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Download PDF Intervention: Reducing Compassion Fatigue: About to give up on someone who needs help?

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Al has a master's degree and is a licensed professional counselor and a licensed chemical dependency counselor. Al has conducted more than eight hundred family interventions since and. Would you like to tell us about a lower price? If you are a seller for this product, would you like to suggest updates through seller support?

This book is designed to help religious leaders, professional counselors, concerned family members, and individuals offer viable, appropriate levels of care to someone with an addiction problem, one who refuses to accept assisted-living conditions or c. Read more Read less.

Here's how restrictions apply. WestBowPress July 19, Language: Start reading Intervention on your Kindle in under a minute. Don't have a Kindle? Try the Kindle edition and experience these great reading features: Share your thoughts with other customers. Write a customer review. Showing of 3 reviews.

Top Reviews Most recent Top Reviews. There was a problem filtering reviews right now. Please try again later. Kindle Edition Verified Purchase. This is a great guide for how to intervene in the life of an addict.


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I am nervous to confront my friend but I know it is necessary and reading this has given me a bit more confidence for the intervention. One person found this helpful.

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Very helpful book that Al Jameson has written for a very difficult situation! My daughter on drugs and this book really helped us learn about intervention and post rehab and recovery. Jameson is very experienced and knowledgeable on the subject. I had the pleasure of working with him as well. This book was very helpful in helping me prepare ahead of time for my daughter's intervention with her addiction.


  • Editorial Reviews.
  • 1. Introduction.
  • Savoirs, N° 20 : LAccompagnement Dans le champ professionnel (French Edition)?
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Group 4 related to employment type or derivatives of related words such as employees, workers and professionals. The search was limited to peer-reviewed articles published in English between January and December Both authors Fiona Cocker and Nerida Joss screened article titles and abstracts to determine eligibility. In addition, a hand search of key journals and reference lists of all studies selected for inclusion in the analysis was conducted. Appendix Table A1 contains a summary of the search strategy. The inclusion criteria dictated that the studies contained a quantitative evaluation of an intervention that reported outcomes on a standardized and validated measure for compassion fatigue.

This measure could be any of the validated versions of the most commonly used Professional Quality of Life Pro-QoL or a less common, but equally valid measure of CF. The intervention had to target CF directly or indirectly through a known risk factor for CF, such as those reviewed in the introduction lack of meaningful recognition, years of experience, higher job satisfaction, and poor psychosocial work climate.

The intervention settings could be in work or non-work settings. Studies were excluded if they did not report on CF, focused on prevalence of CF only, or used a qualitative methodology. The variables extracted covered intervention descriptors, sample characteristics, implementation characteristics, quality of the research design use of control group, random allocation , and outcome indicators.

We did not use a quality rating score in the analysis, as it introduces subjectivity and is prone to incomplete data. Coding instructions and guidelines were developed by the first and second authors in order to reduce the subjectivity of decisions made. On completion of the coding, the first author Fiona Cocker independently checked the coding of each of the papers. Instances in which disagreement with the initial coding decisions occurred were resolved by consensus between both authors Fiona Cocker and Nerida Joss.

Our primary outcomes were the components of the ProQoL: Due to the small number of hits generated , all articles were carefully inspected to determine whether they met criteria for inclusion, as opposed to making exclusion decisions solely on the basis of the initial title screening. Following this review, two duplicate articles were removed, and articles were excluded. The remainder of articles were excluded, as they did not evaluate the effectiveness of a CF prevention or intervention program, their primary focus was not CF, or they did not have a specific, validated measure of CF or factors which contribute to CF.

For example, studies were excluded if they had a PTSD or stress-related outcome measure, measures of general psychosocial functioning, or well-being scales that have not been established in the literature as valid indicators of CF. The application of these inclusion criteria resulted in a total of 13 studies being deemed suitable for the detailed, systematic review and data extraction. Ten of the thirteen studies included nurses No studies targeting emergency service workers were identified. All included studies had a follow-up period ranging from three weeks [ 31 ] to six months [ 35 ] post-intervention.

The remaining ten included articles [ 33 , 34 , 35 , 36 , 37 , 38 , 40 , 41 , 42 , 43 ] measured the following outcomes in addition to CF Table 1: Of the remaining four included studies, two evaluated interventions focused on building individual resilience [ 34 , 35 ], one aimed to build professional self-efficacy [ 43 ], and Stanton et al. Eleven studies described single-faceted interventions focusing on yoga, mindfulness, meditation, or music therapy [ 31 , 32 , 33 , 37 , 38 , 40 , 42 ], resilience and coping [ 34 , 35 , 41 ], or transcranial magnetic stimulation [ 36 ].

In contrast, Berger et al. The included studies differed in their methodology; ten studies Finally, Berger et al. The follow-up intervals ranged from three weeks [ 31 ], immediately post-intervention, to 6 months [ 35 ] after the baseline measurements. More specifically, five studies This is, by far, the most comprehensive intervention evaluated by the included studies and, not surprisingly, has the most significant, positive outcomes.

Unlike the other twelve interventions evaluated, this intervention focuses on teaching participants: However, this is yet to be determined. This systematic review identified the evidence on interventions designed to reduce CF in health, emergency and community service workers to determine the most effective workplace based strategies for reducing CF directly or via modifying its recognised individual and organisational risk factors.

Despite the significant attention given to measuring the prevalence of CF in this cohort of workers, there is a lack of information and evidence about effective interventions designed to reduce CF in these occupational groups. We have found that, despite recognition of the threat exposure to secondary trauma poses to the mental health and wellbeing of certain at-risk occupational groups, and the established existence of wellness programs to combat CF and related concepts, rigorous, academic evaluation of evidence on this topic has only recently emerged in the last few years, with the earliest study published in with a group of 80 pediatric nurses in Israel, thus indicating the relative novelty of interventional research in this area.

By consolidating the small amount of evidence available we have been able to identify promising interventions in this area as well as the evidence gaps and areas in need of research attention in the future. In doing so, the subsequent evidence based workplace-based interventions have the potential to reduce CF and more serious, chronic and economically costly mental disorders, to the benefit of individual workers, employers and the broader society and economy through the retention of healthy, productive workers who service those in need of healthcare and social assistance.

As such, nurses were disproportionally represented, limiting the generalizability of findings to other equally at-risk occupations such as police, fire fighters, paramedics and other health and community service workers. Further, the majority of subjects represented in the included studies were female Older workers were also disproportionally represented, with averages ranging from More specifically, evidence has identified that both age and years of professional experience were protective factors for STS, CF, or BO [ 47 , 48 , 49 ].

In addition to the over-representation of several demographic characteristics, some individual characteristics e. Comparison between studies was difficult given the heterogeneity of the interventions themselves and the lower level of methodological quality for the majority of studies. Additionally, the length of the intervention period varied considerably from a single four hour session [ 39 ] to six, one hour sessions once a week for 12 weeks [ 43 ]. This is a concern, as significant behavioural and personal routine modification is required in some cases, without any complementary changes being made to the work-related risk factors such as reduced exposure to traumatised patients or clients or increased rest between shifts.

The thirteen included studies in our search demonstrated mixed or no effects. While ten studies reported significant improvement in at least one element of CF, no study reported positive change on all three indicators STS, BO, CS and only one study had a follow up period of longer than eight weeks. This makes it difficult to determine with any certainty whether these effects were likely to be sustained over time. When we considered the findings of the included studies by the content of the interventions evaluated, didactic and ecologic music therapy interventions were shown to be ineffective, as was grief resolution, which involves expression of grief feelings, connecting socially with colleagues experiencing similar feelings, and participation in a grief ritual to farewell patients who had died, Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation, and mindfulness education.

These findings are encouraging, as they suggest that workers in at-risk occupational groups can be taught to cope with the known risk factors for the development of CF, which are also, unfortunately, unavoidable parts of their job. Participants in the ARP not only report a reduction in CF symptoms, they also feel more empowered, more energetic, and have a stronger sense of self-worth.

Compassion Fatigue among Healthcare, Emergency and Community Service Workers: A Systematic Review

Designed to reduce the intensity, frequency and duration of symptoms associated with Compassion Fatigue, ARP aims to help at-risk workers identify symptoms of CF, recognise CF triggers, identify and utilize existing available resources, review personal and professional history to the present day to identified those at increased risk, master arousal reduction methods, resolve any impediments to efficacy, initiate conflict resolution, and initiate a supportive aftercare plan-in collaboration with their employer or supervisor.

The ARP program borrows from PTSD literature and focuses on the restorative quality of personal self-awareness and promotes the sharing of stories and debriefing to assist those experiencing CF in rebuilding their professional and personal life quality. The ARP also advocates the promotion of self-compassion in order to encourage individuals to challenge a negative internal dialogue and focus on shifting their automatic thoughts and beliefs to reflect more positive outlook.

They are as follows: For some, this may prove as simple as relaxing the muscles while encountering the myriad of perceived threats that emerge throughout each workday; and v perceptual maturation, which is a cognitive skill and involves maturing the perceptions of self towards resiliency and the perceptions of the workplace, to render them less toxic. While a thorough search strategy was designed to undertake this systematic review, limitations should be considered in the interpretation of results.

As with any search, despite searching six major databases, some studies may have been missed. Our search was limited to only search English language journals, and, therefore, studies published in a language other than English might have missed. This review indicates that there is some promising evidence emerging about interventions to reduce CF, in particular in nurses. However, given the small number of published studies to date, it is difficult to determine the impact on this or other occupations.

The review has shown that in particular, there is a gap in research conducted in many emergency occupations such as police and fire fighters, and other health community services such child protection and disability support workers, and disability and human service workers, and further research is needed using more rigorous study designs and representative samples.

These groups are particularly susceptible to developing CF due to the nature of their work. In addition, future research could focus on the impact of CF interventions in a more diverse range of at-risk occupation groups, over-sample younger aged workers and men in order to the determine the effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce CF, or prevent and manage known risk factors, in these established at-risk populations. This can be best understood if we consider CF, or its risk and protective factors BO, STS, and CS, as upstream determinants of common mental disorders such as a depression and anxiety, the health and economic cost of which can be considerable within the employed population [ 57 , 58 , 59 ].

More specifically, by reducing the incidence of CF, future cases of depression and anxiety could be prevented, thus reducing the related health and economic consequences of these conditions. The effectiveness of this approach was demonstrated in the work of LaMontagne et al. However, it must be noted that, although workplace psychosocial stressors, such as job strain, have been linked to poor mental and physical health in a growing body of scientific evidence, the exploration of CF in such a relationship is a relatively newer concept.

Therefore, future work is required to: Once established, the epidemiological and economic modelling approach used by LaMontagne et al. Furthermore, there has been minimal effort made to apply the aforementioned findings about health, allied health, and community service workers to reduce CF and its negative health, wellbeing and safety consequences. Therefore, we recommend a systematic review be conducted to determine the prevalence of CF across occupation types to assist in identifying those most at risk, and, therefore, in most need of intervention.

Finally, although it is difficult to make definitive conclusions due to the quality of the evidence in this review, the interventions that contain at least one element of resilience training appeared to have the most effect on CF. Therefore, we suggest researchers, employers and managers consider this when designing interventions to reduce CF in the future. To our knowledge, this is the first review to attempt to evaluate the evidence of the effectiveness of CF interventions in at-risk health, emergency and social care professions.

Results revealed that, despite an awareness of the prevalence of CF in these at-risk workers, there is a lack of information and evidence about effective workplace based strategies to reduce CF in these occupational groups via modifying its recognised individual and organisational risk factors. Therefore, we recommend more research to determine how best to protect vulnerable workers in order to prevent CF, as well as the potentially more significant health and economic consequences related to the subsequent physical and mental health outcomes.

The authors thank Tegan Daley-Driscoll for her assistance with conducting the searches and identifying potentially relevant papers. Both Fiona Cocker and Nerida Joss defined the aims of this systematic review, designed the search strategy, defined the inclusion and exclusion criteria, reviewed the identified articles, extracted and reviewed the data, and prepared and edited the manuscript. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Published online Jun Cary Cooper, Academic Editor. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Apr 15; Accepted Jun This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution CC-BY license http: This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Abstract Compassion fatigue CF is stress resulting from exposure to a traumatized individual. Introduction The compassion and empathy shown by healthcare, emergency and community service professionals can prove psychically, mentally and economically costly. Open in a separate window. Search Strategy The following search strategy was carried out using the major relevant database search engines i.

Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria The inclusion criteria dictated that the studies contained a quantitative evaluation of an intervention that reported outcomes on a standardized and validated measure for compassion fatigue. Data Extraction The variables extracted covered intervention descriptors, sample characteristics, implementation characteristics, quality of the research design use of control group, random allocation , and outcome indicators.

Significant decrease in CS for controls could suggest the absence of a coping resource i. Improved Impact of Event scores showing a statistically significant improvement in CF resilience. This present-oriented, skill-focused intervention, that incorporates self-maintenance techniques as is future-oriented through development of positive outlook and hope, affects all aspects of STS — BO, CF and CF.

Hospital may benefit from incorporating mindfulness training to reduce stress among nursing staff. Specific aspects of mindfulness may be associated with better control of the deleterious effects of work stress. Organizational prevention programs may help maximize caregivers level of CS and reduce the risks of developing CF.

Positive changes in self-care attitudes, behaviours and interactions with colleagues and clients. Outcome Measurements Ten Effect of Interventions to Prevent or Manage Compassion Fatigue The follow-up intervals ranged from three weeks [ 31 ], immediately post-intervention, to 6 months [ 35 ] after the baseline measurements.

Compassion Fatigue among Healthcare, Emergency and Community Service Workers: A Systematic Review

Discussion This systematic review identified the evidence on interventions designed to reduce CF in health, emergency and community service workers to determine the most effective workplace based strategies for reducing CF directly or via modifying its recognised individual and organisational risk factors. Study Design and Methodological Quality Comparison between studies was difficult given the heterogeneity of the interventions themselves and the lower level of methodological quality for the majority of studies.

Effectiveness of CF Interventions The thirteen included studies in our search demonstrated mixed or no effects. Limitations While a thorough search strategy was designed to undertake this systematic review, limitations should be considered in the interpretation of results. Implications for Future Research This review indicates that there is some promising evidence emerging about interventions to reduce CF, in particular in nurses. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first review to attempt to evaluate the evidence of the effectiveness of CF interventions in at-risk health, emergency and social care professions.

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Acknowledgments The authors thank Tegan Daley-Driscoll for her assistance with conducting the searches and identifying potentially relevant papers. Search Strategy Search parameters were created to identify studies that met the following criteria: Published in the past 25 years January —December Targeting a known risk factor or a protective factor for CF.

Targeting employed individuals as the population of interest. Major database search engines used: Unpublished work, opinion pieces, grey literature, editorials, qualitative researchJournals searched by hand: Journal of Traumatic Stress. Table A1 Keywords used in Search Strategy.

Author Contributions Both Fiona Cocker and Nerida Joss defined the aims of this systematic review, designed the search strategy, defined the inclusion and exclusion criteria, reviewed the identified articles, extracted and reviewed the data, and prepared and edited the manuscript. Conflicts of Interest The authors have no conflict of interest. Compassion fatigue as secondary traumatic stress disorder: An overview in CR Figley.

Toward a new understanding of the costs of caring; pp.