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His definition of rhetoric as "the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion," essentially a mode of discovery, limits the art to the inventional process, and Aristotle heavily emphasizes the logical aspect of this process. In his account, rhetoric is the art of discovering all available means of persuasion.

Rhetoric - Wikipedia

A speaker supports the probability of a message by logical, ethical, and emotional proofs. Some form of logos, ethos, and pathos is present in every possible public presentation that exists. But the treatise in fact also discusses not only elements of style and briefly delivery, but also emotional appeals pathos and characterological appeals ethos.

Aristotle identifies three steps or "offices" of rhetoric—invention, arrangement, and style—and three different types of rhetorical proof: Aristotle emphasized enthymematic reasoning as central to the process of rhetorical invention, though later rhetorical theorists placed much less emphasis on it. An "enthymeme" would follow today's form of a syllogism; however it would exclude either the major or minor premise. An enthymeme is persuasive because the audience is providing the missing premise.

Because the audience is able to provide the missing premise, they are more likely to be persuaded by the message. Aristotle identified three different types or genres of civic rhetoric. Forensic also known as judicial , was concerned with determining the truth or falseness of events that took place in the past and issues of guilt. An example of forensic rhetoric would be in a courtroom. Deliberative also known as political , was concerned with determining whether or not particular actions should or should not be taken in the future. Making laws would be an example of deliberative rhetoric.

Epideictic also known as ceremonial , was concerned with praise and blame, values, right and wrong, demonstrating beauty and skill in the present. Examples of epideictic rhetoric would include a eulogy or a wedding toast. The Five Canons of Rhetoric serve as a guide to creating persuasive messages and arguments. These are invention the process of developing arguments ; arrangement organizing the arguments for extreme effect ; style determining how to present the arguments ; delivery the gestures, pronunciation, tone and pace used when presenting the persuasive arguments ; and memory the process of learning and memorizing the speech and persuasive messages.

In the rhetoric field, there is an intellectual debate about Aristotle's definition of rhetoric. Some believe that Aristotle defines rhetoric in On Rhetoric as the art of persuasion, while others think he defines it as the art of judgment. Rhetoric as the art of judgment would mean the rhetor discerns the available means of persuasion with a choice.

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Aristotle also says rhetoric is concerned with judgment because the audience judges the rhetor's ethos. One of the most famous of Aristotelian doctrines was the idea of topics also referred to as common topics or commonplaces. Though the term had a wide range of application as a memory technique or compositional exercise, for example it most often referred to the "seats of argument"—the list of categories of thought or modes of reasoning—that a speaker could use to generate arguments or proofs.

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The topics were thus a heuristic or inventional tool designed to help speakers categorize and thus better retain and apply frequently used types of argument. For example, since we often see effects as "like" their causes, one way to invent an argument about a future effect is by discussing the cause which it will be "like". This and other rhetorical topics derive from Aristotle's belief that there are certain predictable ways in which humans particularly non-specialists draw conclusions from premises.

Based upon and adapted from his dialectical Topics, the rhetorical topics became a central feature of later rhetorical theorizing, most famously in Cicero's work of that name. For the Romans, oration became an important part of public life. Cicero —43 BC was chief among Roman rhetoricians and remains the best known ancient orator and the only orator who both spoke in public and produced treatises on the subject. Rhetorica ad Herennium , formerly attributed to Cicero but now considered to be of unknown authorship, is one of the most significant works on rhetoric and is still widely used as a reference today.

It is an extensive reference on the use of rhetoric, and in the Middle Ages and Renaissance , it achieved wide publication as an advanced school text on rhetoric. Cicero is considered one of the most significant rhetoricians of all time, charting a middle path between the competing Attic and Asiatic styles to become considered second only to Demosthenes among history's orators. Cicero also left a large body of speeches and letters which would establish the outlines of Latin eloquence and style for generations to come. It was the rediscovery of Cicero's speeches such as the defense of Archias and letters to Atticus by Italians like Petrarch that, in part, ignited the cultural innovations that we know as the Renaissance.

He championed the learning of Greek and Greek rhetoric , contributed to Roman ethics, linguistics, philosophy, and politics, and emphasized the importance of all forms of appeal emotion, humor, stylistic range, irony and digression in addition to pure reasoning in oratory. But perhaps his most significant contribution to subsequent rhetoric, and education in general, was his argument that orators learn not only about the specifics of their case the hypothesis but also about the general questions from which they derived the theses.

Thus, in giving a speech in defense of a poet whose Roman citizenship had been questioned, the orator should examine not only the specifics of that poet's civic status, he should also examine the role and value of poetry and of literature more generally in Roman culture and political life. The orator, said Cicero, needed to be knowledgeable about all areas of human life and culture, including law, politics, history, literature, ethics, warfare, medicine, even arithmetic and geometry.

Cicero gave rise to the idea that the "ideal orator" be well-versed in all branches of learning: Quintilian 35— AD began his career as a pleader in the courts of law; his reputation grew so great that Vespasian created a chair of rhetoric for him in Rome. The culmination of his life's work was the Institutio Oratoria Institutes of Oratory, or alternatively, The Orator's Education , a lengthy treatise on the training of the orator, in which he discusses the training of the "perfect" orator from birth to old age and, in the process, reviews the doctrines and opinions of many influential rhetoricians who preceded him.

In the Institutes, Quintilian organizes rhetorical study through the stages of education that an aspiring orator would undergo, beginning with the selection of a nurse. Aspects of elementary education training in reading and writing, grammar, and literary criticism are followed by preliminary rhetorical exercises in composition the progymnasmata that include maxims and fables, narratives and comparisons, and finally full legal or political speeches. The delivery of speeches within the context of education or for entertainment purposes became widespread and popular under the term "declamation.

This work was available only in fragments in medieval times, but the discovery of a complete copy at the Abbey of St. Gall in led to its emergence as one of the most influential works on rhetoric during the Renaissance. Quintilian's work describes not just the art of rhetoric, but the formation of the perfect orator as a politically active, virtuous, publicly minded citizen.

His emphasis was on the ethical application of rhetorical training, in part a reaction against the growing tendency in Roman schools toward standardization of themes and techniques. At the same time that rhetoric was becoming divorced from political decision making, rhetoric rose as a culturally vibrant and important mode of entertainment and cultural criticism in a movement known as the "second sophistic," a development that gave rise to the charge made by Quintilian and others that teachers were emphasizing style over substance in rhetoric.

After the breakup of the western Roman Empire, the study of rhetoric continued to be central to the study of the verbal arts; but the study of the verbal arts went into decline for several centuries, followed eventually by a gradual rise in formal education, culminating in the rise of medieval universities. But rhetoric transmuted during this period into the arts of letter writing ars dictaminis and sermon writing ars praedicandi.

As part of the trivium , rhetoric was secondary to the study of logic, and its study was highly scholastic: Although he is not commonly regarded as a rhetorician, St. Augustine — was trained in rhetoric and was at one time a professor of Latin rhetoric in Milan. After his conversion to Christianity, he became interested in using these " pagan " arts for spreading his religion. This new use of rhetoric is explored in the Fourth Book of his De Doctrina Christiana , which laid the foundation of what would become homiletics , the rhetoric of the sermon. Augustine begins the book by asking why "the power of eloquence, which is so efficacious in pleading either for the erroneous cause or the right", should not be used for righteous purposes IV.

One early concern of the medieval Christian church was its attitude to classical rhetoric itself. Rhetoric would not regain its classical heights until the Renaissance, but new writings did advance rhetorical thought. A number of medieval grammars and studies of poetry and rhetoric appeared. Late medieval rhetorical writings include those of St. Pre-modern female rhetoricians, outside of Socrates' friend Aspasia , are rare; but medieval rhetoric produced by women either in religious orders, such as Julian of Norwich d.

In his Cambridge University doctoral dissertation in English, Canadian Marshall McLuhan — surveys the verbal arts from approximately the time of Cicero down to the time of Thomas Nashe —? As noted below, McLuhan became one of the most widely publicized thinkers in the 20th century, so it is important to note his scholarly roots in the study of the history of rhetoric and dialectic.

Another interesting record of medieval rhetorical thought can be seen in the many animal debate poems popular in England and the continent during the Middle Ages, such as The Owl and the Nightingale 13th century and Geoffrey Chaucer 's Parliament of Fowls ? Ong's article "Humanism" in the New Catholic Encyclopedia surveys Renaissance humanism , which defined itself broadly as disfavoring medieval scholastic logic and dialectic and as favoring instead the study of classical Latin style and grammar and philology and rhetoric. One influential figure in the rebirth of interest in classical rhetoric was Erasmus c.

Foundations of the Abundant Style , was widely published it went through more than editions throughout Europe and became one of the basic school texts on the subject. Its treatment of rhetoric is less comprehensive than the classic works of antiquity, but provides a traditional treatment of res-verba matter and form: Much of the emphasis is on abundance of variation copia means "plenty" or "abundance", as in copious or cornucopia , so both books focus on ways to introduce the maximum amount of variety into discourse. For instance, in one section of the De Copia , Erasmus presents two hundred variations of the sentence "Semper, dum vivam, tui meminero.

Its orations in favour of qualities such as madness spawned a type of exercise popular in Elizabethan grammar schools, later called adoxography , which required pupils to compose passages in praise of useless things. Juan Luis Vives — also helped shape the study of rhetoric in England. His best-known work was a book on education, De Disciplinis , published in , and his writings on rhetoric included Rhetoricae, sive De Ratione Dicendi, Libri Tres , De Consultatione , and a rhetoric on letter writing, De Conscribendis Epistolas It is likely that many well-known English writers were exposed to the works of Erasmus and Vives as well as those of the Classical rhetoricians in their schooling, which was conducted in Latin not English and often included some study of Greek and placed considerable emphasis on rhetoric.

See, for example, T. University of Illinois Press, The midth century saw the rise of vernacular rhetorics—those written in English rather than in the Classical languages; adoption of works in English was slow, however, due to the strong orientation toward Latin and Greek. During this same period, a movement began that would change the organization of the school curriculum in Protestant and especially Puritan circles and led to rhetoric losing its central place. In his scheme of things, the five components of rhetoric no longer lived under the common heading of rhetoric.

Instead, invention and disposition were determined to fall exclusively under the heading of dialectic, while style, delivery, and memory were all that remained for rhetoric. Ong , Ramus, Method, and the Decay of Dialogue: Ramus was martyred during the French Wars of Religion. His teachings, seen as inimical to Catholicism, were short-lived in France but found a fertile ground in the Netherlands, Germany and England. This work provided a simple presentation of rhetoric that emphasized the treatment of style, and became so popular that it was mentioned in John Brinsley 's Ludus literarius; or The Grammar Schoole as being the "most used in the best schooles.

Ramism could not exert any influence on the established Catholic schools and universities, which remained loyal to Scholasticism, or on the new Catholic schools and universities founded by members of the religious orders known as the Society of Jesus or the Oratorians, as can be seen in the Jesuit curriculum in use right up to the 19th century, across the Christian world known as the Ratio Studiorum that Claude Pavur, S.

Institute of Jesuit Sources, If the influence of Cicero and Quintilian permeates the Ratio Studiorum , it is through the lenses of devotion and the militancy of the Counter-Reformation. The Ratio was indeed imbued with a sense of the divine, of the incarnate logos, that is of rhetoric as an eloquent and humane means to reach further devotion and further action in the Christian city, which was absent from Ramist formalism.

The Ratio is, in rhetoric, the answer to St Ignatius Loyola's practice, in devotion, of "spiritual exercises. However, in England, several writers influenced the course of rhetoric during the 17th century, many of them carrying forward the dichotomy that had been set forth by Ramus and his followers during the preceding decades. Of greater importance is that this century saw the development of a modern, vernacular style that looked to English, rather than to Greek, Latin, or French models.

Francis Bacon — , although not a rhetorician, contributed to the field in his writings. One of the concerns of the age was to find a suitable style for the discussion of scientific topics, which needed above all a clear exposition of facts and arguments, rather than the ornate style favored at the time. Bacon in his The Advancement of Learning criticized those who are preoccupied with style rather than "the weight of matter, worth of subject, soundness of argument, life of invention, or depth of judgment.

Thomas Hobbes — also wrote on rhetoric. Along with a shortened translation of Aristotle 's Rhetoric , Hobbes also produced a number of other works on the subject. Sharply contrarian on many subjects, Hobbes, like Bacon, also promoted a simpler and more natural style that used figures of speech sparingly. Perhaps the most influential development in English style came out of the work of the Royal Society founded in , which in set up a committee to improve the English language.

Sprat regarded "fine speaking" as a disease, and thought that a proper style should "reject all amplifications, digressions, and swellings of style" and instead "return back to a primitive purity and shortness" History of the Royal Society , While the work of this committee never went beyond planning, John Dryden is often credited with creating and exemplifying a new and modern English style.

His central tenet was that the style should be proper "to the occasion, the subject, and the persons. His own prose and his poetry became exemplars of this new style. Arguably one of the most influential schools of rhetoric during this time was Scottish Belletristic rhetoric, exemplified by such professors of rhetoric as Hugh Blair whose Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres saw international success in various editions and translations.

At the turn of the 20th century, there was a revival of rhetorical study manifested in the establishment of departments of rhetoric and speech at academic institutions, as well as the formation of national and international professional organizations. Kuypers and Andrew King suggest that the early interest in rhetorical studies was a movement away from elocution as taught in departments of English in the United States, and was an attempt to refocus rhetorical studies away from delivery only to civic engagement.

Collectively, they write, twentieth century rhetorical studies offered an understanding of rhetoric that demonstrated a "rich complexity" of how rhetorical scholars understood the nature of rhetoric. The rise of advertising and of mass media such as photography , telegraphy , radio , and film brought rhetoric more prominently into people's lives. More recently the term rhetoric has been applied to media forms other than verbal language, e. Rhetoric can be analyzed by a variety of methods and theories. One such method is criticism. When those using criticism analyze instances of rhetoric what they do is called rhetorical criticism see section below.

According to rhetorical critic Jim A. Kuypers , "The use of rhetoric is an art; as such, it does not lend itself well to scientific methods of analysis. Criticism is an art as well; as such, it is particularly well suited for examining rhetorical creations. For example, in the Sciences researchers purposefully adhere to a strict method the scientific method. All scientific researchers are to use this same basic method, and successful experiments must be percent replicable by others. The application of the scientific method may take numerous forms, but the overall method remains the same—and the personality of the researcher is excised from the actual study.

In sharp contrast, criticism one of many Humanistic methods of generating knowledge actively involves the personality of the researcher. The very choices of what to study, and how and why to study a rhetorical artifact are heavily influenced by the personal qualities of the researcher. In criticism this is especially important since the personality of the critic considered an integral component of the study. Further personalizing criticism, we find that rhetorical critics use a variety of means when examining a particular rhetorical artifact, with some critics even developing their own unique perspective to better examine a rhetorical artifact.

Edwin Black rhetorician wrote on this point that, "Methods, then, admit of varying degrees of personality. And criticism, on the whole, is near the indeterminate, contingent, personal end of the methodological scale. In consequence of this placement, it is neither possible nor desirable for criticism to be fixed into a system, for critical techniques to be objectified, for critics to be interchangeable for purposes of [scientific] replication, or for rhetorical criticism to serve as the handmaiden of quasi-scientific theory.

Kuypers sums this idea of criticism as art in the following manner: It is not a scientific method; it uses subjective methods of argument; it exists on its own, not in conjunction with other methods of generating knowledge i. There does not exist an analytic method that is widely recognized as "the" rhetorical method, partly because many in rhetorical study see rhetoric as merely produced by reality see dissent from that view below. It is important to note that the object of rhetorical analysis is typically discourse, and therefore the principles of "rhetorical analysis" would be difficult to distinguish from those of " discourse analysis.

Generally speaking, rhetorical analysis makes use of rhetorical concepts ethos, logos, kairos, mediation, etc. When the object of study happens to be some type of discourse a speech, a poem, a joke, a newspaper article , the aim of rhetorical analysis is not simply to describe the claims and arguments advanced within the discourse, but more important to identify the specific semiotic strategies employed by the speaker to accomplish specific persuasive goals.

Therefore, after a rhetorical analyst discovers a use of language that is particularly important in achieving persuasion, she typically moves onto the question of "How does it work? There are some scholars who do partial rhetorical analysis and defer judgments about rhetorical success. In other words, some analysts attempt to avoid the question of "Was this use of rhetoric successful [in accomplishing the aims of the speaker]? This question allows a shift in focus from the speaker's objectives to the effects and functions of the rhetoric itself.

Rhetorical strategies are the efforts made by authors to persuade or inform their readers. Rhetorical strategies are employed by writers and refer to the different ways they can persuade the reader. According to Gray, there are various argument strategies used in writing. He describes four of these as argument from analogy, argument from absurdity, thought experiments, and inference to the best explanation. Modern rhetorical criticism explores the relationship between text and context; that is, how an instance of rhetoric relates to circumstances.

Since the aim of rhetoric is to be persuasive, the level to which the rhetoric in question persuades its audience is what must be analyzed, and later criticized. In determining the extent to which a text is persuasive, one may explore the text's relationship with its audience, purpose, ethics, argument, evidence, arrangement, delivery, and style. The antithetical view places the rhetor at the center of creating that which is considered the extant situation; i. Following the neo-Aristotelian approaches to criticism, scholars began to derive methods from other disciplines, such as history, philosophy, and the social sciences.

Throughout the s and s, methodological pluralism replaced the singular neo-Aristotelian method. Methodological rhetorical criticism is typically done by deduction, where a broad method is used to examine a specific case of rhetoric. By the mids, however, the study of rhetorical criticism began to move away from precise methodology towards conceptual issues. Conceptually driven criticism [81] operates more through abduction, according to scholar James Jasinski , who argues that this emerging type of criticism can be thought of as a back-and-forth between the text and the concepts, which are being explored at the same time.

The concepts remain "works in progress," and understanding those terms develops through the analysis of a text. Criticism is considered rhetorical when it focuses on the way some types of discourse react to situational exigencies—problems or demands—and constraints. This means that modern rhetorical criticism is based in how the rhetorical case or object persuades, defines, or constructs the audience.

In modern terms, what can be considered rhetoric includes, but it is not limited to, speeches, scientific discourse, pamphlets, literary work, works of art, and pictures. Contemporary rhetorical criticism has maintained aspects of early neo-Aristotelian thinking through close reading, which attempts to explore the organization and stylistic structure of a rhetorical object. Rhetorical criticism serves several purposes or functions. First, rhetorical criticism hopes to help form or improve public taste. It helps educate audiences and develops them into better judges of rhetorical situations by reinforcing ideas of value, morality, and suitability.

Rhetorical criticism can thus contribute to the audience's understanding of themselves and society.

According to Jim A. Kuypers , a dual purpose for performing criticism should be primarily to enhance our appreciation and understanding. These are not hollow goals, but quality of life issues. By improving understanding and appreciation, the critic can offer new and potentially exciting ways for others to see the world. Through understanding we also produce knowledge about human communication; in theory this should help us to better govern our interactions with others.

Rhetoric was part of the curriculum in Jesuit and, to a lesser extent, Oratorian colleges until the French Revolution. Nonetheless, in the 18th Century, rhetoric was the structure and crown of secondary education, with works such as Rollin's Treatise of Studies achieving a wide and enduring fame across the Continent.

The main representative remains Rivarol. The French Revolution, however, turned this around. Philosophers such as Condorcet , who drafted the French revolutionary chart for a people's education under the rule of reason, dismissed rhetoric as an instrument of oppression in the hands of clerics in particular. The Revolution went as far as to suppress the Bar, arguing that forensic rhetoric did disservice to a rational system of justice, by allowing fallacies and emotions to come into play. Nonetheless, as later historians of the 19th century were keen to explain, the Revolution was a high moment of eloquence and rhetorical prowess, although set against a background of rejecting rhetoric.

Under the First Empire and its wide-ranging educational reforms, imposed on or imitated across the Continent, rhetoric regained little ground. In fact, instructions to the newly founded Polytechnic School, tasked with training the scientific and technical elites, made it clear that written reporting was to supersede oral reporting. When manuals were redrafted in the mid-century, in particular after the Revolution to formulate a national curriculum, care was taken to distance their approach to rhetoric from that of the Church, which was seen as an agent of conservatism and reactionary politics.

By the end of the s, a major change had taken place: Rhetoric was then relegated to the study of literary figures of speech, a discipline later on taught as Stylistics within the French literature curriculum. More decisively, in , a new standard written exercise superseded the rhetorical exercises of speech writing, letter writing and narration. The new genre, called dissertation, had been invented in , for the purpose of rational argument in the philosophy class. Typically, in a dissertation, a question is asked, such as: Hegelianism influenced the dissertation design.

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It remains today the standard of writing in French humanities. By the beginning of the 20th century, rhetoric was fast losing the remains of its former importance, and eventually was taken out of the school curriculum altogether at the time of the Separation of State and Churches Part of the argument was that rhetoric remained the last element of irrationality, driven by religious arguments, in what was perceived as inimical to Republican education. The move, initiated in , found its resolution in when rhetoric was expunged from all curricula.

At the same time, Aristotelian rhetoric, owing to a revival of Thomistic philosophy initiated by Rome, regained ground in what was left of Catholic education in France, in particular at the prestigious Faculty of Theology of Paris, now a private entity.

Yet, rhetoric vanished substantially from the French scene, educational or intellectual, for some 60 years.. In the early s a change began to take place, as the word rhetoric and the body of knowledge it covers began to be used again, in a modest and almost secret manner.

Knowledge of rhetoric was so dim in the early s that his short memoir on rhetoric was seen as highly innovative. Basic as it was, it did help rhetoric regain some currency in avant-garde circles. Psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan , his contemporary, makes references to rhetoric, in particular to the Pre-Socratics. Philosopher Jacques Derrida wrote on Voice. At the same time, more profound work was taking place that eventually gave rise to the French school of rhetoric as it exists today. This rhetorical revival took place on two fronts.

This was the pioneering work of Marc Fumaroli who, building on the work of classicist and Neo-Latinist Alain Michel and French scholars such as Roger Zuber, published his famed Age de l'Eloquence , was one of the founders of the International Society for the History of Rhetoric and was eventually elevated to a chair in rhetoric at the prestigious College de France.

He is the editor in chief of a monumental History of Rhetoric in Modern Europe. Philippe-Joseph Salazar on the French Wikipedia , until recently at Derrida's College international de philosophie, laureate of the Harry Oppenheimer prize and whose recent book on Hyperpolitique has attracted the French media's attention on a "re-appropriation of the means of production of persuasion". Second, in the area of Classical studies, in the wake of Alain Michel, Latin scholars fostered a renewal in Cicero studies.

They broke away from a pure literary reading of his orations, in an attempt to embed Cicero in European ethics. Meanwhile, among Greek scholars, the literary historian and philologist Jacques Bompaire , the philologist and philosopher E. Also French philosophers specialized in Arabic commentaries on Aristotle's Rhetoric. Links between the two strands—literary and philosophical—of the French school of rhetoric are strong and collaborative, and bear witness to the revival of rhetoric in France. Rhetoric is practiced by social animals in a variety of ways.

For example, birds use song , various animals warn members of their species of danger, chimpanzees have the capacity to deceive through communicative keyboard systems, and deer stags compete for the attention of mates. While these might be understood as rhetorical actions attempts at persuading through meaningful actions and utterances , they can also be seen as rhetorical fundamentals shared by humans and animals.

The self-awareness required to practice rhetoric might be difficult to notice and acknowledge in some animals. However, some animals are capable of acknowledging themselves in a mirror, and therefore, they might be understood to be self-aware and engaged in rhetoric when practicing some form of language, and therefore, rhetoric. Anthropocentrism plays a significant role in human-animal relationships, reflecting and perpetuating binaries in which humans are assumed to be beings that "have" extraordinary qualities while animals are regarded as beings that "lack" those qualities.


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This dualism is manifested through other forms as well, such as reason and sense, mind and body, ideal and phenomenon in which the first category of each pair reason , mind , and ideal represents and belongs to only humans. By becoming aware of and overcoming these dualistic conceptions including the one between humans and animals, human knowledge of themselves and the world is expected to become more complete and holistic.

The act of naming partially defines the rhetorical relationships between humans and animals, though both may be understood to engage in rhetoric beyond human naming and categorizing. Those animals do practice deliberative, judicial, and epideictic rhetoric deploying ethos , logos , and pathos with gesture and preen, sing and growl. The locus classicus for Greek and Latin primary texts on rhetoric is the Loeb Classical Library of the Harvard University Press , published with an English translation on the facing page. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the art of rhetoric in general.

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