Kedson Lima e Dra. A Dieta P apresentou maiores teores nutricionais. Captive breeding techniques are complementary tools for species conservation. The objectives were to develop a feeding protocol and an ambient environment for the rearing of scarlet ibis chicks, to intensify reproduction in captivity and increase the number of ibises in the colony, describe the developmental stages of chicks and develop growth estimation equations.
The chicks were fed with three diets: Diet C commercial feed , S commercial ration and shrimp and F commercial ration and fish. The body condition and weight were taken daily, and the body measurements every seven days. Diet F had higher nutritional contents. Rearing was artificial during year I and natural during year II at one of the areas of the park. The limbs development and body condition were evaluated daily, and the weight every seven days during artificial rearing. The mortality rate was lower and the number of births and survival rate were higher during artificial rearing.
The development stages of chicks and the weight were monitored daily, and the measurements of the beak and bones were taken every seven days. The eyes opened on day 4. The correlation between all parameters and the determination coefficients of regression equations were high. Diet F was found to be best for the artificial rearing. The artificial rearing protocol provided an adequate environment and feeding, intensified the reproduction and increased the number of scarlet ibises.
Growth estimation equations were developed to assess the chicks growth and was possible to describe the developmental stages. Beak pigmentation was found to be a useful parameter for estimating the age. Os machos tornam-se agressivos com outros machos que entrarem no seu local de Seligmann a, Kedson R. Lima c, Sheyla F. ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate three different diets fed to scarlet ibis chicks and the effects of these diets on chick performance. Five chicks were fed Diet C commercial feed ; 10 received Diet S commercial feed and shrimp and 10 chicks received Diet F commercial feed and fish.
The chicks were weighed, and the lengths of each chick s right radius, tibia, tarsus and the unpigmented portion of the right side of the beak were measured. Diet F had higher crude protein, ether extract and crude energy contents. Beak pigmentation was not influenced by diet. Diet F was therefore found to be best for the artificial rearing of scarlet ibis chicks. Therefore, captive breeding techniques are complementary tools used for the conservation of species Fontenelle, Scarlet ibis are seen in various zoos in Brazil and around the world.
However, during the few times that these animals reproduce in artificial environments, the chicks depend exclusively on parental care, as a specific diet for scarlet ibis adults and young has not yet been developed. This represents a limitation to scarlet ibis breeding under human care. At present, commercial feeds are available that are specific for certain birds, such as flamingos, which have feeding habits similar to those of the scarlet ibis Tobar et al. In the wild, scarlet ibis feed mainly on fish, shrimp, small crabs and insects Sick, After evaluating the stomach contents of chicks found dead, as well as stomach contents regurgitated by chicks during the reproductive season, Olmos et al.
An evaluation of the body condition and development of scarlet ibis chicks fed different types of food will aid in the selection of a diet that promotes the best performance in individuals during early growth, contributing to the success of artificial breeding. In this sense, diets composed of commercial feed developed for flamingos, shrimp or fish may be used for the captive breeding of scarlet ibis chicks under human care.
The objective of this study was to evaluate three different diets fed to scarlet ibis chicks and their effects on chick performance through body condition, weight and biometry of the radius, tibia, tarsus and the unpigmented portion of the beak. There are scarlet ibis adults inhabiting the park, distributed among three areas: Aningas Aviary 11 males and 8 females , Cavername Lake 34 males and 17 females and the Extra Sector of the park 41 unsexed individuals.
In all areas water is available ad libitum and extruded commercial feed 1 is provided from 7: All animals receive technical assistance daily from a veterinarian and a biologist. Eggs were manually collected and transported to the nursery in a plastic egg container. Each collected egg was sanitized with gauze and moistened with saline solution.
After evaluation, broken, cracked or punctured eggs were discarded. The date and site of collection were recorded with a graphite pencil on each egg. The temperature and humidity in the incubator were Chick selection and management Twenty-five clinically healthy scarlet ibis chicks were selected. All animals were kept under the same artificial environmental conditions. Chicks were identified by bands made from adhesive bandage tape numbered from one to twenty-five.
After hatching, chicks were kept in artificial nests made of straw baskets and hay. The chicks remained in the bird treatment unit until their second day of life. During the third day, the nest with the chick inside was transferred to a fiberglass brooder 1. After the chicks had left the nest, they were kept in brooders with hay and a heat source. From the third day of life until the chicks left the nursery, they were exposed to direct sunlight for one hour before 9: The animals were kept in groups of up to 10 chicks 1.
Feeding management The twenty-five chicks selected were divided into groups to receive three different diets with a paste-like consistency puree: Diet C Five animals were fed a mixture of 50 g of crushed commercial feed for flamingos Feed FL32 1 and ml of water. Diet S Ten animals were fed a mixture of 15 g of crushed commercial fed for flamingos Feed FL32 1 mixed with ml of shrimp broth. The shrimp broth was prepared by blending g of whole Amazon River prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum with ml of water, and then the mixture was filtered through a sieve.
Diet F Ten animals were fed a mixture of 15 g of crushed commercial feed for flamingos Feed FL32 1 mixed with ml of fish broth.
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The fish broth was prepared by blending g of mullet Mugil spp. The selection of fish and shrimp as diet ingredients was based on Sick and Olmos et al. The feed was chosen because it was originally developed for flamingos, which have feeding habits similar to those of the scarlet ibis Tobar et al. In addition, scarlet ibis adults from the park have adapted to this diet and responded positively to it, as evaluated by their reproduction and feather coloration.
It was necessary to add a large volume of water to Diet F during broth preparation because fish have a lower water content than shrimp. To evaluate the diets, the crude protein content was determined using the Kjedahl method Detmann et al. Chick feeding began 12 hours after hatching, as before this time, the animals consume the yolk reserve. The puree was orally administered directly into the entrance of esophagus using a no.
The animal s head was maintained at a 90 angle during feeding, and this position was maintained for at least 10 seconds after feeding to avoid reflux and choking. The total number of meals per day, intervals, volume administered at each meal and total daily volume were chosen according to chick age, as described in Table 1. Chicks were stimulated to begin feeding alone after leaving the nest by offering the extruded commercial feed Feed FL32 1 in the bird feeder and water ad libitum. After each paste feeding, a technician encouraged the chick to eat the food in the feeder.
Beginning on day 20, the feeding intervals of paste supply were increased every four days until only the extruded commercial feed Feed FL32 1 in a feeder was offered Table 1. At this stage, the chicks were transferred to the nursery and housed with at least one independently feeding older chick to stimulate them to consume the feed. Body condition, weight and biometry To evaluate the effects of the different diets on the chicks, body condition, body weight and the lengths of the radius, tibia, and tarsus and of the unpigmented portion of the beak were monitored.
Body condition was evaluated daily by inspecting and palpating the chest muscles and sternum, giving a score from one to three Harrison and Ritchie, , as follows: Increase in feeding intervals and volume per feeding. During biometry, the lengths of the right radius, tibia and tarsus and of the unpigmented portion of the right side of the beak were measured using a mm plastic caliper Marberg Limited, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Weight and body measurements are parameters of body development.
Measurements of the radius, tibia and tarsus were chosen because these are long bones easily measured in live animals, and because these bones undergo developmental pressure due to flight Sick, , making them good growth markers. Chicks were assessed beginning on the first day of life, shortly after hatching, and on all subsequent days, always in the morning. All data were recorded in an individual case report form. Exponential regression analysis was used to test the relationship between age and bone length. Polynomial regression analysis was used to test the relationship between age and the length of the unpigmented portion of the beak.
Student s t test was used to compare weights, bone lengths and the length of the unpigmented portion of the beak among diets. All analyses were performed in Statview 5.
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Moreover, fish and shrimp are purchased on a weekly basis to feed other bird species at the park. The contents of crude protein, ether extract and crude energy of each diet are shown in Table 2. Diet F, prepared with fish, contained the highest percentages of all of these components, and Diet C, prepared only with commercial feed, contained the lowest percentage. Diet S, prepared with shrimp, had nutritional values similar to those of Diet F. Table 2 Dry matter, crude protein, ether extract and crude energy contents in the three diets supplied to scarlet ibis chicks from the 1st to the 39th day of life.
At necropsy, no macroscopic changes were observed, suggesting that nutritional factors were responsible for the mortality. It is possible that the higher crude protein content in these diets was important for chicks in the early stages of development. Therefore, the nutritional compositions of fish and shrimp are more suitable for the development of birds in the early stages of life. However, this finding cannot be extrapolated to the scarlet ibis because the nutritional requirements of quail and scarlet ibis are likely distinct, as these species have distinct feeding habits.
Scarlet ibis most likely have higher crude protein requirements because they are carnivorous, feeding mainly on crustaceans in the wild Olmos et al. Figure 2 shows the relationship between age and weight in scarlet ibis chicks. Chicks that received Diets S and F gained weight from the 1st to the 36th day of life Figure 2.
Thus, chicks receiving Diet F gained weight faster than the chicks fed Diet S after the 7th day of life. Figure 3 shows the relationship between age and the lengths of the radius, tibia and tarsus of the scarlet ibis chicks. The coefficients of determination also indicated that the lengths of the measured bones were highly correlated with age and that no growth restriction occurred.
The lengths of the radius, tibia and tarsus of chicks fed Diets S and F increased from the 1st to the 35th day of life Figure 3. Therefore, the chicks fed Diet F grew faster than the chicks fed Diet S, starting at the 14th day of life. Figure 4 shows the relationship between age and the length of the unpigmented portion of the beaks of scarlet ibis chicks.
The length of the unpigmented portion of the beaks of chicks fed Diets S and F decreased from the 1 st to the 35 th day of life, when the beak was completely pigmented Figure 4. There was no significant difference in the weekly measurements of the unpigmented beak portion when comparing chicks fed Diets S and F Figure 4. Therefore, beak pigmentation, a phenotypic characteristic of scarlet ibis chicks, is likely not influenced by the type of food supplied, in contrast to body weight and bone lengths.
The differences in the performance of the chicks may be related to the amino acid profiles and digestibility of the diets. The amino acid profiles may differ among the protein sources used shrimp and fish. Moreover, chicks in early developmental stages may not have the enzymes necessary to aid in the digestion of crustaceans because in the wild they receive food regurgitated by an adult Stanek, Further studies assessing the amino acid profiles and digestibility of these foods are needed.
Beginning on the 7th day of life, the diets provided likely affected the development of the chicks. Before this period, the chicks exhibited no differences in growth between diets, as their physical conditions were most likely still similar to when they were in the egg. The selection of a suitable diet is very important for artificial breeding because it reduces mortality rates, provides animals with more resistance to diseases, accelerates growth and decreases the time required to reach adulthood, rendering animals ready to breed earlier.
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We appreciate your feedback. July 2, Imprint: The points were at least meters apart, to ensure independence and that the environmental variability inside each quadrat was sampled in the proportion that they occurred within the quadrat. In each point count, we registered all bird species detected visually and aurally. To maximize the number of sampled points during our short sampling period, counts were made throughout the day.
All bird data were compiled in a database totalling 1x1 km quadrats. All species that are aquatic or difficult to identify were excluded Table S9 , leaving a total of 36 species for the analyses. Point counts with zero presences for these species or with inconsistencies between the field land cover classification and the land use map were also excluded. For each 1x1 km quadrat, an average point count was calculated based on the average of the coordinates of all five point counts. Total species richness, endemic species richness and nonendemic species richness was calculated for every average point count.
The slope was initially calculated in decimal degrees and then transformed to percentage. Topography was represented using a Topography Position Index TPI which allows comparing of each cell s elevation to the mean elevation of a specified neighbourhood Jenness The continuous TPI thus obtained was transformed in a fivecategory discrete variable: Still, given the nature of further analyses, the TPI variable was considered Rainfall was obtained by digitizing the island s mean annual precipitation map in millimetres Silva ; Fig. The land use map was created based on satellite images Google Earth , supplemented by field information de Lima ; de Lima et al.
S11 and expert knowledge Fig. First, it was considered a four-category discrete variable: Later, this same variable was transformed in a continuous variable reflecting a gradient of habitat degradation: All variables were considered continuous and standardised to a common in raster grid, using the nearest neighbour sampling method and the TPI raster as a reference.
Exploratory analysis Multicollinearity was tested using Spearman s rank correlation coefficient, and visualized in a correlogram built using the corrgram package Wright ; Part I, Section VIII. Remoteness index and ruggedness were excluded from further analyses, having correlation coefficients with land use and slope, respectively, equal to or higher than 0. To identify potential outliers and analyse variance homogeneity, boxplots were drawn for each environmental variable, using the vegan package Oksanen No outliers were removed from the analysis.
The data were divided into a training and a testing set, using the catools package Tuszynski The models were validated using the testing data. Goodness of fit was analysed with the McFadden s index in the pscl package and with the Residual Deviance Jackman et al. Validation was also explored by plotting the Pearson and Deviance residuals To identify which variables best explain the species richness models, we ran the model averaging function from the MuMIn package to obtain relative variable importance RVI.
To evaluate the response of total, endemic and non-endemic species richness to each continuous variables, we calculated the Spearman s rank correlation coefficient Table S Finally, a map with predictions from each of the three fitted models was generated, using the raster package and the environmental variables in raster format Hijmans et al. Generalized dissimilarity modelling Generalized dissimilarity modelling GDM was used to map beta diversity using the gdm package Manion et al.
GDM compares community composition and environmental variables at pairs of sites to predict compositional difference as a function of environmental difference, extrapolating the prediction beyond surveyed sites. The resulting models give a spatially continuous prediction of turnover, and thus of the spatial structure of diversity. To quantify the compositional dissimilarity between different sites, a dissimilarity matrix was calculated using the Bray Curtis dissimilarity statistics.
The model fit was examined by the total deviance explained by the model and by plotting the observed dissimilarities against the predicted values Fig. To assess the model significance of each variable a significance test was made using permutations. The significance testing in the gdm package is still in the early phase of development, and it is therefore rather computationally intensive. The variable importance was measured as the percent change in deviance explained by the full model and the deviance explained by a model fit with that variable permuted.
A robust assessment of model s capacity to generate predictions was made by validating the independent testing set. A k-fold cross-validation was used to test the predictive accuracy of the model, using permutations. The output of the cross-validation was the correlation between the observed and predicted compositional dissimilarities, for the testing set of sites Fig. A principal components analysis PCA was made on the dissimilarities between classes to reduce dimensionality and assign the first three components to an RGB colour palette red, green and blue.
This way, similar colours represent a similar avifauna composition. The output was a raster image composed of three single rasters representing the three ordination axes. The relative importance of each predictor variable was determined by summing the coefficients of the I-splines from the fitted generalized dissimilarity model Table S The response curves were used to evaluate the response of predicted compositional dissimilarity to each predictor variable Fig. Generalized dissimilarity model categorization An unsupervised classification method was applied to the continuous GDM, using modified k- means classification in the Whitebox Geospatial Analysis Tools v Image Classification menu Lindsay ; Fuss et al.
The algorithm was limited to Euclidian distances smaller than 75, a value that ensured the creation of robust composition categories. The initial cluster centres were generated randomly. To explore the differences in species richness inside and outside the STONP, we used the random points QGIS tool in vector menu Quantum GIS Development Team a to sample random points from the total, endemic and non-endemic species richness maps previously created. Total and endemic species richness were calculated for each GDM class.
Total and endemic average species richness were calculated for each quadrat. Both median and quartiles were plotted in a single scatterplot to explore the relation between endemic species proportion and detection rate Part V, Section VIII. Some of the poorest areas were also found inside the park, coinciding with higher altitudes and steeper slopes Fig. Endemic species richness pattern was clear: Non-endemic species followed the opposite pattern: In the south-east of the island, an area can be identified in all three predictive maps, characterized by a smaller number of species than surrounding areas, and it corresponds to a large oil palm plantation.
In the total species richness model, none of the environmental variables was statistically significant and relative variable importance RVI was always smaller than To model endemic species richness, land use was the most important variable. On the other hand, several environmental variables were significant and important to the distribution of non-endemic species richness. The most important variable was rainfall, followed by altitude and land use. Endemic species responded negatively to more intensive land uses, but positively to forested habitats, like native and secondary forests. Whereas non-endemic species had an opposite response and therefore a strong connection to non-forested habitats and humanized landscapes Table S The GDM allowed explaining The most important environmental predictor was land use, followed by rainfall and altitude Table S A larger rate of species turnover was found for high values of land use, meaning that the biggest changes in bird community composition occurred in humanized habitats, like shade plantations and non-forested areas.
In forested habitats, the species composition was similar Fig. Smaller values were associated to bigger species composition turnover rates for slope, altitude, rainfall and TPI. Class 1 corresponds to the large oil palm monoculture, class 2 to the open areas surrounded by agro-forest habitats in slightly wetter regions, class 3 to the most humanized habitats in the driest parts of the island, class 4 to mixed of forested habitats like shade plantations and secondary forest in the north-east and class 5 to secondary and native forests in the centre and south The first class to be separated was class 1, suggesting the existence of a very distinctive bird species assemblage in the oil palm plantation, previously identified in all species richness maps Fig.
Subsequently, there was also an obvious separation between bird assemblages that inhabit more forested habitats classes 5 and 4 and those living in non-forested areas classes 2 and 3. Of the random points generated to assess the number of species, both total, endemic and nonendemic, were located in the park.
The predicted number of species was similar inside and outside Figure 2. The boxplots represent the median thick line , the first and third quartiles box , the extremes whiskers and the outliers dots. Even so, a bigger range of values was found inside the park Fig. There were no major differences in average species richness between all five GDM classes Table 2. However, there were several differences in average endemic species richness: There were also differences in terms of total number of species and total number of endemic species.
Classes 1 and 2 had identical values, namely the lowest total number of species 20 and an intermediate total number of endemics Class 3 had an intermediate total number of species 23 , but the lowest total number of endemics 8. Classes 4 and 5 had the highest total number of species 28 , but class 5 had a higher total number of endemics 19 against Species richness and endemic species richness calculated for each GDM class 1 to 5.
Proportion of endemic species and frequency of endemic species for each GDM class 1 to 5. The bars represent the first and third quartiles of the median values estimated for each quadrat. We found that the STONP did not protect necessarily the richest assemblages, but did protect those that were richest in endemic species. The highest values of species richness were found in the centre-south of the island, inside native forest, and were almost entirely included in the STONP.
Right next to them, two large speciespoor areas can be identified, also mostly included inside the park: This result coincides with previous findings, indicating that endemic species are associated with forest-dominated habitats and avoid humanized landscapes de Lima et al. The highest values of endemic species richness also tended to occur further away from the coast line. Secondary forests are found mostly around native forests, both inside the STONP and in the buffer zone. Although they shelter less endemic species than native forests, they seem to be acting as a transition zone to more humanized areas Atkinson et al.
The greatest number of non-endemic species was found in the more humanized habitats near the coast in the north-east of the island Fig. A pattern that is rather contrasting to that of the endemic species richness. The northern exclave of the STONP is the only protected area including areas rich in non-endemic bird species.
Since non-endemic birds tend to avoid forested areas and to use distinct food resources, they do not seem to be competing with the endemics. Instead, the gradient between endemic and non-endemic dominated bird assemblages seems to be facilitated by the gradient of native forest degradation Didham et al. Comparing the distribution of total, endemic and non-endemic species richness Fig.
This area corresponds to a large oil palm plantation, characterized by having few bird species, and notably fewer endemics and, proportionally, more non-endemics than the surrounding landscape. Most endemics rely on complex forest environments and do not find the required resources to subsist in these monocultures Turner et al. Being mostly granivores, the non-endemics also struggle to persist in these plantations, due to the severely impoverished vegetation. Moreover, the extremely wet conditions are not favourable to the production of grains on which they often rely.
Studies suggest that The maps of total, endemic and non-endemic species richness Fig. Species assemblages vary mostly in response to habitat humanization Modelling species composition dissimilarity revealed that bird assemblages were strongly determined by the same humanization gradient that had been identified when analysing species richness: This pattern can be seen in the north and south regions of the island, both of which hold rather distinctive species assemblages linked to a wide rainfall gradient.
The large oil palm plantation in the south-east once more reveals a very distinctive species assemblages. The analyses showed a bigger species composition turnover within non-forested habitats Fig. Composition response curve to land use suggested that bird assemblages were more distinct within humanized than in natural habitats, as already indicated by previous studies de Lima et al.
This pattern has been associated with stronger differences between intensive agricultural areas, holding a simplified vegetation, compared to natural ecosystems Waltert et al. The categorical GDM Fig. Class 1 represents the most distinctive bird community to be isolated, and corresponds to the large oil palm plantation already identified in the species richness maps. Although located in the south, where rainfall is much higher, this class is closer to classes 2 and 3, all of which corresponding to non-forested habitats, where the non-endemic species prevail.
Classes 2 and 3 represent lowland non-forested areas, where non-endemic species are frequent. Class 3 includes the most humanized habitats, in the driest parts of the island, while the similar class 2 appears in open areas surrounded by agro-forest habitats, in slightly wetter regions. Class 5 covers secondary and native forests in the centre and south, and holds without a doubt the community with the highest proportion of endemic species. There is an obvious species turnover from forests, where the endemics are clearly dominant, to more open habitats, where non-endemics become more numerous Lima et al.
Islands are known to have a limited pool of species available to colonize disturbed areas Atkinsons et al. They have been widely colonized by introduced granivore species, since these are better adapted to nonforested habitats than the native, mostly endemic avifauna de Lima et al. On the other hand, the introduced granivores seem to be much less frequent in forested habitats, including the cocoa and coffee shade plantations, even though the vegetation of these agroforestry Our results seem to provide further support for the hypothesis that the landscape being dominated by forested habitats is involved in maintaining and ensuring the overall dominance of the endemic avifauna de Lima et al.
Other factors, such as hunting and the introduction of non-avian forest species might be affecting the avifauna. Hunting has been shown to affect the distribution of birds, and notably large frugivores Carvalho et al. The introduction of non-avian vertebrates, such as feral pigs Sus domesticus and cats Felis catus, rats Rattus sp. The boundaries of the STONP were established, mostly based in a habitat field survey, and our work represents the first assessment of its adequacy to protect the island s biodiversity.
To do so, we evaluated if bird species richness and assemblage composition was well represented within the boundaries of the protected area, paying special attention to the endemic and non-endemic components of avifauna. The STONP covered some of the highest values of total species richness, but also some of the lowest, resulting in no significant differences when compared with areas outside the park Fig. However, endemic species richness was clearly higher inside the STONP, and non-endemic richness higher outside. These results show that using species richness on its own can be misleading as an indicator of conservation value and that it should be used in combination with other metrics Le Saout et al.
These results are also encouraging, since the park limits seem to be well established for the protection of the endemic species, which are the most threatened IUCN and the most interesting species, in terms of global conservation goals de Lima et al. The STONP is almost entirely composed by areas covering the class 5 we identified by GDM, which represents the richest bird assemblage, having the highest number of species and being mostly composed of endemic Atkinson et al.
This class includes almost all native forest and is the bird assemblage best represented inside the STONP All other classes have a poor representation inside the protected area, regardless of how many endemics they hold. This is of little concern in terms of global species protection, since all endemic and threatened species are included in class 5. The boundaries of the STONP were primarily defined based on native forest distribution, natural barriers and small levels of human pressure, but coincide with the distribution of the bird assemblages that are richest in endemics Albuquerque et al.
This match is due to the key determinants of bird diversity patterns being the same environmental factors that were used to define STONP boundaries Rocha ; de Lima et al. Therefore helping to mitigate many negative impacts of human activities, like hunting and logging Atkinson et al. This way, key STONP will gain a higher level of protection, contributing to the conservation of threatened small-ranged endemic species, like the Dwarf Ibis Bostrychia bocagei Dallimer et al.
At last, STONP provides a good example that areas of higher conservation interest can be identified using the distribution of natural habitats and human population. Protected areas should prioritize natural ecosystems supporting high species richness and high proportions of endemic and threatened species. However, in most cases this information is not available when the boundaries are being defined.
Our results suggest focusing first on identifying key natural ecosystems, and then zoning based on the distribution of the different biodiversity components, when these become better known, eventually extending the initial boundaries. This strategy allows for assessing if protected areas are still achieving their key conservation goals, and adjust them while knowledge on their biodiversity increases.
Understanding how human actions affect biodiversity is therefore a first step to minimize and prevent further impacts on species and ecosystems. Human population is expected to grow exponentially within upcoming years, making it crucial to learn how to coexist and share world ecosystems and natural resources Cincotta et al. Our study exemplifies how human occupation can influence species distribution. We have shown that the strong gradient of land use intensification is the main responsible for the changes found in bird species assemblages: Given these results, forested patches are vital for the persistence of endemic birds inside a landscape increasingly dominated by intensive land uses.
Thus, we recommend the protection of the remaining native forest and the expansion or improvement of secondary forest, to provide a landscape matrix more suitable for the endemic species.
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Non-native birds will have the opposite response, since they tend to avoid forested habitats Atkinson et al. Therefore, increasing the forest cover will have the additional benefit of preventing the spread of introduced birds throughout the island. The establishment of protected areas is one the most important and common conservation measures Myers et al.
The STONP was created based on native forest distribution, natural barriers and small levels of human pressure Albuquerque et al. With our study, we concluded that most of the areas with endemic-rich assemblages are well represented inside the park, even though these do not necessarily correspond to the richest bird assemblages. We emphasize the need to transform these environmental laws into active conservation actions on the field, setting up a monitoring program to stop or at least minimize the still ongoing threats inside and nearby the park, e. The expansion and management of secondary forests for conservation could improve the quality of ecosystems in the STONP buffer zone, which has an important role in the conservation of endemic bird species, helping to minimize possible human impacts inside the park and surrounding areas, while providing additional habitat to many of the endemics.
The current study is an important basis for future studies, and to establish specific monitoring activities and conservation strategies. However, further research is needed to gain a more detailed knowledge about the distribution of each bird species, namely regarding seasonality and single species response to forest degradation. We also highlight the need to gain a better understanding of the impact of other threats, such as hunting and introduced species.
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