Although subtle items can be created through the deductive process,  these measure often are not as capable of detecting lying as other methods of personality assessment construction. Inductive assessment construction begins with the creation of a multitude of diverse items. The items created for an inductive measure to not intended to represent any theory or construct in particular. Once the items have been created they are administered to a large group of participants.
This allows researchers to analyze natural relationships among the questions and label components of the scale based upon how the questions group together. Several statistical techniques can be used to determine the constructs assessed by the measure. Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis are two of the most common data reduction techniques that allow researchers to create scales from responses on the initial items. The Five Factor Model of personality was developed using this method. It also may allow for the development of subtle items that prevent test takers from knowing what is being measured and may represent the actual structure of a construct better than a pre-developed theory.
Empirically derived personality assessments require statistical techniques. One of the central goals of empirical personality assessment is to create a test that validly discriminates between two distinct dimensions of personality. Empirical tests can take a great deal of time to construct.
In order to ensure that the test is measuring what it is purported to measure, psychologists first collect data through self- or observer reports, ideally from a large number of participants. A personality test can be administered directly to the person being evaluated or to an observer.
Self-reports are commonly used. In an observer-report, a person responds to the personality items as those items pertain to someone else. To produce the most accurate results, the observer needs to know the individual being evaluated. Combining the scores of a self-report and an observer report can reduce error, providing a more accurate depiction of the person being evaluated. Self- and observer-reports tend to yield similar results, supporting their validity.
Direct observation involves a second party directly observing and evaluating someone else. The second party observes how the target of the observation behaves in certain situations e. The observations can take place in a natural e. Direct observation can help identify job applicants e. The object of the method is to directly observe genuine behaviors in the target.
A limitation of direct observation is that the target persons may change their behavior because they know that they are being observed. A third limitation is that direct observation is more expensive and time consuming than a number of other methods e. Personality tests can predict something about how a job applicant will act in some workplace situations.
A person is high in conscientiousness will ordinarily be less likely to commit crimes e. There are several criteria for evaluating a personality test. For a test to be successful, users need to be sure that a test results are replicable and b the test measures what its creators purport it to measure. Fundamentally, a personality test is expected to demonstrate reliability and validity. Reliability refers to the extent to which test scores, if a test were administered to a sample twice within a short period of time, would be similar in both administrations.
Test validity refers to evidence that a test measures the construct e. A respondent's response is used to compute the analysis. Analysis of data is a long process. Two major theories are used here; Classical test theory CTT - used for the observed score,  and item response theory IRT - "a family of models for persons' responses to items". Firstly, item non-response needs to be addressed. Non-response can either be 'unit'- where a person gave no response for any of the n items, or 'item'- i. Unit non-response is generally dealt with exclusion.
Literature about the most appropriate method to use and when can be found here.
- WHITE FANG (non illustrated).
- Business School Improves Learning, Research, and Placement Measures with TQM (ASQ Case Study).
- What other items do customers buy after viewing this item?.
- Cell Biology: A Short Course.
- Inside Her Head;
The conventional method of scoring items is to assign '0' for an incorrect answer '1' for a correct answer. When tests have more response options e. Dimensional approaches such as the Big 5 describe personality as a set of continuous dimensions on which individuals differ. From the item scores, an 'observed' score is computed. This is generally found by summing the un-weighted item scores.
- E-Book Catalog!
- Kindle Feature Spotlight.
- Testing Statistical Assumptions.
One problem of a personality test is that the users of the test could only find it accurate because of the subjective validation involved. Users of personality tests have to assume that the subjective responses that are given by participants on such tests, represent the actual personality of those participants. Also, one must assume that personality is a reliable, constant part of the human mind or behaviour. In the 60s and 70s some psychologists dismissed the whole idea of personality, considering much behaviour to be context-specific.
However, more extensive research has shown that when behaviour is aggregated across contexts, that personality can be a modest to good predictor of behaviour. Almost all psychologists now acknowledge that both social and individual difference factors i. The debate is currently more around the relative importance of each of these factors and how these factors interact.
One problem with self-report measures of personality is that respondents are often able to distort their responses. This is particularly problematic in employment contexts and other contexts where important decisions are being made and there is an incentive to present oneself in a favourable manner. Work in experimental settings  has also shown that when student samples have been asked to deliberately fake on a personality test, they clearly demonstrated that they are capable of doing so.
Hogan, Barett and Hogan  analyzed data of 5, applicants who did a personality test based on the big five. At the first application the applicants were rejected. After six months the applicants reapplied and completed the same personality test. The answers on the personality tests were compared and there was no significant difference between the answers. So in practice, most people do not significantly distort.
Nevertheless, a researcher has to be prepared for such possibilities. Also, sometimes participants think that tests results are more valid than they really are because they like the results that they get. People want to believe that the positive traits that the test results say they possess are in fact present in their personality. This leads to distorted results of people's sentiments on the validity of such tests.
Several strategies have been adopted for reducing respondent faking. One strategy involves providing a warning on the test that methods exist for detecting faking and that detection will result in negative consequences for the respondent e. Forced choice item formats ipsative testing have been adopted which require respondents to choose between alternatives of equal social desirability. Social desirability and lie scales are often included which detect certain patterns of responses, although these are often confounded by true variability in social desirability.
More recently, Item Response Theory approaches have been adopted with some success in identifying item response profiles that flag fakers. Other researchers are looking at the timing of responses on electronically administered tests to assess faking.
While people can fake in practice they seldom do so to any significant level. To successfully fake means knowing what the ideal answer would be. Even with something as simple as assertiveness people who are unassertive and try to appear assertive often endorse the wrong items. This is because unassertive people confuse assertion with aggression, anger, oppositional behavior, etc.
Statistical Inference Methods for Sparse Biological Time Series Data
Research on the importance of personality and intelligence in education shows evidence that when others provide the personality rating, rather than providing a self-rating, the outcome is nearly four times more accurate for predicting grades. Therefore with respect to learning, personality is more useful than intelligence for guiding both students and teachers. A study by American Management Association reveals that 39 percent of companies surveyed use personality testing as part of their hiring process.
However, ipsative personality tests are often misused in recruitment and selection, where they are mistakenly treated as if they were normative measures. More people are using personality testing to evaluate their business partners, their dates and their spouses. Salespeople are using personality testing to better understand the needs of their customers and to gain a competitive edge in the closing of deals. College students have started to use personality testing to evaluate their roommates. Lawyers are beginning to use personality testing for criminal behavior analysis, litigation profiling, witness examination and jury selection.
Personality tests have been around for a long time, but it wasn't until it became illegal for employers to use polygraphs that we began to see the widespread use of personality tests. The idea behind these personality tests is that employers can reduce their turnover rates and prevent economic losses in the form of people prone to thievery, drug abuse, emotional disorders or violence in the workplace. Employers may also view personality tests as more accurate assessment of a candidate's behavioral characteristics versus an employment reference.
But the problem with using personality tests as a hiring tool is the notion a person's job performance in one environment will carry over to another work environment. However, the reality is that one's environment plays a crucial role in determining job performance, and not all environments are created equally.
One danger of using personality tests is the results may be skewed based on a person's mood so good candidates may potentially be screened out because of unfavorable responses that reflect that mood. Another danger of personality tests is that they can create false-negative results i.
There is also the issue of privacy to be of concern forcing applicants to reveal private thoughts and feelings through his or her responses that seem to become a condition for employment. Another danger of personality tests is the illegal discrimination of certain groups under the guise of a personality test. Different types of the Big Five personality traits:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. BIM, functions, professional, construction. BIM can be defined as the development and the use of a computer software model to simulate the construction and operation of a facility.
BIM has been in use internationally for several years, and its use continues to grow.
It is one of the most promising developments in the Architecture, Engineering, Construction AEC industry and it has the potential to become the information backbone of a whole new AEC industry Eastman et al. BIM is continuously developing as a concept because the boundaries of its capabilities continue to expand as technological advances are made Joannides et al.
It is motivating an extraordinary shift in the way the construction industry functions. This fundamental change involves using digital modeling software to more effectively design, build and manage projects Nassar, BIM reflects the current heightened transformation within the construction industry offering a host of benefits from increased efficiency, accuracy, speed, coordination, consistency, energy analysis, project cost reduction etc. BIM has far reaching benefits in the construction industry in supporting and improving business practices compared to traditional practices that are paper-based or two-dimensional 2D CAD Eastman et al.
BIM is becoming more and more important to manage complex communication and information sharing processes in collaborative building projects. BIM serves all the stakeholders, e. A growing number of design, engineering and construction firms have made attempts to adopt BIM to enhance their services and products Sebastian and Berlo, ; Aibinu and Venkatesh, This paper starts with an extensive review of related literature.
The methodology of this study is then presented followed by reporting the results. The paper then closes with conclusion and recommendations. The adoption of BIM by the development community indicates an acceptance of its use and acknowledgement of its potential to improve the integration between procurement decisions and actual operational issues Lorch, BIM comprises collaboration frameworks and technologies for integrating process and object-oriented information throughout the life cycle of the building in a multi-dimensional model Sebastian and Berlo, Utilization of BIM requires collaboration among the contracting parties such as owner, architects, engineers, contractors, and facilities managers Eastman et al.
The use of BIM can increase the value of a building, shorten the project duration, provide reliable cost estimates, produce market-ready facilities, and optimize facility management and maintenance Eastman et al. By integrating BIM with construction project management and infrastructure lifecycle management solutions, project stakeholders can gain new efficiencies across the entire project lifecycle.
In addition to that, BIM model helps owners to achieve more control and more savings through the use of BIM in project design and construction Eastman et al. BIMs contain a rich information model related to the life cycle of a facility, and enable enhanced communication, coordination, analysis, and quality control McGraw-Hill Construction, BIM will reduce the waste of materials during construction and building management and eventually assist in sustainable demolition.
BIM models allows for a previously unimaginable array of collaborative activities; integrated inter-disciplinary design review, multi-model coordination and clash detection, and real time integration with other specialist disciplines for cost estimation, construction management etc. The D in the term of 3D BIM means "dimensional" and it has many different purposes for the construction industry. Wang explained BIM types as the following: With the integration of GIS, all the items in the site model would carry the exact location and elevation information X, Y, Z as they are in the real construction world.
BIM for life cycle facility management. Recent advancements in software have allowed contractors to add the parameters of cost and scheduling to models to facilitate value engineering studies; estimating and quantity take offs; and even simulate project phasing Holness, At its most basic level, BIM provides three-dimensional visualization to owners.
It used too as a marketing tool for potential clients and designers can employ this technology to demonstrate design ideas Azhar et al. Weygant viewed BIM as a tool that is used for model analysis, clash detection, product selection, and whole project conceptualization. Ashcraft presented how BIM is being used as follows: Maintainability can address the following areas: Ku and Taiebat found that companies utilize BIM in the following domain areas of construction management: Based on the above, it can be said that BIM has a broad range of application: BIM is transforming the way architects, engineers, contractors, and other building professionals work in the industry today Mandhar and Mandhar, A quantitative survey approach involving professionals Architects, Civil engineers, Mechanical engineers, Electrical engineers, and any other and any other related specialization in the construction industry in Gaza Strip, Palestine has been adopted.
The research was carried out in Gaza Strip, which consists of five governorates: Research population includes professionals Architects, Civil engineers, Mechanical engineers, Electrical engineers, and others in the construction industry in Gaza strip, Palestine as a target group. Convenience sample was chosen as the type of sample. Convenience sampling is a type of nonprobability sampling in which respondents are approached simply because they are "convenient" sources of data for researchers Lavrakas, In other words, they are selected because of their convenient accessibility and proximity to the researcher Dillman et al.
Personal delivery for the whole sample helped to increase the rate of response and thus the representation of the sample. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. First draft of the questionnaire was revised through three main stages, which are: Face validity was important to see whether the questionnaire appears to be a valid or not.
The questionnaire was presented to 12 experts in the construction industry with an average experience of 20 years, and their valuable comments regarding modification, clarity, addition or deleting some of the questions were taken into consideration. Pre-testing the questionnaire was done to make sure that the questionnaire is going to deliver the right data and to ensure the quality of the collected data Lavrakas, The pre-testing was conducted in two phases and each phase has been tested with 6 professionals in construction industry in Gaza Strip. The first phase of the pre-testing resulted with some amendments to rephrasing some words in the questions, and to add further explanation to some items to facilitate the understanding of the question.
The questionnaire was modified based on the results of the first phase of the pre-testing. After that, the second phase was conducted with the same 6 professional and it was sufficient to ensure success of the questionnaire, where there were no any queries from any professional and everything was clear. After the success of the second phase of the pretesting of the questionnaire, a trial run on the questionnaire was done before circulating it to the whole sample in order to get valuable responses and to detect areas of possible shortcomings Thomas, ; Naoum, A sample of around people is usually enough to identify any major bugs in the system Thomas, According to that, 40 copies of the questionnaire were distributed conveniently to respondents from the target group professionals in the construction industry in Gaza Strip.
Two tests were conducted: Statistical validity of the questionnaire. In quantitative research, validity is the extent to which a study using a particular tool measures what it sets out to measure. To insure the validity of the questionnaire, two statistical tests were applied. The second test is structure validity test Pearson test that used to test the validity of the questionnaire structure by testing the validity of each field and the validity of the whole questionnaire.
It measures the correlation coefficient between one field and all the fields of the questionnaire that have the same level of similar scale Garson, Internal consistency of the questionnaire was measured by the scouting sample the sample of the pilot study , which consisted of 40 questionnaires. It was done by measuring the correlation coefficients Pearson test between each item in one field and the whole filed Garson, The results revealed that the P-values are less than 0.
Thus, it can be said that the items of each field are consistent and valid to be measured what it were set for. Structure validity is the second statistical test that used to test the validity of the questionnaire structure by testing the validity of each field and the validity of the whole questionnaire. It measures the correlation coefficient between one field and all of the other fields of the questionnaire that have the same level of numerical rating scale Garson, It was found that the P value is less than 0.
Thus, it can be said that the fields are valid to be measured what it were set for to achieve the main aim of the study. Reliability is the degree of consistency or dependability with which an instrument questionnaire for this study measures what it is designed to measure Field, ; Garson, Two tests were used to measure the reliability: It was found that the correlation coefficient value is 0.
Thus, it can be said that the studied fields were reliable according to the Half Split method. This method is used to measure the reliability of the questionnaire between each field and the mean of the whole fields of the questionnaire. Thus, the result ensures the reliability of the questionnaire. As a result of the pilot study, some items have been selected; other items have been modified, while others have been merged, as well as some items have been added. Out of 45 functions that were derived from a thorough literature review, 16 functions were selected to be investigated in this study.
Factor analysis is a generic term which is concerned with the reduction of a set of observable variables in terms of a small number of latent factors. It has been developed primarily for analyzing relationships among a number of measurable entities. The underlying assumption of factor analysis is that there exist a number of unobserved latent variables or "factors" that account for the correlations among observed variables.
In other words, the latent factors determine the values of the observed variables Doloi, ; Doloi, ; Hardy and Bryman, ; Larose, ; Liu and Salvendy, ; Field, The main applications of factor analytic techniques are: Exploratory factor analysis EFA is used to identify complex interrelationships among items and group items that are part of unified concepts Field, The researchers make no "a priori" assumptions about relationships among factors.
Factor weights are computed in order to extract the maximum possible variance, with successive factoring continuing until there is no further meaningful variance left. The factor model must then be rotated for analysis Field, Appropriateness of factor analysis. The data was first assessed for its suitability to the factor analysis application which includes the following steps: The reliability of factor analysis is dependent on sample size. Factor analysis can be conducted on a sample that has fewer than respondents, but more than 50 respondents, and the sample size for this study was In other words, sample size should be at least 10 times the number of variables and some even recommend 20 times Field, ; Zaiontz, BIM functions contain 16 items and the sample size was Table 1 show the correlation matrix for the 16 variables of BIM functions.
It is simply a rectangular array of numbers which gives the correlation coefficients between a single variable and every other variable in the investigation Field, ; Zaiontz, As shown in Table 1 , the correlation coefficient between a variable and itself is always 1; hence the principal diagonal of the correlation matrix contains 1s. The correlation coefficients above and below the principal diagonal are the same. PCA requires that there be some correlations greater than 0.
For this set of variables, that most of the correlations in the matrix are strong and greater than 0. Correlations have been satisfied with this requirement. The results of these tests are reported in Table 2. The value of the KMO measure of sampling adequacy was 0.
Statistical Inference Methods for Sparse Biological Time Series Data
It was considered acceptable because it exceeds the minimum requirement of 0. Moreover, the Bartlett test of Sphericity was another indication of the strength of the relationship among variables. The Bartlett test of Sphericity was The probability value Sig. This indicated that the correlation matrix was not an identity matrix and all of the variables are correlated. According to the results of these two tests, the sample data of BIM funstions were appropriated for factor analysis.
An alpha of 0. Preferably, alpha will be 0. Communalities of BIM functions. Using the output from iteration 1, there were three eigenvalues greater than 1 Figure 1.