Meanwhile, since January this year, 2, people have died in suburban railway accidents, keeping the daily average death toll at 8. Expectations are high from Railway Minister Piyush Goyal, the second successive Mumbaikar to hold the portfolio.
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Officials have already expressed concerns about staff shortage. Such ad hocism is actually a recurring feature of infrastructure planning in the financial capital — for public memory is short, and winging it is expedient. With an aggressive deadline of five years, it was to be a costsaving marvel — Rs cr per km instead of the Rs cr per km that the Sealink would cost.
Six years on, the latest on that project is that it will now cost Rs 12, crore, or about Rs per km. Work could begin by March next year, well in time for the polls.
Incidentally, to work around protests by residents of the seaside localities on the west coast, sea links connecting Bandra-Juhu-Versova are back on the drawing board as part of this Western Freeway. In , when a Rs 1,crore project for a ferry route connecting Borivali and Nariman Point was contracted out, it was already delayed.
The deal then fell through in , was re-tendered and, in the nine years since, has passed from the hands of the Maharashtra State Road Development Corporation to the Mumbai Maritime Board, and has run into environmental law hurdles. The estimated cost is now Rs 2, crore.
Work on the Borivali jetty was to start in October , but that deadline stands deferred. The domestic novel uses sentimentalism as a tool to convince readers of the importance of its message. By the end of the 19th century, sentimental literature faced complaints about the abundance of "cheap sentiment" and its excessive bodily display. Critics, and eventually the public, began to see sentimentalism manifested in society as unhealthy physical symptoms such as nervousness and being overly sensitive, and the genre began declining sharply in popularity.
Jane Austen 's Sense and Sensibility is most often seen as a "witty satire of the sentimental novel",  by juxtaposing values of the Age of Enlightenment sense, reason with those of the later eighteenth century sensibility, feeling while exploring the larger realities of women's lives, especially through concerns with marriage and inheritance.
This reading of Sense and Sensibility specifically and Austen's fiction in general has been complicated and revised by recent critics such as Claudia L. Women, Politics and the Novel  and Equivocal Beings: Nagle Sexuality and the Culture of Sensibility in the British Romantic Era  , all of whom see unruly and even subversive energies at play in her work, inspired by the sentimental tradition.
James Joyce parodies the sentimental novel in the "Nausicaa" episode of Ulysses. The character of Gerty MacDowell was inspired by the protagonist of The Lamplighter , a nineteenth century best-seller.
Cumberlege: a sentimental notion?
The sentimental novel complemented social trends of the time toward humanism and the heightened value of human life. The literature focused on weaker members of society, such as orphans and condemned criminals, and allowed readers to identify and sympathize with them. This translated to growing sentimentalism within society, and led to social movements calling for change, such as the abolition of the death penalty and of slavery.
Instead of the death penalty, popular sentiment called for the rehabilitation of criminals, rather than harsh punishment. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 's The Sorrows of Young Werther was highly sentimental and immediately extremely popular throughout Europe, and even inspired young people who could relate to Werther's sorrows to commit suicide. The latter was an especially important influence on Jane Austen , who refers to it repeatedly in her letters and began a dramatic adaptation of the work for the amusement of her family.
The Gothic novel 's story occurs in a distant time and place, often Medieval or Renaissance Europe especially Italy and Spain , and involved the fantastic exploits of a virtuous heroine imperiled by dark, tyrannical forces beyond her control.
As in other Gothic novels, the notion of the sublime is central. Eighteenth-century aesthetic theory, following Edmund Burke , held that the sublime and the beautiful were juxtaposed. The sublime was awful awe-inspiring and terrifying while the beautiful was calm and reassuring. The characters and landscapes of the Gothic rest almost entirely within the sublime, with the heroine serving as the great exception. Gothic and sentimental novels are considered a form of popular fiction, reaching their height of popularity in the late 18th century.
They reflected a popular shift from Neoclassical ideas of order and reason to emotion and imagination.
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