She was born into an educated upper-middle-class family in Paris; her mother, Jeanne Javal, was of Jewish origin and her father, the engineer Paul Louis Weiss, was Protestant. Her older sister, Louise Weiss, was a famous suffragette. Urged on by her mother and against the wish of her father, Jenny Weiss studied medicine, neurology and child psychiatry.
In she married Alexandre Roudinesco , a paediatrician who had emigrated from Romania, by whom she had three children. Her daughter Elisabeth Roudinesco also became a psychoanalyst. Jenny Roudinesco interned with the neurologist Clovis Vincent and was an assistant with the child psychiatrist Georges Heuyer from to At that time she met the child analyst Sophie Morgenstern. During the German occupation she joined the Resistance and, protected by false papers, she used her position to hide Jewish children and to prepare certificates of tuberculosis for young men likely to be sent to forced labour camps.
This public welfare warehouse was the home to young children abandoned by their mothers. Encouraged by Anna Freud and a study visit in the United States, she finally began psychoanalytic training in In she divorced Alexander Roudinesco and married Pierre Aubry, a mathematician. She engaged in pioneering work by introducing psychoanalysis into the world of non-psychiatric hospitals. While working at the polyclinic on the Boulevard Ney from onwards, she expanded her activities to the prevention of school problems and developed a sort of group therapy for kindergartens. After her retirement to Aix-en-Provence in , she helped promote Lacanianism in the south of France.
After the death of Pierre Aubry in , she returned to Paris, where she served as a training analyst. Piera Aulagnier was born in Milan, the daughter of a sixteen-year-old mother. After spending her first years in Egypt, she grew up with her grandparents in Italy. She studied medicine in Rome and moved to Paris in , where she completed her studies in psychiatry. She later underwent a second analysis with Serge Vidermann. They divorced in Piera Aulagnier specialised in the treatment of psychotics and worked at the Sainte-Anne hospital in Paris, where she read a weekly seminar from to Many of her publications were linked with this seminar.
Aulagnier's work, which stands in the tradition of Lacan, is considered to be one of the most important French contributions to psychoanalytic theory; however, it is not easy to understand. Her starting point is the communication of the psychotic and the question of the meaning of psychosis. Aulagnier stated that the specific factor underlying psychosis is an insoluble discordance between what the small child experiences and the meaning imposed by the mother's discourse. The system of delusional thinking is the attempt to resolve this contradiction.
Based on her clinical experience with psychosis Piera Aulagnier enlarged on the Freudian metapsychology and established a new theorization of the I: The agency called I is constituted by discourse and its task is the production of sense. She developed a number of new conceptions such as the "primal process" processus originaire , which precedes the primary and secondary processes. All three are processes of psychic "metabolisation": The representational mode is different for each of the three processes: When the primary and secondary processes fail to function normally, the individual regresses to the archaic level of the primal process, which infiltrates the mind and subsequently becomes the source of psychotic thought processes.
Piera Aulagnier died of lung cancer at the age of Her doctorate thesis on the subject "La prise de conscience", submitted to the university in , was not accepted due to her questioning of some basic ideas of Sigmund Freud. Marie Balmary published her findings five years later under the title L'homme aux statues [ Psychoanalyzing Psychoanalysis.
Freud and the Hidden Fault of the Father ]. Using Lacanian theory to psychoanalyse Freud, she explored his own family secrets. In particular she referred to Freud's rejection of the seduction theory sexual abuse in favour of the Oedipus theory infantile sexuality. According to Balmary, Freud developed a truncated conception of the Oedipus complex, in which the attempted filicide of Oedipus by his father Laius is expunged, in order to hide the transgressions of his own father: Jacob Freud's hidden fault was to have driven his second wife, Rebekka, to commit suicide because he wanted to marry Freud's mother, Amalie, who was already pregnant with young Sigmund.
Other Freud historians, however, declared that Balmary's assumptions were purely speculative. From the s, Marie Balmary's work centres on the task of enriching psychoanalysis with a spiritual dimension. She reads the work of Freud and the Bible in parallel and explores the analogies between them. For this purpose, she learned Hebrew in order to undergo a real exposure to the biblical texts closest to its original form. Marie Balmary practises psychoanalysis in Paris.
She is married and has two children. Ilse Rothschild was born in Mannheim, the only daughter of a German-Jewish family, who emigrated to France after Hitler's rise to power in She studied medicine and psychology in Paris, graduated in psychology in and specialised in psychiatry. After qualifying as a doctor of medicine, she worked from to as a senior physician in psychiatry. She was elected an associate member of the SPP in , and a full member in In Ilse Rothschild met Robert Barande , a French psychoanalyst, who also studied medicine and psychology in Paris.
They married in and had two children. Together they wrote a number of psychoanalytic texts, among others, on the history of psychoanalysis in France. In she published Le maternel singulier reissued in under the title: In it, she highlighted the "singular maternal" in creativity, which is hidden behind the father theme and above differences of sex and generations. The central theme is the human "appetite of excitation", on which Barande based her discussion of the evolutionary neoteny or lifelong incompleteness of man.
Ilse Barande also translated the complete works of Karl Abraham into French. Laurence Bataille was the only child of the writer and philosopher Georges Bataille Fig. Her parents separated in but did not divorce until Starting in the late s, Sylvia Bataille was a companion of the psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan, whom she married in , and with whom she had a daughter, Judith Bataille-Lacan. Laurence grew up close to her stepfather with her half-sister Judith. At the age of sixteen, she became the mistress of the painter Balthus, who made several portraits of her.
Laurence Bataille first entered an actress career. After a tour with her theatre company in Algeria in , she was a temporary member of the Communist Party and involved in promoting Algeria's independence. They had one daughter, Sandra, and divorced in Familiar with the ideas of Lacan since her youth, Laurence Bataille studied medicine and entered into training analysis with Conrad Stein in From to she acted as director of the Lacanian journal Ornicar? In she left the ECF, because she disapproved of the fact that Jacques-Alain Miller used Lacan's circular letters posthumously as legal texts.
Laurence Bataille, whom Lacan called his loyal Antigone, died of liver cancer in In her paper of the same title, she described the work of interpretation using as an example a dream which played an important role in her own analysis. Anne Annette Berman was born into a Jewish family. That year she bought a pharmacy in Paris, where she worked until She graduated as a doctor in , the subject of her thesis was the family of Boraginaceae. In she joined the Soroptimist Club, an international organization for business and professional women.
After undergoing analysis with Marie Bonaparte from to , she became her personal secretary in Although no practising analyst, she was elected a full member of the SPP in Anne Berman became known as a translator of numerous psychoanalytical works. Among others, she translated several of Sigmund Freud's works into French: Anne Berman had a lengthy affair - until the end of the s - with Adrien Borel , a French psychiatrist and in co-founder of the SPP. She was the great-granddaughter of a brother of Napoleon Bonaparte.
Marie Bonaparte grew up in the care of nannies and governesses and under the severe regiment of her grandmother. As a little girl she believed that her father, whose love she tried in vain to win, had collaborated with the evil grandmother in murdering her mother out of greed. In addition she felt herself responsible by her birth for her mother's death. From the age of seven onwards, she filled five notebooks with cruel fantasy tales, which served later as a basis of her analysis with Sigmund Freud. Her wish to study medicine remained unfulfilled. Her meeting with Freud in was not only the beginning of an analysis - which lasted with interruptions until -, but also of a close, lifelong friendship between them.
She was elected vice president of the SPP in When the Germans occupied France in , Marie Bonaperte decided that there would be no "rescue" of psychoanalysis like in Germany. Returning to Paris in , she saw herself as the bearer of the Freudian word, and like Anna Freud she opposed the theories of Jacques Lacan and Melanie Klein.
She translated Freud's work into French and as a vice president of the IPA she championed lay analysis. The writings of Marie Bonaparte are seen to be not as considerable as her eminent role in the history of French psychoanalytic movement. Bonaparte interpreted this murder as an unconscious death wish against the own mother put into action, and she plead for a therapy of psychologically disturbed criminals.
Bonaparte's study on Edgar Allen Poe is considered to be her most important contribution. She interpreted Poe's oevre as an attempt to come to terms with his dead mother who obsessed over him and rendered him impotent. Her interpretation of Poe implied a self-analysis: She stressed that the transition from clitoral fixation to vaginal pleasure could only be reached by a mixture of psychoanalytic treatment and surgical intervention - an operation which she underwent several times without success.
In her later essays on female sexuality Marie Bonaparte continued to take a psycho-biological approach. She was the first to observe an active phallic stage in the young girl, in which the clitoris corresponds to the phallus. This phallic activity toward the mother is sandwiched between two stages of passivity, first toward the mother, then toward the father.
For Bonaparte libidinal fixation on the "masculine" clitoris corresponds to a basically biological masculine character incorporated in the feminine organism. She saw this bisexual constitution of woman as a main obstacle to the development of normal sexuality. Marie Bonaparte died of leukaemia at the age of eighty. Denise Braunschweig-Demay was a proponent of the psychoanalytic psychosomatics in France.
She worked several years in child psychiatry, e. Standing in the classic tradition of Sigmund Freud, Denise Braunschweig made an essential contribution to the psychoanalytic theory of female sexuality. Her writings, mostly published along with Michel Fain, focused on subjects like narcissism, fetishism, object change in girls, cathexis of the female sexual organs, and the impact of sexual difference on the relationship to reality. Denise Braunschweig and Michel Fain conceived the notion of "censoring the lover in her" [censure de l'amante], which means that a mother's life as a lover "censors" the erotic feelings aroused by maternal care.
Her daydreams about her love life with the father of the child introduce the third party into the mother-child relation. This early state of triangulation is the basis for the infant's future Oedipal organisation. She studied medicine at the university of Budapest, where she qualified as a doctor. She survived the German occupation in Bordeaux, where she stayed with a friend of her family.
After the end of the war Elsa Breuer returned to Paris, where she practised as a Lacanian analyst. One of her analysands was the philosopher and sociologist Georges Lapassade, who, on the recommendation of Jacques Lacan und Daniel Lagache, began a nine-year analysis with Elsa Breuer at the end of the s. She lost the trial, because she had made the mistake of treating panel patients and signing the forms with "Dr. Breuer", although her Hungarian certificate was not recognised in France.
She was sentenced to a fine of more than Francs and could no more practice psychoanalysis. Elsa Breuer lived in Paris until The psychiatrist and psychoanalyst Elsa Cayat was born into a Jewish family in Tunisia. Her father, Georges Khayat, was a gastroenterologist, her mother worked in the legal profession. She grew up in Vincennes, a suburb of Paris, and studied medicine. She underwent psychoanalytic training and became a Lacanian analyst running a successful private practice in the 16th arrondissement of Paris.
She also worked as a writer and columnist. Among others, she wrote Charlie Divan , a fortnightly column with a wide range of psychological and social issues in the French satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo. On 7 January , Elsa Cayat was the only female victim murdered by the brothers Kouachi in their attack on the offices of Charlie Hebdo - presumably because she was Jewish. She left behind her companion, the Dutch shoe designer Paulus Bolten, and their daughter Hortense. Janine Chasseguet-Smirgel, the daughter of immigrant parents from Russia and Poland, was born in Paris. Her father, Jules Smirgel or Smirguel , was an engineer and a painter.
Following the war, Janine Chasseguet studied political science diploma in and psychology at the Sorbonne. From to she underwent psychoanalysis with Bela Grunberger , her future husband. Her work has focused on female sexuality, creativity and perversion, narcissism and the ego ideal as well as the application of psychoanalysis to art, literature, film, and politics. In one of her first papers Feminine guilt and the Oedipus complex she criticised Sigmund Freud's concept of a female penis envy by claiming that girls do not envy the penis for its own sake, but as a revolt against the omnipotent mother.
The wish to appropriate the paternal phallus and to depose the mother is the source of female guilt for Chasseguet-Smirgel. In her essays about creativity and perversion, Janine Chasseguet-Smirgel compared the authentic work of an artist with the fetishistic "false" object of a pervert. Creativity of an artist implies that he overcomes his regressive desire to return to the perfection of primary narcissism by projecting his ego ideal on paternal models. The pervert, however, succumbs to the "malady of the ideal" and preserves, often confirmed by his mother, the infantile illusion to own the idealized pregenital anal phallus and thus to be equal and even superior to his father.
Chasseguet-Smirgel stressed a structurally necessary polarity of an anal-phallic-destructive maternal world of regression and perversion and a paternal world of structure, law and creativity. The integration of these two worlds by Oedipal maturity, however, fails mostly. Sensitised by the fate of her own Jewish relatives who died in the Holocaust, Janine Chasseguet-Smirgel was particularly interested in psychoanalytic explanations of National Socialism. She interpreted the national socialist race ideology as the wish to expel aliens from the womb and to melt with the omnipotent mother represented by the group.
Janine Chasseguet-Smirgel died of leukaemia at the age of At the end of the First World War, Maryse and her aunt moved to London, where she entered Girton College and studied philosophy and psychology. In she began an analysis with Sigmund Freud in Vienna. After three sessions she broke off the treatment when Freud deduced from her dream that she was an illegitimate child - a fact that was confirmed by her aunt. She never learned who her parents were and assumed the name "Choisy" "Chosen".
In she became a journalist with the magazine L'Intransigeant and occupied an important position in the intellectual and art world of Paris. Maryse Choisy was a pioneer of investigative journalism and researched undercover in a brothel for her book about prostitution, Un mois chez les filles , which caused a scandal upon its publication.
As a leftist and feminist she fought for the women's right to vote. Maryse Choisy married the journalist Maxime Clouzet, the father of her daughter, Colette, born in At the end of the s, she met Teilhard de Chardin and converted to Catholicism. The result of her search for a benediction for psychoanalysis from the Catholic Church was that Pius XII issued an approval of a "serious psychotherapy" as long as it did not look for sexual causes and violate the confession.
She hoped this review of psychoanalysis and the human sciences would counter the Freudian atheism with a synthesis of psychoanalysis and spirituality. Besides psychoanalytic topics, the review discussed the subjects acupuncture, graphology, eastern religions and cultural events. Maryse Choisy published numerous books, novels, poems, essays and reports as well as works popularising psychoanalysis. In , she wrote her doctoral thesis about superstition, legends, manners and customs in in the Limousin region. In she was became a member of the SPP. Anne Clancier was particularly interested in the relationship between psychoanalysis and literature, which was also the subject of her lectures at the University of Nanterre and of numerous publications.
Drawing on Charles Mauron's method of "psychocritique", a psychoanalytic literary criticism, she analysed the unconscious fantasies and personal myths of an author. In analogy to the term of "contre-transfert", countertransference, she created the notion of "contre-texte", referring to the reader's reactions to the unconscious of the author. On the invitation of her aunt, she came for the first time to France at the age of She was analysed by the Swiss analyst Raymond de Saussure, who practised in New York from to In Margaret Clark-Williams came back to France, where she studied psychology with Daniel Lagache and received her clinical training from the child psychiatrist Georges Heuyer.
She underwent training analysis with Georges Parcheminey, her supervising analyst was John Leuba. Marie Bonaparte , who herself was a "lay analyst" without medical training, and Juliette Favez-Boutonier , the former medical director of the Claude-Bernard Centre, supported the case of Margaret Clark-Williams. The trial beginning in caused a sensation. Clark-Williams was first acquitted, but a second verdict in found her guilty - a disaster for lay analysis.
She completed her doctorate on the subject of baby diet and worked during the s as a physician at the Bretonneau hospital in Paris. In she, along with Marie Bonaparte and Georges Parcheminey, were opponents of a medicalisation of psychoanalysis by Sacha Nacht, then nominated director of the new Institut de Psychanalyse. Together with the liberal group of Daniel Lagache, Jacques Lacan and others, they formed a majority against Nacht, but the differences with Lacan were too great.
During a decisive session of the SPP, Odette Codet called for a motion of non-confidence against Lacan, which led to his dismissal as President of the SPP and the withdrawal of numerous members. Odette Codet herself was elected President of the SPP in , but due to illness she had to retire a year later. In it she highlighted the fact that conflicts increase in complexity with the age of the girl, and stressed that parental attitudes have a primordial role in the genesis and treatment of such conflicts. Myriam David was born into a Jewish family in Paris.
In she began the study of medicine in Paris, with the focus on paediatrics, and graduated in She was arrested at the end of and deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau, but she survived the concentration camp and returned to Paris in Simultaneously she received her psychoanalytic training at the Boston Psychoanalytic Institute. She returned to Paris in and, supported by Jenny Aubry , she established a psychotherapeutic consultation service at the Enfants Malades hospital. In she set up a therapeutic institution of foster family placements in Soisy-sur-Seine, which she directed until In she founded a children's unit within the Fondation Rothschild based on the model of the J.
Myriam David, who herself lost her mother at an early age, was a pioneer of infant psychiatry in France and was particularly interested in the consequences of an early separation from the mother. In the s she researched this subject in the child care centres Parent-de-Rosan and Amyot, here along with John Bowlby. The researchers accompanied these children until their fourth year. Myriam David used the notion of "empty behaviour" to describe depressed babies, which seemed to lack an internal world of representations and fantasies.
Using psychoanalysis as a critical lever, she highlights, for instance, the weak points in the notion of the universal and shows that the construction of universality in Kant and other thinkers depends on a masculine anthropology of sexual desire. Born as the fourth of seven children into a Catholic family of the great Parisian middle class, she grew up in a sexually repressive milieu characterised by nationalism and anti-Semitism. Her father, Henri Marette, was an engineer and artillery captain and her mother, Suzanne Demmler, was a trained nurse.
A traumatic childhood experience was the death of her elder sister, the favourite of her mother, who became depressed as a result, regretting that her less-beloved daughter was still alive. During her analysis she was able to emancipate herself from her familiar background, with the exception of her Catholic beliefs. Three years prior she met Jacques Lacan, whose ideas she shared on the central role of language and the linguistic structure of the unconscious.
After the war, they became close friends. Referring to Morgenstern's approach, she explained her technique of child analysis in her medical thesis on the subject of psychoanalysis and paediatrics in For her, child analysts should be a spokesperson for children and employ the language of childhood in analysing the child's thoughts. Her report on her analysis is a classical text in the field of child analysis. Dolto evolved a personal theory focused on the concepts of the "unconscious body image" and the "symbol-generating castrations" The body image is the unconscious symbolic incarnation of the desiring being, before it is able to say "I".
It is a representation without words reflecting the first relational experiences that develop from physical and psychical needs. Symbol-generating castrations mean the necessary separations from beloved partial objects and the renunciation of the symbiotic participation in the mother's body linked with archaic fantasies of omnipotence - for Dolto the condition of symbolization.
By means of these castrations, the child becomes a social being able to verbalise, with an unconscious body image corresponding to its physical ripeness. Psychoses, however, are connected with a mutilated body image, they originate in failed castrations, i. In Dolto opened the first Maison Verte in Paris, where children from birth to age three learn to deal with separation experiences in a protected way.
The model set a precedent and today there are Maisons Vertes in many countries. She died at the age of 79 from a serious lung disease. In the mids, her parents, whose ancestors were Alsatian and Spanish Jews, converted to the Christian faith. In the Dormandis emigrated to Paris, where Judith studied medicine after the end of the war and graduated in pathological anatomy in One of her fellow students was Jacques Dupont, in whose printing house she had worked and whom she married in In Judith Dupont began a four-year training analysis with Daniel Lagache and became a member of the Association Psychanalytique de France.
She worked as a child analyst in different institutions, among others at the Centre de Guidance de l'Aisne and the Centre Etienne-Marcel in Paris.
In addition, she established a private practice where she treated adult patients. One of the journal's main themes is the history of psychoanalysis, namely Hungarian psychoanalysis. She administers the heritage of Ferenczi in France as well as internationally and, like Maria Torok and Nicolas Abraham, she has fostered the high appreciation of Ferenczi in France.
In she received the Sigourney Award for outstanding achievement in psychoanalysis. From to she taught projective techniques at the Institute of Psychology at the Sorbonne. Later she had a second analysis with Serge Viderman. As well, she was a member of the International Association for the History of Psychanalysis since its foundation in In she was awarded the Maurice Bouvet Prize in psychoanalysis for three of her articles published in the review Topique during the s. In her book Aux carrefours de la haine published in , re-issued in under the title La souffrance et la haine , Micheline Enriquez provided new insights into paranoia, masochism, and what she referred to, after the Marquis de Sade, as apathy.
She showed that paranoiacs and masochists eroticize suffering and hatred, while those who are apathetic reject affects in order to maintain a distance from others, which is essential for them. She died at the age of 56 in an automobile accident. She was a granddaughter of Behanzin, the last independent king of Abomey. In she and her brother Max were sent to attend school in France. The subject of her thesis was the psychomotor development of African children from Senegal.
Another important teacher was Jenny Aubry , whose consultancy at the Fondation Parent-de-Rosan she attended. The EF stands in the tradition of Lacan's return to Freud. Juliette Boutonier, a daughter of teachers, was born in Grasse in the south of France. She attended school in Grasse and Nice and subsequently studied philosophy at the Sorbonne in Paris.
In she was one of the first women to take the state doctoral exam in philosophy. She taught at schools in Chartre and Dijon, while studying medicine in Dijon. In she wrote her medical dissertation on ambivalence, and in she qualified as a doctor of philosophy. In she took over the chair of psychology from Daniel Lagache at the University of Strasbourg. Like Lagache she strived for a synthesis of psychology and psychoanalysis. In she married the psychoanalyst Georges Favez A year later they both left the SPP in protest against the "dictatorship" of Sacha Nacht and his medicalization of psychoanalysis.
In Juliette Favez-Boutonier was appointed professor of psychology at the Sorbonne. Her main interest was clinical psychology. Like Lagache, she represented the values of a tradition inherited by Pierre Janet. In she established the first Laboratory of clinical psychology at the Sorbonne, which she led until her retirement in Marcelle Geber was born in Pavillons-sous-Bois, a suburb of Paris, as the younger of two sisters.
In she began her medical study in Paris, specialising in psychiatry under Jean Delay and Georges Heuyer. Shocked by methods of psychiatric treatment like straitjacket and insulin coma therapy, she preferred to specialise in paediatrics. At the same time she explored, on behalf of the World Health Organization, the development of young children in urban and rural milieu.
In she founded the first of three child guidance clinics at Aisne, where she was director until Marcelle Geber became especially known for her research on comparative developmental psychology in Africa between and She started in Kampala, Uganda, where she explored the psychological factors in the aetiology of kwashiorkor a nutritional deficiency disease , by comparing sick and healthy children.
In the following years she continued her research in several African countries, becoming part of an international comparative long-term study. Marcelle Geber found that African children were in a more advanced state of psychomotor development than European children, particularly marked in the first year of life. She suggested that the difference is attributable to the close body contact between African mothers and their babies throughout the first year.
Geber was the first to emphasize that kwashiorkor is not only associated with malnutrition but also with a disturbed mother-child relationship. Marcelle Geber was married to the Israeli artist Ben Banay Her father was a physician, her mother a violinist and music professor. Florence Guignard took singing and piano lessons, before she studied clinical psychology at the university of Geneva. She cooperated with Jean Piaget and conducted research studies within the frame of the Fonds national suisse pour la recherche scientifique.
Bion, Herbert Rosenfeld and Donald Meltzer. Florence Guignard lives in Paris as a psychoanalyst for children, adolescents and adults. The focus of her work lies in the sense of identity, femininity and maternity, the genesis of mental disturbances and problems of the psychoanalytic technique. An important motive in her decision of becoming an analyst was her childhood experience of not having been able to get access to her insane grandmother, whose speaking made no sense to her. Dominique Guyomard located her theoretical position between Lacan on the one side and Donald W.
Winnicott and Melanie Klein on the other. The focus of her work lies in questions of femininity. She stresses that the feminine super-ego is a maternal superego and women are always in danger to remain riveted to the pre-Oedipal mother in the desire for omnipotence. In order to understand the narcissistic bond which is characteristic of motherliness, Guyomard created the notion of the "narcissism of bond" ["narcissisme du lien"], situated in the mother-child-dyade and differentiated from the narcissistic object relation [relation narcissique d'objet].
In she graduated in philosophy and arts at the Catholic University of Louvain and taught French and Classics in Charleroi and Brussels from to Subsequently she moved to Paris to study psychology - with a focus upon psychopathology - and linguistics. At this time she participated in Jacques Lacan's psychoanalytic seminars and became a disciple of his. In the s she conducted research on the difference between the language of women and the language of men.
In addition to her teaching activities and her psychoanalytic private practice, she was active in the feminist movement, working together with numerous circles of women from different countries and cultures. In the s and s she concentrated on the conversion of her theoretical ideas into political practice. Luce Irigaray critiques the phallocentric logic of identity, according to which femininity is the negation of the male subject - psychoanalytically: Irigaray deconstructs this mirror image of sexual difference and develops "femininity" as the radically other independent of the logos and his power of definition, taking on ever-new forms between the concepts and images.
Bibliographie de l'Océanie - Persée
According to Irigary the girl is "expatriated" to the phallic order through the object change from the mother toward the father. Thus she loses the possibility of a female genealogy and a female desire. The only way out for a woman is the strategy of mimesis, which means submitting herself to the masculine views of women in a playful way. The unfaithful repetition of the views makes visible that women are something other than the view expressed. For Irigaray the autoerotic body experiences of women evade the phallocentric binary oppositions. The result is the "fluidity" and ambiguity of woman's language.
While Irigaray first tried to avoid a definition of femininity by consciously using ambiguities, she later sketched essential formulations of femininity. In An Ethics of Sexual Difference she pleaded for a non-complementary sexual difference, regarding each of the sexes as a whole and different from another. Luce Irigaray even goes so far as to put into play the urgency of female divinity.
She earned a university degree in philosophy, before emigrating from occupied France to Mexico in When the party leaders required the members to dissociate themselves from the Freudian theory, the Kestembergs as well as Serge Lebovici signed a manifesto in , in which psychoanalysis was condemned to be a reactionary ideology.
Later they retracted their position and left the Communist party. The same year she and her husband adopted a little girl, Catherine, who later became herself an analyst. She integrated techniques of group therapy into her analytic practice and together with Diatkine, Lebovici and others created individual psychoanalytic psychodrama.
In her writings she devoted herself particularly to the problems of adolescents, the anorexia and the "cold psychosis", i. Typical for the anorexia is the denial of the real body and its idealizing as an unreal and inaccessible object. The satisfactory incorporation is replaced by the lust of hunger and emptiness. With the cold psychosis the ego is pervaded by the ideal ego, and the external object constitutes a projection of the ideal ego.
The only possible relation is a fetishistic relation to the object. Julia Kristeva stands as one of the foremost French proponents of post-structuralism. She was born in Sliven in Bulgaria as the daughter of Stoyan and Christine Kristev; her father was a physician and a theologian. After studying linguistics at the University of Sofia, she came to Paris at the end of Under the supervision of Lucien Goldmann she completed her doctoral thesis Le texte du roman in She joined Tel Quel , a literary journal inspired by Jacques Derrida, and was a leading member of the editorial board from to , the year of the journal's discontinuation.
Hoping to connect the aesthetic avant-garde with the revolutionary political movement, the Tel Quel group was in contact with the Communist Party and visited Mao's China in Following this trip Julia Kristeva wrote her book Des chinoises , in which she compared the role of women in Chinese and Western culture. In the midst of the s she went into analysis with Ilse Barande. Kristeva's theoretical work centres on the investigation of the social symbolic systems. With the help of psychoanalysis and self-reflective structural linguistics, she explores the unconscious mechanisms of symbolic structures, especially those of the language.
For Kristeva the symbolic is not a static system but a process, which only functions by excluding something that she identifies, like Lacan, with the feminine. The excluded undermines the structures and evades a positive definition. Julia Kristeva presented the basic ideas of her complex thoughts in her most comprehensive theoretical work, Revolution in Poetic Language , which gave her an international reputation. Thus she makes visible the trace of the pre-symbolic - the bodily ground of speech and desire - within the symbolic. According to her, the unconscious is not only structured like a language, as Lacan postulated, but in addition it also contains the memory of the pre-lingual.
Kristeva called this infantile pre-symbolic - first undifferentiated and then accentuated by drive cathexis - the semiotic maternal "chora". After the entry into the symbolic order, the ego remains furthermore exposed to the operations of the semiotic - a source of psychosis as well as of creativity. Based on her distinction between the semiotic and the symbolic, Kristeva developed her theory of abjection in the s.
Abjection originates in the primal repression, when the child has to separate from the mother in order to become subject of the symbolic. What has been the mother, will turn into an abject. Kristeva's later texts are more concrete and more personal: Psychoanalytic case studies and literary analysis complement each other. Her studies on famous women, especially her trilogy Female genius about the philosopher Hannah Arendt, the psychoanalyst Melanie Klein and the writer Colette, as well as her novels can also be read as autobiographical projects.
According to Kristeva, the analyst writes his "secret autobiography" as metamorphized in each of his interpretations The secrets of an analyst. Paulette Erikson [Erichson, Erickson, Ericson], the daughter of a pharmacist in Colmar in Alsace, was a teacher before she began practising psychoanalysis.
In Paulette Laforgue had to undergo a hysterectomy and subsequently could no longer bear children. At the instigation of her husband she also underwent analysis with Sokolnicka and became an analyst herself. Her control supervisor was Heinz Hartmann. She first taught mathematics, when she married Serge Lebovici in , who later became a psychiatrist, psychoanalyst and president of the IPA. After the end of the war Ruth Lebovici decided to train as a psychoanalyst.
She underwent training analysis with Marc Schlumberger and was supervised by Jacques Lacan. Particularly known is Ruth Lebovici's paper Perversion sexuelle transitoire au cours d'un traitement psychanalytique about a patient with phobia, who developed a transitory sexual perversion in the course of a psychoanalytic treatment. Lacan discussed in an exemplary way Lebovici's case study in his Seminar IV on object-relations , proposing that the analyst's interpretation of the transference triggered the acting out of the patient's perverse fantasy. Such sort of "artefacts pervers", he argued, were the outcome of an analysis in which the place of the symbolic in the relation analyst-analysand was ignored.
At the same time she worked at the Fondation Parent de Rosan in Paris, a public institution for the temporary care of young children who had been abandoned by their mothers. Within the frame of a research project on hospitalism directed by Jenny Aubry , Rosine Lefort conducted the treatment of several psychotic and autistic infants, beginning in Two of these cases Nadia and Robert were presented by Rosine Lefort at Lacan's Seminar, and they are regarded as remarkably lucid examples of the clinical application of Lacanian concepts.
Rosine Lefort worked closely together with her husband, the psychoanalyst Robert Lefort , with whom she published her books. Rosine Lefort's case reports show clearly the existential function of the signifier in the subjectivation. According to the Lacanian terminology, the psychotic is stuck in an unmediated relationship with the Real and cut off from meaningful structures, which proceed via the signifier of the Other. For Lefort the analysis of the preverbal infant is particularly suited to show that the subject, before it speaks, "speaks in the Other", where it finds its significant place.
Anne Levallois was a jurist before she turned to psychology, anthropology and psychoanalysis in the early s. The mother of three children her married name was Colot , she participated at that time in literacy campaigns in Senegal. After her return to Paris she completed her diploma in clinical psychology and trained as an analyst with Serge Leclaire. Together with Myriam David and others she explored the relation of single mothers to their first child and subsequently worked as a psychologist at a Salvation Army institution for single mothers.
In she established a psychoanalytic practice in Paris, shortly before she divorced. From to she directed the journal Psychanalystes. Anne Levallois was particularly interested in the relation between psychoanalysis, biography and history. Original French spelling, punctuation, and capitalization are retained throughout. The text's frontispiece is an engraving in which the king's portrait in a medallion is held by an angel in a chariot.
The third engraving in the text shows the king on a throne and is accompanied by the following verse:. In reading the text, it seems that this verse refers to the king's tireless military endeavors. It seems a bit paradoxical, however, to draw attention to an invisible kind of mastery in the heading over an image that is meant to make the king's authority visible.
It also seems paradoxical to attempt to make authority visible by drawing attention to the king's mastery over passions he should not have. Suggesting that the king may have had uncontrollable urges would, one might think, only emphasize his humanness. As the work of Ernst Kantorowicz has demonstrated, an early modern European king's constitutional entitlement rested largely on his ability to repress the fact of his humanness via elaborately ritualized fictions of his divine status.
It would seem that underlining a dimension of the king such as his passions—a dimension he is not supposed to have—might serve not only to fit the king into a traditional stoic framework, but also to arouse the viewer's curiosity by drawing him or her outside the fixed moral and military boundaries to reflect on the passions and personal disorder edging those boundaries, in particular a king's own potentially disordering passions: The prose text thus invites the viewer to comb the image for residues of such disarray emerging from the vision of domination and reordering.
And indeed, if the dismembered limbs of Rage, Envy, and Sedition suggest a world of such lawlessness, the curious viewer can also find traces of the potentially unfixed passions of the king by easily matching the limbs of defeated passions first to those of the horses, and then, moving higher, to those of the king, as muscled and sinewy as the legs of the animals.
Of course, all limbs in the picture are always lower-order members. One goal of the image seems to be to reprocess lower-order images into containable trophies. The diorama as trophy epitomizes this movement, for, as the text notes, the king placed his passions "among his war trophies. The work of Michel Foucault has made critics aware, furthermore, that exclusion and policing, framing sexuality out of the picture which is what often happens in the representation of a monarch's body , are methods for deal-. Although in pieces, these figures, objects to be crushed by military and visual mastery, are nonetheless always hovering at the edge, as if it is their energy that keeps the wheels of the king's machinery of domination moving forward.
Like the burlesque king discussed by Mark Franko in this volume, the king mastering these liminal forces makes royal power, both political and personal, visible. If The Magnificent Triumph leaves the viewer more interested in the king's disorderly and uncontrolled ephemeral passions than in the parading of his permanent military control, other almanac images from the same year bring these passions into relief, containing them in a manner that makes them more visually available, if perhaps less powerful and interesting.
This image more overtly organizes the relation between disorderly affairs of passion and the ideally more stable affairs of state, legitimizing the king's passions, which had been, so to speak, rolled under the bed—or under the triumphal chariot of the previous image. Indeed, "legitimation" is the first modifier in the descriptive heading:. An Introduction New York: Routledge, , — The legitimate wishes of France for the marriage of the king, dedicated and presented by the love of virtue and by that of France itself to our invincible monarch Louis XIIII followed by the joy of the people, the desires for peace, and the wishes of renown, one in the hope of one day seeing a dauphin born, the other of soon seeing the Christian princes in perfect harmony, and the third the empire united to the crown of France; and below, the conquests of Monmedie, Mardic, St.
Venant, the shameful flight of the Spaniards from Ardres with the representation and victory, firm and solid support of the French monarchy. As the prose text states, the legitimized wishes or hopes for the legitimate passion of marriage are placed center-stage in this engraving, displayed in the middle of the image in a framed picture of the king holding out his hand to a woman dressed in the French queen's traditional wedding garb. A banner inside this interior image reads, "Great King place. Note as well that the interior picture is being presented to the king by the allegorical figure France, and that each of the two central figures, France and the king, is surrounded by similar characters: This combination of right and left imagery allegorical and historical echoes the visual play seen in The Magnificent Triumph see fig.
Here, however, the allegorical emerges not as dismembered Rage, Sedition, and Envy, but as full-bodied Peace, Joy, and Renown, legitimate passions carrying legitimate wishes for a Bourbon heir, for reconciliation between Philip IV and Louis XIV, and for an agreement with the Electors not to interfere in the events in Flanders. As such, these allegorical figures and their passions can be revealed and advertised. Particularly important is how this meeting of now-legitimated allegorical figures and the historical personages allows the entry of the king's passion into the scenario.
Or rather, how it allows the emergence of a legitimated and civilized form of the king's passion, the royal and regulated productive, heterosocial marriage represented within the framed image as if in an equation: To understand more fully how this equation factors passion into the scenario albeit now a stable and contained passion because set apart, legitimized and sanitized , it is necessary to find a way to re-bisect this image, shifting from the grid set out to frame our gaze, that is the division between left allegory and right history , to a different split between top and bottom high and low.
To do so, one must resist the temptations of the framing scene and look at details or limits—in this case, limbs. Despite examining a large number of engraved images, however, we found it difficult to be sure of exactly who is in the picture. Note, as well, the addition of Anne of Austria to the group. She was not present in the battle scene of Le Triomphe Magnifique. In adopting this perspective, it is evident that even legitimized sexuality that is, the framed image is a lower-order member, occupying the domain of the king's own lower-order member, his iconic leg.
The idea that procreation, and therefore sexual bodies erect penises or women , are a necessary if knotty or naughty aspect of monarchy is also reinforced by the fact that the king's limb is situated opposite the medallion held by the Wishes of the people: The restrained, legitimized, framed scenario of heterosociality that the allegorical figure France offers the king thus plays off the less restrained sexuality of the leg.
The status of framed images as a basis or limb of the monarch's power can be more fully examined in another almanac engraving in which the king is being shown a collection of portraits of potential queens fig. In this image, where the issue of marriage takes center stage, the passion eliminated from or crushed in The Magnificent Tirumph and allowed,. Knopf, , — Schama notes that legs are seen as lower order, a sign of a fallen woman and wantonness in Dutch painting of the period.
Misprints are not uncommon in these images, and, of course, the rules of grammar were not conventionally followed or even in existence as we know them today. The gifts estrennes are probably those given on the New Year, a theme in keeping with the almanac, although a second possibility might be that these are gifts offered at the beginning of a new undertaking, a foretaste of things to come. As such they would mark the king's maturity and potential entry into matrimony upon the successful completion of the military campaigns.
The latter, figured in the top corners of the graphic, recede into the margins or frame of the page, acting as pendants to the cameos below depicting the king's new field of action. The banner above focuses exclusively on the field of the portraits, the scene within the proscenium arch, emphasizing that the king will make a choice from among the offered gifts, women chosen by the Virtues from "all the provinces of Europe.
The virtues, charmed by the merit of our great monarch, after having chosen from all the provinces of Europe, those they found the most perfect and accomplished, come to present to him whom they consider their protector, ex-. Perhaps the most useful overview of the genre of the portrait-within-an-engraving is the chapter on portraiture in Erica Harth's Ideology and Culture in Seventeenth-Century France Ithaca: Cornell University Press, For an interesting discussion of the nature of portraits of women in Renaissance Italy, see Patricia Simons, "Women in Frames: Although it is disappointing that Simons does not actually fulfill her proposed agenda to offer not only a social and historical analysis of the female gaze but also a psycho-sexual one, her readings of portraits of women, particularly her analysis of the use of such portraits for dynastic purposes marriage, displaying riches and of the way women were positioned within the portraits, are quite suggestive for understanding the portraits within almanac engravings.
For information on portraiture in classical France that is not specifically concerned with the issue of portraying women, see Francis Dowley, "French Portraits of Ladies as Minerva," Gazette des beaux arts , May—June , —86; and Lorne Campbell, Renaissance Portraits: The emphasis on choice here is important and can be understood in terms of the framework provided by Marcel Mauss's observations about the activity of gift exchange as a practice in which relations of submission transform the physical violence of the battlefield into symbolic interaction.
One possible action, albeit a dangerous one, is for the recipient to choose not to reply with a gift in turn. According to Mauss, such behavior is the strongest possible response, for it is a display of independence and this is the sovereign position. Here the king adopts a version of that posture by not accepting just any gift, but by choosing among gifts, in a kind of fairy-tale fantasy of the king choosing from the fairest in the land. Thus, if there is a veritable explosion of choice in this image, that multiplicity does not privilege the possibility of royal disorder because of either submission, sexual excess, or polygamy.
Rather, it offers the king the possibility of displaying his power over his passions and over the allegorical women who present him with gifts, in that it shows him exercising his power to make "a happy choice. Looking at the image, one cannot help but recognize that a choice has already been made. Only one of the five cameos is completely visible, the one suggestively situated to the right of the king's leg, as if ready to slide up along the limb—the limit separating the allegorical and historical registers—to join the royal family. Even if the king does not look directly at his chosen princess, she is the choice displayed for the viewer.
Ian Cunnison New York: Von Sturmer, and Rodney Needham Boston: Situated diagonally opposite an unframed image of her predecessor, Louis XIV's mother, Anne of Austria, the cameo is the only image that might compete with the king's for the viewer's interest. The other portraits are partly obscured by plants and by the bodies of the Virtues holding them. Something is also missing from the portrait of the chosen princess: Indeed, the dissonance between the king's full body and the truncated, framed, cameo image of the queen is striking.
Her body seems to be another version of the truncated historical figures surrounding the king, although in the case of the queen the truncation echoes the tension of the gift-exchange paradigm. Just as gift exchange abbreviates and reprocesses potential social violence into a containable, symbolic activity, so too does the cameo "police" the potentially disruptive parts of the woman.
If an unmarried woman has been allowed to enter into the picture, it is only insofar as she is framed and contained in a form as easily distributed among the courts of Europe as the almanac engraving could have been passed around among the streets of the realm. There is no danger of this female image walking around: In both cases gift exchange and kinship exchange , tension over the unseen social aggression does not disappear; it is simply policed by the structure. So, too, the almanac engraving has found a way to circumscribe the necessity of the limbs sexual body parts supporting the sovereign performance by making them at once visible and invisible.
This image was brought to my attention in a talk by Sarah Hanley given at Harvard in March She showed several images illustrating the adage "femme sans teste tout en est bon," including one by Jacques Lagnet that dates to BN, Cabinet des Estampes, Collection Hennin, no. The illustrated proverb seems to suggest that if you can separate women's bodies from their heads they will be rendered harmless.
In the image, however, the idea seems to be to get rid of the head. In the almanacs it is the bodies that are missing. Since no other information is available about this proverb, it is impossible to comment further except to suggest that the contrast merits further consideration. The iconographic topoi of The Gifts are not new to the marriage of Louis XIV, but actually repeat and popularize an image predicated on many of the same dynamics between war and marriage, framing and curiosity, politics and sexuality, seen in the almanac images: Rubens's painting of Henri IV receiving the portrait of his intended bride fig.
In the Rubcns image, illustrated here by an eighteenth-century engraved reproduction, Henri IV has discarded the trappings of war at the sight of his intended wife. In The Gifts of see fig. Is it possible that The Gifts makes a subtle pun on Rubens's painting by replacing the cheerful cherubs at the bottom with two caryatid-like figures straining to support the proscenium arch? The lion's skin between them underlines their herculean effort, reminding the viewer of at least two forms of labor behind making a royal alliance: And they are not playing with the trappings of war, but seriously displaying them, exhibiting the lion's head-helmet on the right and tail-helmet on the left along with the medallions of the battlefield.
Rubens's image also includes the battlefield in the distance, evaporating in a wisp of smokc. Indeed, in the Rubens it seems as if there is no need for any boundary between the allegorical and the historical images. Likewise, there seems to be no need to place the object of desire the framed image on a lower register than the king. Of course, Rubens's painting and the almanac engraving are different genres with different formats. The first is a large, 3. The works are also the product of two distinct historical moments: Rubens's piece was painted in the s to describe earlier events, and the almanacs were printed in the late s contemporaneous with the events they depict.
One might, nonetheless, pause over the way sexuality seems less fraught, more noble, in the portrayal of Henri IV looking at Marie. Perhaps that is because the image was painted after the king's death and his establishment as the virile Roi vert gallant. It seems as if queens are allowed out of their frame only after the consummation of marriage and of the accords on which it was founded.
The relation between the full-bodied king and framed queen is clarified when Rubens's painting is juxtaposed with another almanac from the year , "The Celebrated Assembly of the Court. This engraving illustrates both the similarities with and differences from Rubens's image, most particularly in the position of the cameo portrait as it is being shown to the king, but also in the relation between the registers of history and allegory and in the juxtaposition of the images of war and passion, all of which affect the presentation of the potentially disorderly political bodies' roles in the it is to be hoped more ordered affairs of the body politic.
Once again, it is the banner over the image that guides our reading: A new element in the staging of the period between war and marriage appears in this heading: Auguste Durand, , During the course of the illness, the king almost died: Of course, in recording the progression of the ailment, the king's physician Vallot was understandably reluctant to suggest that the illness was in any way connected to the monarch's being a weak physical specimen.
Concern expressed for the young king during the crisis and convalescence was, therefore, also concern expressed for the health of the Bourbon dynasty. Less than a decade after the crises of the Fronde, and in the midst of victories against the long-time enemy, Hapsburg Spain, the tide seemed to be turning in favor of the Bourbon dynasty, which could at last look forward to the assumption of power by a young and virile king.
Were Louis XIV to have succumbed to his illness in July , the vigor of the body politic would have been far less certain. For the crown would have passed to his younger brother, the duke of Anjou. He would have been a less compelling monarch in the French imaginary, since there were already grave reservations about his ability to procreate, let alone rule. It was apparently no secret that the duke of Anjou took after his father, Louis XIII, a king more interested in the bodies of other men than in the more manly affairs of the body politic or state.
Thomas E Mayer and D. University of Michigan Press, , — In this context it seems likely that Louis XIV's "scandalous" romance with Marie Mancini, begun during the king's convalescence and coming to an end only with his marriage in , may have been utilized or even staged by Mazarin to demonstrate to the country that the king's body was once again in good working order after his brush with death.
Note how, in figure 2. Such usage is not surprising in a genre popular in this period not only as a way to introduce potential queens, but also as a way to memorialize dead persons. In the face of such dire events, it is not surprising that he king's mortal body, framed or missing in France Resuscitated , is the very first focus of The Celebrated Assembly see fig.
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Our august monarch is admired on his throne, adorned only by his healthy appearance, because the brilliance of it is so beautiful that it takes away the luster of the richest clothing that he wears. The queen his mother, the duke of Anjou his brother, the duke of Orleans, and the prince of Conty are regarded with the respect owed to the Majesty of one and the conditions of the others. Flanders, reduced to his mercy, expresses simultaneously by her silence both her admiration and astonishment,.
Cornell University Press, , Son Eminence, le Chancelier, les M. This image and its prose heading underscore the relation between the health of the king's body and that of the state; in so doing, they legitimize curiosity about the king's mortal body. Indeed, in its insistence that the king is adorned only by his healthy appearance bonne mine , the heading focuses attention on the monarch's mortal body. But although the king's power or health is supposed to be discerned by looking at his body alone, a large number of accouterments establish his power qua health in the picture more forcefully.
In fact, one perceives the king's "bonne mine" meaning not just face, but countenance or bearing in large part from what drapes it, since most of the healthy body is obliterated by clothing. Only the face, the hands, and a leg are visible. The last item, the leg, is actually covered by a silk stocking, although its contour is emphasized, not effaced, by that clinging material.
And yet, despite the encasing garments, the eye is drawn to the royal body not just because of the words over the image but because of what one is supposed to admire. The real object of our interest, while covered over, is also exposed, or signified by the leg and scepter rising from it, both now clearly identified with power, sexual.
The healthy appearance that indicates the victory over the disorder of disease is thus a celebration of successful arms or legs —or rather tools—the most successful of all being the king's sexual potency his ability to stay erect on the battlefield, in his sickbed, and in the marital chamber. In it, the king's mortal-sexual body is an asset to state-building and not the liability it has been too often categorically deemed when evaluated within the framework of constitutional fictions of monarchy generated around funerary symbolism.
It may not be the king's sexuality that is a problem in this image, but rather the fact that displaying sexuality requires other images and props stockings, women, and so on. Louis Marin and Claude Reichler both note the tension in this painting between the sexuality of Louis XIV's leg and the aging face, a tension they argue undermines the power of the image.
Their interpretations are clearly inspired by the Kantorowicz-Giesey paradigm, internalizing the funeral ritual's logical lack of focus on the king's sexuality. Indeed, in their analyses of this painting both Marin and Reichler focus on sexuality only in terms of decay, the dissonance between Louis XIV's iconic leg and his aging face as portrayed in the painting. One important point to make here is that although this costuming may seem quite effeminate by our standards, silk stockings and high-heeled shoes were the norm at Louis XIV's court. It is generally accepted that the adoption of such excessive style helped Louis XIV to transform his noble class into a court society from a warrior class.
In both cases the critics follow Kantorowicz's formula, focusing on the tension between the king's aging upper body and the iconic sexuality of the leg. Again, Marin focuses on the mortal body as decaying, not victorious. Portrayed alone, it is as if Louis XIV's potency were innate and eternal, rising like the phoenix out of its own ashes in a vision of absolute, onanistic masculinity. Therefore, as Marin and Reichler suggest, the image is ultimately about decay, for the king alone is sterile.
In The Celebrated Assembly , however, as well as in the other almanac engravings considered here, the young virile king is posed or framed not just by his royal robes and by the usual lines of the architectural backdrop or stage, but by the group setting that includes those with whom he still shares the spotlight: Here, however, the potential threats to the king's power—ill health, sexuality, military insubordination—are contained by the various enclosures, of which frames and clothing are two examples.
As such, the process of celebrating the king is that of celebrating the assembly around him as well as the assembled images and objects. This process plays out the etymological meaning of allegory: Here the figurative other is not just the king's masculine power or his prospective bride, but also his dependence on other limen: Without these elements, would the king's power be secure?
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Such dependence is nowhere to be seen in Riguad's image of the mature, well-ensconced Sun King. Indeed, it is the other assembled "bodies," liminal to the king's centering image, that finally attract the viewer's attention in a picture where. These other bodies highlight this passion and offer an acceptable field on which to display or stand the king's desires. Just as the drape of clothing serves to enhance interest in the real site of his male power, so too do modestly dressed and submissive allegorical figures and cameo images with missing bodies Rage, Envy, and Sedition's limbs amputated and framed into submission also safely pique our interest first in the king's own well-wrapped limb, and then in the process of peace.
But this process of allegoresis, or speaking of the unspeakable other in a manner suitable to public assembly, is more complex. For if the unspeakable urges are wrapped up, might they not reemerge in the engraving to disrupt the happy family picture of the successful, virile, and healthy king on his throne, a king with appropriate political and sexual fantasies?
Indeed, could not some alternate, competitive desires lurk in the hearts of those happily assembled family members and courtiers? Could disordering fantasies or bodies transgress this scene of family romance? Answers to these questions may be found by considering the figure on the far left edge of The Celebrated Assembly , the king's younger brother, the duke of Anjou. As previously noted, he was next in line for the throne should Louis XIV die or his projected marriage prove sterile.
This potential pretender is the only member of the assembly whose full body is portrayed in the upright position. Interestingly, the frame around the image cuts off the duke's right leg, the very member so prominently displayed by the king on his throne. Does the duke's walking stick, an object longer than the king's scepter, compensate for the elimination of his leg? Note as well that although it totters at the edge of the focal field, the body of the duke of Anjou nonetheless occupies a unique position or site: Is it perhaps because of the brother's own liminal position that he, like the potential queen, stands in the register of the king's limb?
For in he was the least significant smallest and youngest in the royal family, but also crucial because next in line for the throne. Or might his position be, rather, a function of his well-known effeminate tendencies, an urge apparently encouraged in order to further enhance the power of Louis XIV and yet also elided when the duke was married off twice to safeguard the continuity of the Bourbon dynasty. The duke's position is parallel to that of the "imagined" queen who is also necessary yet peripheral, hopefully fertile yet visually castrated.
In the engraving, Louis XIV seems to cast his glance more in his brother's direction than in that of the "picture. As the king recovers his health and the marriage treaty is negotiated and signed, the new queen will replace the prince as the object of such anxiety, being seen in contemporary terms as the vessel necessary for the Bourbon dynastic procreation, but also invoking the memory of the enemy, Philip IV, her father, and his coveted Spanish-Hapsburg throne. It is at this point that she will become the central propping and anxiety-provoking image of the fictions generated on the eve of the treaty marriage.
In , however, it is another female figure who visually mediates such unspeakable fantasies, again in the form of a disembodied female head, this time of another former Spanish infanta who became a French queen, Louis XIV's mother, Anne of Austria, a woman intimately acquainted with all sorts of disorders or liminal phenomena: As a still-present trace of such liminality, however, she is also the visual proof that if disorderly, ephemeral passions or props cannot be fully contained by representational frames, they can at least be utilized and fashioned—shaped—to fit into the larger image of, or frame for, a stable, absolutist, body politic.
In recognizing the role of such liminal images in state-building, one begins to recognize how such fictions have been groomed out of the picture by scholars who examine the portrayal of the king's body solely from the perspective of the political fiction of "the king's two bodies. Stanford University Press, Hanley's discussion of Anne of Austria's transgressive role in Louis XIV's own lit de justice is particularly interesting in light of the idea that she understood the possible symbolic impact she could have on legitimizing her son's ritual activities.
The images examined in this essay were not generated from the funereal model, but were created out of the fictions of marriage. In such a context, highlighting the king's mortality would not be detrimental to, but rather fundamental to, making the ruler and his rule seem strong. In the almanac images considered here, display of the king's mortal body as healthy and virile plays a crucial role in state-building, as do all the props and players—persons, limbs, and frames—that work with him to project his and the state's vitality.
Of course, as the king moves beyond the liminal period between war and marriage, such props and bodies may no longer profitably serve to structure his image. Rather, they become distractions, divertissements , in a symbolic logic predicated on promoting his divine autonomy and authority. The representations of this later period have been productively accounted for by scholars working from the Kantorowicz paradigm precisely because these images do not contain and display liminal. Gender studies frequently identify travesti with deviations from patriarchal dominance in Western society or as a form of masculine anxiety.
It is thus surprising to encounter cross-dressing as a spectacular element in the theatrics of French patriarchal rule, indeed even as a royal performance practice. Considering the period just prior to and including the first decade of Louis XIV's personal reign, one may wonder why the monarch played an impressive number of burlesque and, particularly, cross-dressed roles between and More pressing still, to what end—sociosexual, anthropological, iconographic—could the absolute monarch be said to appropriate burlesque cross-dressing in the light of his implicit yet irrevocable interdiction of burlesque ballets in his founding doctrine of dance pedagogy, the Letters Patent?
The author views the evidence as inconclusive and partial but notes that the king's cross-dressed roles included a Bacchante, a Muse, an Hour, a Fury, a Dryad, Jupiter disguised as Diane, Ceres, a village girl, and a nymph on two separate occasions. David Lee Rubin Washington: Folger Shakespeare Library, , 73— Cambridge University Press, , app.
That this has not been the case is due in part to absorption in preliminary work by a myriad of details that yield little cohesiveness. Moreover, further facts may still emerge. But there is no reason to forestall interpretation indefinitely. Traditionally, dance scholarship has restricted its efforts to the compiling and collating of evidence as if the supposed sensory status of this evidence were sufficient for dance.
This was merely a way to postpone the encounter of dance and critical theory. I do not shun the facts I can muster, but they frequently have to be wrested from a dense yet fragmentary textual network. That is, they are in part based on the evidence organized by earlier scholarship, and in part the effect of a process of reading.
I examine these fragments of evidence, however, not only to engage with the historical density of their factual status, but also to ask how royal performance and royal ideology fashioned one another. This relationship is intrinsic to dance studies in that what was performed was chosen equally for ideological and aesthetic reasons.
Above all, an understanding of royal cross-dressing is vital to any reassessment of power and representation in the seventeenth century, if only because of its problematic relationship to propaganda. The monarch's appearances or representations were thus studied as the outcome of others' calculations rather than as the personal expression of his own political acumen.
Agency, in other words, becomes an effect of representation, and power is a term for disembodied agency exerted by representations of the king. In Marin's account, power exerts a certain performativity: The representation of power brings with it a certain self-assurance. For a representation to be of power , it must simulate power's own effects in the viewer.
It achieves this by causing itself to be doubly felt, as if self-confirming.
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Marin deduced this seventeenth-century strategy from analyses of maps, medals, portraits, and historical narratives. More precisely, all such media employed in the seventeenth century to disseminate the king's prestige presuppose that the visible is governed by a reading and, reciprocally, that what is read produces an image. In Marin's terms, absolutism is a semiotic system in which the visible and the legible become each other's confirming context.
Through such incursions of the descriptive into the narrative and of the narrative into the descriptive, reception becomes predetermined, if not overdetermined. In other words, a kind of agency is lent to represcntation. This aesthetic of self-confirmation could be applied equally well to the king's roles in court ballets and their accompanying verse, which, spoken to the action, serves as "legend" to the performance's "image.
Ironies between the visible and the verbal in travesti roles are not self-confirming. When a role ironizes on its verse text, mutual reinforcement is stymied. Alternatively, if there indeed is a presencing effect, it acts to impose a multiple and decentered royal subject. That is, it confirms only the simulacral part of Marin's formula: Consequently, cues as to action must be surmised from the verse itself, unless one derives help from costume or scene sketches.
In all the other official arts, the king's body is portrayed—made present—as the "presencing effect," but in burlesque style self-confirmation is troubled. Despite the most specialized skills, performance always entails physical risks that place the perfect symmetry of power and representation at risk. Dance in particular is founded on an inherently fallible, even if dependably virtuosic, human performance before onlookers. When it comes down to the body, court ballet offers resistances to the larger project of royal portraiture.
How, for example, does a body mythically identified with the state—at its center, so to speak—represent power while remaining perpetually at risk and in danger of losing face? If dancing in royal ballets constitutes the property and propriety of the king's physical performance—the aesthetic glue of the body natural to the body politic—how is the ideology of absolutism furthered in the transgression of its aesthetics of reception by the cross-dressed king?
Cross-dressing was a regular feature of burlesque ballets, a court ballet genre that contested monarchical power by satirizing its most political performances. Burlesque works, especially between and , were formally self-conscious, structurally open ended, and politically allusive, and, as such, they disrupted prior court ballet traditions such as the centrality of a spoken or sung text, the human figure's recognizably noble status, and its erect and staid dancerly demeanor, all of which had characterized composite spectacle.
The most virulent burlesque works of the s satirized the melodramatic ballets sponsored by Richelieu to glorify Louis XIII. At the time of Louis XIV's productions, there were no longer any obviously burlesque ballets, only scattered burlesque roles. A muted burlesque survived into. See Franko, Dance as Text , 32— The stated goal of such performances was frequently the harmonization of the genres whose most patent demonstration occurred in the geometrical dance itself.
This document reveals how the monarch proposed to and did extend his control over oppositional choreographic initiatives by usurping and regulating dance pedagogy. The Letters Patent do not treat the creation of ballets, addressing instead the more fundamental pedagogical issue of how people should be trained to move.
They undergird the institution of dance as an art under royal surveillance. I interpret the institutionalization of dance as a preventive measure, as insurance against the unsettling return of burlesque performance. In geometrical dance, bodies were given over to the strategic project of royal self-representation, their movements organized to spell the monarch's name or visually to symbolize his presence.
Such "figures" were composed by group patterns within which the body lost its distinctively individual traits. Dancers performed geopolitical configurations of the king's space—the provinces, for example, whose cooperative spatial arrangement produced the nation. Composite spectacle was thus a spectacle of the power in the spatial coordination of bodies, and geometrical dance was its choreographic realization.
Approximately thirty years after the cultural dominant of composite spectacle, but within a still-evolving ballet culture, burlesque works challenged the structural, kinesthetic, and generic expectations of what court. Composite spectacle was dominated by the workings of proportion, generically, musically, and spatially.
Although he did not specifically address performance, Michel Foucault's comment on the role of geometry in absolutism seems uncannily apt in this context: Gallimard, ], 20; my translation. In the face of ballet's hegemonic image as an official celebration of monarchical legitimacy and might, translated into terms of overwhelming aesthetic opulence, burlesque works must have appeared outwardly transgressive, from both the aesthetic and the political perspectives, although burlesque works were also, in their own way, quite opulent. By displacing previous emphasis on spatial patterning, this new burlesque genre appears to have contradicted the venerable choreographic tradition of geometrical dance.
Frequently grotesque individuals or groups drew attention to their own peculiarities in costume and movement. Burlesque works were not populated by delicately suspended and uncannily immobilized dancers tacitly complying with one another's mapping of a harmonious state. Rather, burlesque figures danced unpredictable gestures, their bodies writhing and twisting downward or propelled precipitously into the air.
These were certainly not "noble" figures in ways earlier defined, and their choreography was not the measured and expansive one of courtly social dance, as adapted for geometrical patterning. It has a membership of over companies in over 65 countries. They have the experience of working for international customers and understand the importance of complying with the requirements of a single customer and exceed their expectations of service and responsiveness.
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