In Jarvis' compact and concise book, he weaves in references and comparisons of Gutenberg's innovation and entrepreneurship to today's era of new technology and new business models built on that technology. I feel certain no one else has written a book of any length that finds parallels in how Gutenberg and the founders of Airbnb. Okay, so it wouldn't have quite the same punch as a title, but this Kindle Single isn't really about what made Gutenberg a geek; it's about what made him a great start-up founder.
Jarvis gives the facts as much as we can know them of Gutenberg's story and writes that "In all, Gutenberg -- just like a modern-day startup -- depended on exploiting new efficiencies, achieving scale, reusing assets, dividing specialized labor, and setting standards. At the very end, he pivots to a frequent for Jeff Jarvis theme of advocating for Internet freedom, which felt a little awkwardly tacked on.
And speaking of awkwardly tacked on, here are two quotes I highlighted: He was the inventor of history's greatest platform. I like the statement Jeff Jarvis makes when he says, "But we don't yet know what the internet truly is. Communications is what makes us different than the elephant, lion, the dog or cat. Where they do communicate, establish a pecking order, and as a dog and cat owner, we soon figure out which cat is alpha, or which dog is the pack leader, they are miles behind us in establishing a world-wide-network!
In the history of man, there has always been the equalizer.
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Back in the Old West, it was the Colt In the days of Henry Ford it was the automobile. And in the mid 20th century it was the computer and right on its rear the Internet. The development of the printing press more of the masses had access key concept to the same written material that beforehand was probably only available to the rich, nobility and to the few scholars of the Age. As we settled the West and we drove our Chevrolets there we soon had no where else to go physically. We developed laws and enforced them, and we were able to put our guns aside, as our Government was effective in protecting us with it's recognized local, national and international police forces.
Well the intellectual property that we all now had access to in the form of books, newspapers and magazines became a BAD thing in early 21st century. Thanks to the people of the late 20th century the next transition occurred. Tim Berners-Lee created a web browser, Larry Page and Sergey Brin created a more sophisticated search engine industry and Mark Zuckerberg creator of Facebook hired everybody to tell their public story to the world.
But we have become a dwindling planet, with waste. We are solving our lighting problems by deciding that when we want light, that is all we want, hence more energy efficient lighting. When we want heat then we find a more efficient way rather than rubbing electrons across the wires, for our birds in winter to keep their claws warm on. The carbon footprint of cutting trees to read has become a leading issue in 'Green America' The fact that Mr. Jarvis has made this book an Ebook only is one of the results of this changing print to electron media transformation.
And in ending his book Mr. Jarvis says that what is resulting today, with the doors wide open for the knowledge that could explode to the most wonderful world we have ever witnessed is due to the expensive and massive expenditure of human industry in the development of the early printing presses! See all reviews. Amazon Giveaway allows you to run promotional giveaways in order to create buzz, reward your audience, and attract new followers and customers. Learn more about Amazon Giveaway.
Gutenberg the Geek Kindle Single. By , the press was in operation, and a German poem had been printed, possibly the first item to be printed there.
Haagens, Mabel Hatt
Gutenberg's workshop was set up at Hof Humbrecht, a property belonging to a distant relative. It is not clear when Gutenberg conceived the Bible project, but for this he borrowed another guilders from Fust, and work commenced in At the same time, the press was also printing other, more lucrative texts possibly Latin grammars. There is also some speculation that there may have been two presses, one for the pedestrian texts, and one for the Bible. One of the profit-making enterprises of the new press was the printing of thousands of indulgences for the church, documented from to In Gutenberg completed his line Bible , known as the Gutenberg Bible.
About copies were printed, most on paper and some on vellum. Some time in , there was a dispute between Gutenberg and Fust, and Fust demanded his money back, accusing Gutenberg of misusing the funds. Meanwhile the expenses of the Bible project had proliferated, and Gutenberg's debt now exceeded 20, guilders. Fust sued at the archbishop's court. A November legal document records that there was a partnership for a "project of the books," the funds for which Gutenberg had used for other purposes, according to Fust.
The court decided in favor of Fust, giving him control over the Bible printing workshop and half of all printed Bibles. Thus Gutenberg was effectively bankrupt, but it appears he retained or re-started a small printing shop, and participated in the printing of a Bible in the town of Bamberg around , for which he seems at least to have supplied the type. But since his printed books never carry his name or a date, it is difficult to be certain, and there is consequently a considerable scholarly debate on this subject.
It is also possible that the large Catholicon dictionary , copies of pages, printed in Mainz in , was executed in his workshop. In January , Gutenberg's achievements were recognized and he was given the title Hofmann gentleman of the court by von Nassau. This honor included a stipend , an annual court outfit, as well as 2, litres of grain and 2, litres of wine tax-free. Gutenberg died in and was buried in the Franciscan church at Mainz, his contributions largely unknown. This church and the cemetery were later destroyed, and Gutenberg's grave is now lost.
In , he was mentioned as the inventor of typography in a book by Professor Ivo Wittig. It was not until that the first portrait of Gutenberg, almost certainly an imaginary reconstruction, appeared in Heinrich Pantaleon's biography of famous Germans. Between and , Gutenberg printed several texts, some of which remain unidentified; his texts did not bear the printer's name or date, so attribution is possible only from typographical evidence and external references.
Certainly several church documents including a papal letter and two indulgences were printed, one of which was issued in Mainz. In view of the value of printing in quantity, seven editions in two styles were ordered, resulting in several thousand copies being printed. In , Gutenberg completed copies of a beautifully executed folio Bible Biblia Sacra , with 42 lines on each page.
Copies sold for 30 florins each,  which was roughly three years' wages for an average clerk. Nonetheless, it was significantly cheaper than a manuscript Bible that could take a single scribe over a year to prepare. After printing, some copies were rubricated or hand-illuminated in the same elegant way as manuscript Bibles from the same period.
An undated line edition of the Bible was printed, probably in Bamberg in —60, possibly by Gutenberg. A large part of it was shown to have been set from a copy of Gutenberg's Bible, thus disproving earlier speculation that it was the earlier of the two. Gutenberg's early printing process, and what texts he printed with movable type , are not known in great detail.
His later Bibles were printed in such a way as to have required large quantities of type, some estimates suggesting as many as , individual sorts. Gutenberg's technique of making movable type remains unclear. In the following decades, punches and copper matrices became standardized in the rapidly disseminating printing presses across Europe. Whether Gutenberg used this sophisticated technique or a somewhat primitive version has been the subject of considerable debate. In the standard process of making type, a hard metal punch made by punchcutting , with the letter carved back to front is hammered into a softer copper bar, creating a matrix.
This is then placed into a hand-held mould and a piece of type, or "sort", is cast by filling the mould with molten type-metal; this cools almost at once, and the resulting piece of type can be removed from the mould. The matrix can be reused to create hundreds, or thousands, of identical sorts so that the same character appearing anywhere within the book will appear very uniform, giving rise, over time, to the development of distinct styles of typefaces or fonts.
After casting, the sorts are arranged into type cases, and used to make up pages which are inked and printed, a procedure which can be repeated hundreds, or thousands, of times. The sorts can be reused in any combination, earning the process the name of "movable type". For details, see Typography. The invention of the making of types with punch, matrix and mold has been widely attributed to Gutenberg. However, recent evidence suggests that Gutenberg's process was somewhat different.
If he used the punch and matrix approach, all his letters should have been nearly identical, with some variation due to miscasting and inking. However, the type used in Gutenberg's earliest work shows other variations.
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Although some identical types are clearly used on other pages, other variations, subjected to detailed image analysis, suggested that they could not have been produced from the same matrix. Transmitted light pictures of the page also appeared to reveal substructures in the type that could not arise from traditional punchcutting techniques. They hypothesized that the method involved impressing simple shapes to create alphabets in "cuneiform" style in a matrix made of some soft material, perhaps sand.
Casting the type would destroy the mould, and the matrix would need to be recreated to make each additional sort. This could explain the variations in the type, as well as the substructures observed in the printed images. Thus, they speculated that "the decisive factor for the birth of typography", the use of reusable moulds for casting type, was a more progressive process than was previously thought.
Others have not accepted some or all of their suggestions, and have interpreted the evidence in other ways, and the truth of the matter remains uncertain. A history by Hadrianus Junius of Holland claims that the basic idea of the movable type came to Gutenberg from Laurens Janszoon Coster via Fust, who was apprenticed to Coster in the s and may have brought some of his equipment from Haarlem to Mainz.
While Coster appears to have experimented with moulds and castable metal type, there is no evidence that he had actually printed anything with this technology. He was an inventor and a goldsmith. Daily 29 January Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science: Perhaps the most outstanding volume in the Beinecke collection is the Melk copy of the Gutenberg Bible, the gift of Mrs. The Gutenberg Bible is thought to have been the first book printed with movable type and was This particular Bible came from Erfurt, in Germany. Asher, who also had a Gazette of the Grolier Club.
There were three main type groups represented in the exhibition: The type of the line Bible. The type of the line Friends of the Princeton University Library. Scheide, the father of the present owner. The second volume of the Gutenberg Bible from which the Lilly Library New Testament would eventually be extracted was discovered in in a farmhouse The copy had leaves of the original of a full Gutenberg New Testament. Retrieved 1 October Archived from the original on British Librarianship and Information Work — Rare book librarianship and historical bibliography.
Retrieved from " https: Archived copy as title Articles with short description All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from September Articles with German-language external links Interlanguage link template link number Articles with French-language external links Articles with Spanish-language external links Commons category link from Wikidata. Views Read Edit View history.
Obtained from Friedrich Karl Joseph von Erthal in Library of the University of Mons-Hainaut , Mons. Danish Royal Library , Copenhagen. II, first leaf missing. I, one missing leaf. Acquired from the Abbey of Saint Bertin. Gutenberg Museum , Mainz. The Shuckburgh copy, two volumes but imperfect, sold by Hans P.
II, the Solms-Laubach copy acquired in Two individual leaves from Vol. II survive in other libraries. Leipzig University Library , Leipzig. Berlin State Library , Berlin. Bavarian State Library , Munich. Frankfurt University Library , Frankfurt am Main. Purchased in April for 2. Gottorf Castle , Schleswig. The Rendsburg Fragment  . Keio University Library, Tokyo.
Originally part of the Estelle Doheny bequest to St. John's Seminary in Camarillo, California. Diocesan Museum in Pelplin. The only existing copy in two volumes surviving in its original 15th-century binding. Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal , Lisbon. Moscow State University , Moscow. Looted in from the library of the University of Leipzig. Russian State Library , Moscow. New Testament only Online images in Spanish.
Bodmer Library , Cologny. British Library , London. National Library of Scotland , Edinburgh. Eton College Library , Eton College. John Rylands Library , Manchester. Online images of 11 pages. Bodleian Library , Oxford. Online images of vol. Cambridge University Library , Cambridge. Acquired as part of a gift in Acquired in by Mark Masterman-Sykes. Old Testament only Online images. Library of Congress , Washington DC. Online images Printed on vellum and bound in three vellum covered volumes. Purchased in with government funds for the Library of Congress. It is the center piece of a larger book collection acquired from Dr.
New York Public Library.
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Widener Library , Harvard University. Beinecke Library , Yale University. The Melk copy, a gift from Mrs. Scheide Library , Princeton University. The Brinley-Cole- Ives - Ellsworth - Scheide copy,    one of three existing copies in its original binding. Lilly Library , Indiana University. New Testament only, 12 leaves missing. Huntington Library , San Marino, California. Purchased in for 2.