactive, durable, high-quality, hardcover book engages the user or patient, and allows them to build self-confidence and skills with a simple action plan". Abducted and forced into conscription by the Lord's Resistance Army LRA , over 25, Ugandan children were pushed into violent atrocities during a civil war that lasted 22 years, often killing their own families.
The majority were left with severe post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD — with symptoms including depression, flashbacks and suicidal thoughts. Moreover, hostility from their former communities has left countless child soldiers alienated, making PTSD a longer, lonelier battle. NET was introduced to Ugandan child soldiers as a means of making conscious their deeply repressed traumas.