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Spatial intelligence involves the potential to recognize and use the patterns of wide space and more confined areas. Interpersonal intelligence is concerned with the capacity to understand the intentions, motivations and desires of other people. It allows people to work effectively with others.

omyhukocow.tk | Howard Gardner, multiple intelligences and education

Educators, salespeople, religious and political leaders and counsellors all need a well-developed interpersonal intelligence. Because of their close association in most cultures, they are often linked together. However, he still argues that it makes sense to think of two forms of personal intelligence. Gardner claimed that the seven intelligences rarely operate independently. They are used at the same time and tend to complement each other as people develop skills or solve problems. In essence Howard Gardner argued that he was making two essential claims about multiple intelligences.

The theory is an account of human cognition in its fullness. Human beings are organisms who possess a basic set of intelligences. People have a unique blend of intelligences. These intelligences, according to Howard Gardner, are amoral — they can be put to constructive or destructive use.

However, it has met with a strongly positive response from many educators.


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It has been embraced by a range of educational theorists and, significantly, applied by teachers and policymakers to the problems of schooling. A number of schools in North America have looked to structure curricula according to the intelligences, and to design classrooms and even whole schools to reflect the understandings that Howard Gardner develops. The theory can also be found in use within pre-school, higher, vocational and adult education initiatives.

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At first blush, this diagnosis would appear to sound a death knell for formal education. It is hard to teach one intelligence; what if there are seven? It is hard to enough to teach even when anything can be taught; what to do if there are distinct limits and strong constraints on human cognition and learning? Seven kinds of intelligence would allow seven ways to teach, rather than one.

And powerful constraints that exist in the mind can be mobilized to introduce a particular concept or whole system of thinking in a way that children are most likely to learn it and least likely to distort it. Paradoxically, constraints can be suggestive and ultimately freeing. Among these are that:. It also provides educators with a conceptual framework for organizing and reflecting on curriculum assessment and pedagogical practices.

In turn, this reflection has led many educators to develop new approaches that might better meet the needs of the range of learners in their classrooms. Howard Gardner did not, initially, spell out the implications of his theory for educators in any detail.

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Subsequently, he has looked more closely at what the theory might mean for schooling practice e. A broad vision of education. All seven intelligences are needed to live life well.

Teachers, therefore, need to attend to all intelligences, not just the first two that have been their tradition concern. Understanding entails taking knowledge gained in one setting and using it in another. Developing local and flexible programmes. While there are considerable benefits to developing understanding in relation to the disciplines, something more is needed.

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Subsequent research and reflection by Howard Gardner and his colleagues has looked to three particular possibilities: Naturalist intelligence enables human beings to recognize, categorize and draw upon certain features of the environment. The case for inclusion of naturalist intelligence appears pretty straightforward, the position with regard to spiritual intelligence is far more complex. According to Howard Gardner In doing so, I think it best to put aside the term spiritual , with its manifest and problematic connotations, and to speak instead of an intelligence that explores the nature of existence in its multifarious guises.

Thus, an explicit concern with spiritual or religious matters would be one variety — often the most important variety — of an existential intelligence. However, empirical evidence is sparse — and although a ninth intelligence might be attractive, Howard Gardner is not disposed to add it to the list. He suggests that it is difficult to come to any consensual definition, but argues that it is possible to come to an understanding that takes exploration forward.

If we accept the existence of a moral realm is it then possible to speak of moral intelligence? The fulfilment of key roles certainly requires a range of human intelligences — including personal, linguistic, logical and perhaps existential — but it is fundamentally a statement about the kind of person that has developed to be. It is not, in itself, an intelligence. So it is, that Howard Gardner has added an eighth intelligence — naturalist intelligence — to his list.

He has also opened the door to another possibility — especially that of existential intelligence — but the court is out on that one. Indeed, Gardner himself has listed some of the main issues and his responses Here, I want to focus on three key questions that have been raised in debates. There are plenty of other questions around — but these would seem to be the most persistent:. Are the criteria Howard Gardner employs adequate? John White has argued that there are significant issues around the criteria that Howard Gardner employs.

There are questions around the individual criteria, for example, do all intelligences involve symbol systems; how the criteria to be applied; and why these particular criteria are relevant. Indeed, Howard Gardner himself has admitted that there is an element of subjective judgement involved. In a time whilst cash is missing, foreclosure are expanding, bullying within the colleges are epidemic, marriages became battlegrounds, all of us get to some extent the place we do not are looking to move on residing yet another day.

Because the dying of Martin Luther King, Jr. Black americans have misplaced their manner. Black american citizens were wandering within the "wilderness of sin and debauchery" for 40 plus years and feature no longer been capable of input into "The Promised Land". In Frames of Mind , Gardner faulted earlier, unitary models of intellectual ability, in which intelligence was typically reported as a single IQ intelligence quotient score.

He detailed instead a more complex paradigm in which human intelligence comprises eight or more relatively autonomous intellectual capacities: The theory of multiple intelligences affected many school-improvement efforts in the United States. Gardner and others promoted efforts to understand diverse student capacities and emphasized the need for personalized educational environments , improved interdisciplinary curricular programs, and the use of performance-based assessments.

Gardner also wrote books on creativity, leadership, discipline , socially responsible work, and ethics.

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Gardner identified at least eight particular types of intelligence. It is likely that the genius, however, is born with….