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All these things may affect the way you parent. For example, you might feel overwhelmed when your child is upset, and struggle to help them calm down or feel better. Keeping your child to a schedule may be difficult, too.

ADHD: Out of Control Kids (Medical/Parenting Documentary) - Real Stories

You may have a hard time focusing on your child or playing with them for more than a few minutes. Since ADHD runs in families, your child may have it, too. That can raise the odds that the two of you have trouble communicating. You can manage stress and be the parent you want to be. Some things can help. Research shows that cognitive behavioral therapy eases ADHD symptoms.

That's talk therapy that helps you identify negative thoughts so you can change how you react to things. Talk to your doctor about medication , too. Many people find a combination of therapy and medicine works best on their ADHD symptoms. Research shows that parents who take ADHD meds improve their parenting skills. They're more positive to their children. Their kids behave better, too, which may be thanks to that bump in positive attention. Bad parenting or chaos at home doesn't cause it, either. Instead of focusing on feelings of guilt and shame, try to find solutions to make your home healthier and happier.

A regular schedule can make it easier for you and your child to get things done. Consistency may also ease your symptoms. Other studies have focused on parents of children with ADHD, assessing ADHD symptoms dimensionally in this group of parents who, because of the high heritability of the disorder, can be considered at risk of having high levels of ADHD symptoms.

With child oppositional behavior and maternal depression controlled, maternal ADHD symptoms were related to more inconsistent discipline, more inappropriate repetition of commands, and more negative parenting control criticism, physical punishment. Confirming a negative relation between ADHD and parenting control behaviors, for fathers with high levels of ADHD symptoms, greater involvement with their children was associated with more reported over-reactive discipline.

In contrast, for fathers with few ADHD symptoms, more involvement was associated with less over-reactivity in discipline. In a second study, Harvey, Danforth, Eberhardt McKee, Ulaszek, and Friedman found that before parent training, for both mothers and fathers of children with ADHD, symptoms of inattention were associated with reports of lax discipline. Among fathers, impulsivity also was associated with reported over-reactive parenting and with an observed increase in arguments with the child.

When depression and alcohol use were controlled, the associations between parenting and parental ADHD were reduced, but most typically remained significant. Interestingly, the relations between parental ADHD and parenting difficulties were often of greater magnitude after the parenting program, suggesting that the treatment was not sufficient to ameliorate the influence of parental ADHD.

In this study, father ADHD symptoms did not predict child impairment or family functioning beyond the effects associated with mood disorder and substance abuse. Moving to community samples of parents, studies indicate similar parenting impairments associated with even sub-clinical elevations in parental ADHD symptoms. Among mothers of preschoolers, Banks et al. Examining mothers of elementary school aged children, Chen and Johnston found that at the bivariate level, both maternal inattention and impulsivity were related to reports of parenting over-reactivity and inconsistent discipline.

For mothers, this home chaos mediated links between maternal ADHD and inconsistent parenting. For fathers, chaos served instead to moderate the association between ADHD symptoms and inconsistent parenting, such that father ADHD symptoms only had a unique relation to inconsistent discipline when home chaos was low. The authors conclude that inhibition and difficulties with attention may compromise parenting organization and planning abilities, leading to inconsistency in discipline.

In summary, the differences demonstrated between parents with elevated levels of ADHD symptoms compared to those with low levels on various measures of parenting control are consistent with what one might expect in adults who struggle with executive dysfunctions in working memory, inhibitory control, self-regulation, or delay aversion, and their daily functioning equivalents of poor time management, self-organization, problem-solving, self-motivation, and emotional self-regulation.

We speculate that core deficits in working memory and inhibitory control lead to poor parenting organization and planning skills, that inhibition and delay aversion contribute to inconsistent or lax control and poor self-regulation of emotion and motivation, and that self-regulation and self-monitoring deficits yield lower rates of detection of and poor modulation of reactions to child misbehavior.

ADHD: Strategies You Can Try at Home

Although these are strong and widely used measures, they represent only one method of assessment and a limited range of parenting behaviors. In particular, with the exception of the work on parental organization, the dimension of parenting control has been examined almost exclusively with regards to reactions to child misbehavior. Other important elements of parenting control, such as the ability to proactively structure situations or to provide appropriate instructions and scaffolding for children have seldom been examined.

There remains a need for much further work in this area, to expand the aspects of parenting control that are examined and the measurement methods used, to assess parenting across a wider developmental age range, and importantly to relate parenting difficulties more directly to the core deficits of ADHD. Such research would yield important information regarding the specificity or generality of particular cognitive processing—parenting links, both within and across parents.

Emotional responsiveness among parents with ADHD symptoms has been assessed in samples of very young children, and several elements of emotional responsiveness often labeled positive parenting such as Sadeh expressing approval or affection or spending time with the child, have been measured in many of the studies reviewed above focused on preschool and elementary-school aged children.

The studies of parents of young infants are important as they offer another way to assess how ADHD symptoms may impair parenting, while reducing or controlling for the impact of child difficulties. Auerbach and colleagues assessed parenting in a sample of male infants followed from birth who were designated as high or low risk for ADHD based on the level of ADHD symptomatology in their fathers. When the infants were 7 months old, Landau, Avital et al. But, both fathers and mothers in the high risk group were observed as less responsive in their parenting during face-to-face interactions with the infant, particularly in terms of responding insensitively to infant negative emotions and distress.

Results remained even with maternal psychopathology controlled. Given that the infant groups were designated on the basis of father ADHD symptoms, these results are puzzling. They may suggest that ADHD in the father serves to reduce the resources the mother can devote to the infant e. In this community sample, inattentive symptoms, but not hyperactive—impulsive symptoms, were predictive of these parenting responses, even with maternal anxiety and infant activity level controlled.

They recalled mothers with more ADHD symptoms as being more rejecting and punitive and the fathers in these families as showing more warmth, perhaps reflecting compensation between parents. Arguing for possible long lasting effects, recalled ADHD symptoms in the mother also were associated with attachment difficulties in the adult children with ADHD. There were few effects related to recalled ADHD symptoms in the fathers. Moving to samples of older children with parenting assessed concurrently, Murray and Johnston found no difference between mothers with and without ADHD in their levels of positive parenting, either as reported by the mother or by the child.

In summary, results regarding the relation between parental ADHD and measures of parenting emotional responsiveness are somewhat inconsistent across studies. In some studies parent self-reports and observations of emotionally responsive parenting behaviors are not significantly related to parental ADHD, other studies suggest that parental ADHD is associated with reduced emotional responsiveness, and yet other studies find positive associations between parental ADHD and measures of emotional responsiveness, particularly those focused on positive parenting.

These divergent findings are likely associated with sample and measurement differences across studies, and the number of investigations remains too small to permit definite conclusions. However, in contrast to the much more consistent negative associations found between parental ADHD and measures of parenting control behaviors, the findings for parental emotional responsiveness open the possibility that the core deficits of ADHD are not equally impairing in all domains of parenting. As with parenting control behaviors, more studies directly linking parental emotional responsiveness to the core deficits of ADHD, assessing more aspects of emotional responsiveness and across a wider range of child ages, would offer significant advancement in our understanding and would assist in clarifying the existing inconsistencies across studies.

For example, studies might address questions such as whether a reduced sensitivity to aversive events in some parents with ADHD allows for greater parental tolerance for child ADHD behaviors and thus more positive parenting experiences with the child, or whether difficulties with inhibitory control allow the parent with higher levels of ADHD to engage, without embarrassment or constraint, in play that is fun- and child-oriented. Across samples of parents diagnosed with ADHD, parents of children with ADHD, and community samples of parents with ADHD symptoms measured dimensionally, evidence indicates that parental ADHD symptoms are associated with deficits in parenting control behaviors, including family disorganization and chaos, less monitoring of child behavior, less effective child-rearing problem-solving, and more inconsistent and over-reactive discipline.

In almost all studies, the associations between ADHD and parenting impairments remain even with potential confounds such as comorbid parent psychopathologies, child ADHD or comorbid problems, and family socioeconomic status controlled. In contrast, parental ADHD appears less consistently associated with measures assessing parental emotional responsiveness, including positive parenting, involvement or general responsiveness. The strength of these broad conclusions is uncertain as the research literature in this area remains underdeveloped. Existing studies have been heavily weighted to samples of mothers and school-aged sons, and a reliance on self-report measures of parenting.

Studies that have included fathers have pointed to both similarities and possible differences in the influence of ADHD symptoms across parent genders, but much more research is needed to understand the role of both parent and child gender. Longitudinal studies that trace the relations among parental ADHD deficits, parenting, and child behavior over the span of child development are sorely needed.

Existing studies have hinted that parental ADHD may extend its influence to coparents, with possible demands for a compensatory role for these non-ADHD partners. Studies assessing the impact of adult ADHD across multiple family members e. Finally, the majority of existing studies have been conducted from a deficit perspective, focusing on limitations to the parenting abilities of adults with ADHD, and less is known about potential parenting strengths.

It is possible that, in some circumstances, parents with ADHD are more energetic, spontaneous, or enthusiastic, or alternately that they are more accepting of ADHD characteristics in their offspring. If they exist, and if evidence links these characteristics to more positive child outcomes, such parenting strengths could be capitalized on in developing treatments for this group of parents. We now consider studies where parental ADHD is examined, not as a direct effect on parenting, but as a moderator of the relation between parenting and child ADHD characteristics. Typically framed within a goodness of fit perspective, these studies have assessed both parenting control behaviors e.

Other studies have examined the interaction of parental and child ADHD in relation to other aspects of parent and child functioning, such as social skills or parental attributions for child behavior. As a preamble to the findings in this section, we note that across studies evidence suggests both that the interaction of parent and child ADHD symptoms may exacerbate parenting difficulties but also that, in some situations, this combination serves to attenuate the effects of parenting deficits on child behavior.

Looking at a community sample of mothers of young infants, Watkins and Mash found that mothers with higher levels of ADHD symptoms reported more hostile-reactive parenting control, but only in cases where they perceived their young infants to be difficult these results remained significant with maternal comorbidities controlled. In two community samples, maternal ADHD symptoms had main effects of increasing negative expressed emotion, but there also were significant interactions between mother and child ADHD. In contrast to the results for mothers, Psychogiou et al.

Greater child ADHD symptoms were associated with more parent reported control difficulties poor monitoring, inconsistent discipline, physical punishment , and this association was even stronger for fathers with higher ADHD symptoms. Although maternal inattention was associated with observations of reduced prosocial behavior in non-problem children, there was no relation in children with ADHD; and maternal ADHD symptoms were associated with less observed irritability toward children with ADHD with no association found for control children.

Finally, also not assessing parenting directly, but consistent with the similarity fit hypothesis, Biederman et al. To our knowledge, this is the only study examining the interaction of parent and child ADHD, when both parties met clinical diagnostic criteria. In summary, these findings suggest the possibility that the parenting difficulties associated with adult ADHD may, in some instances, be offset by an advantage provided by the match of parent and child ADHD. These interactive effects have been noted for measures of both parenting control behaviors and emotional responsiveness, although they have not been extensively tested with regards to either dimension.

Mothers with high levels of ADHD offered more child-blaming attributions only when their children had ADHD a similarity misfit , while fathers offered fewer child-blaming attributions when their child had ADHD similarity fit. Given that the available studies are few in number and vary along numerous dimensions including whether the samples were clinic referred vs.

Obviously, further replications and extensions testing how parental and child ADHD may interact in influencing parenting are needed before confidence can be placed in the findings, or before much speculation is offered regarding possible reasons for the differences across mothers vs. Linking of possible fit vs. For example, Propper et al. Similarly, although they did not measure parenting directly, Auerbach et al. In an intriguing meta-analysis, Bakermans-Kranenburg and Van Ijzendoorn concluded that, within the general population, dopamine-related genes may provide children not only with an increased vulnerability to the effects of negative child-rearing, but may also create a susceptibility to benefit more from positive parenting effects.

Unfortunately, none of these studies have explicitly examined parental ADHD. These risks form part of the impetus for the call, in this paper, for a more theoretically guided selection of parenting variables, rather than post hoc selection of only those genes and parenting measures which demonstrate significant effects. Following from findings of interactions of parenting and child genetic makeup, researchers also have addressed whether genes exert main or interactive effects on parenting.

Based both in child studies linking dopaminergic functioning to ADHD and in animal models confirming the role of this neurotransmitter in parenting behavior, Lee et al. In addition, the association between maternal genes and these parenting impairments was particularly strong in the presence of child disruptive behavior. These relations held even accounting for other forms of maternal psychopathology and possible gene—environment associations. Consistent with the suggestion from the behavioral studies that parenting control may be more affected by parental ADHD while emotional responsiveness is relatively spared, in the Lee et al.

Further studies linking parental ADHD at genetic, neurological, neuropsychological, and behavioral levels to parenting difficulties will offer exciting extensions to this beginning knowledge. For example, assessing inhibitory control in adults who have various genetic polymorphisms associated with ADHD across neuropsychological tasks e.

Similarly, examining parenting as it occurs in families where both parental ADHD and child ADHD are present and comparing these to families where either only one parent or child with ADHD is present, or where no families members are diagnosed provides opportunities to isolate the contributions of parental and child ADHD to parenting difficulties. Genetically-informed studies may hold special utility in understanding the conditions under which parent and child ADHD interact to exacerbate or buffer parent—child interaction difficulties.

Such studies will be particularly useful if they proceed with careful attention to the dimensions of parenting which may or may not suffer from the impact of the core deficits associated with parental ADHD. Several issues emerge in assessing the effects of ADHD on parenting behaviors. First, as we have noted throughout this review, there is a need for research to be guided by consideration of how the core deficits of ADHD may impact different dimensions of parenting.

Theoretically grounded hypotheses and the inclusion of comprehensive, multi-method assessments of both parenting and ADHD deficits would do much to advance our knowledge of the impact of ADHD on parenting. Importantly, research guided by a framework that focuses on ADHD deficits may also elucidate areas of parenting that remain spared, or even enhanced, by parental ADHD. In considering future genetically informed studies, the overlap and reciprocal relations among parent genetic risk, child genetic risk, and parenting behavior must be addressed.

Although not shown in Fig. Alternately, although not consistent with existing knowledge regarding the heritability of ADHD, the relation could be entirely independent of genetic influence. Instead, it is obvious that the effects of parental ADHD transmit to the child both through genetic channels as well as via mechanisms such as parenting. Here, a number of possible pathways of influence may occur.

And, as studies have shown, parenting also functions as a moderator to amplify or dampen the relation between parental and child ADHD and comorbid conditions. Of course, the potentially confounding influence of gene—environment correlations and child effects on parenting must be addressed in studies of such interactions and as noted above comparisons of families in which parental and child ADHD are both, either, or neither present will be particularly informative in this regard. Beyond the need for further studies integrating genetic and behavioral information, other significant gaps also exist in research on parental ADHD.

The vast majority of existing studies are cross-sectional, giving static snapshots of how parental ADHD, parenting, and child problems are associated. It will be crucial that we expand this knowledge with longitudinal studies, following both parents and children across significant developmental stages e. Such studies are needed to reveal how the transactional influences among ADHD deficits, parenting impairments or strengths , and child outcomes may evolve and change over time. Inclusion of the influence of the broader family, cultural, and social context into this research will also be important.

Assessing the influence of parental ADHD on early parent—child interactions holds particular promise for opening a window into how the caregiving environment may channel the infant into different pathways of development. Longitudinal perspectives, beginning in early infancy will provide evidence able to address questions of whether different ADHD-linked deficits in parenting may enter into differential relations with child behaviors over time.

At the same time, it is also possible that later in child development, parenting deficits in areas such as planning and working memory, lead to greater difficulties on the control dimension of parenting and become more prominent predictors of emerging comorbid externalizing child problems. It also is possible to directly test effects of adult ADHD on parenting and those effects on child behavior through medication studies in which parental ADHD is directly manipulated, much as has been done with child ADHD and parent—child interactions.

Finally, reflecting a shift to the integration of important genetic advances into psychosocial research, longitudinal designs will benefit from consideration of epigenetic phenomena e. As longitudinal research provides a picture of emerging parenting and child problems over time in families of parents with ADHD symptoms, special attention must be paid to the relations between ADHD and related deficits or disorders. Although many existing studies have demonstrated that the relations between parental ADHD and parenting impairments survive statistical control for comorbid conditions, the final answers in this area have not been written.

The range of comorbid conditions, in both parent and child, that have been assessed have been somewhat limited, and have seldom included parental antisocial or conduct disordered problems. Given that, at least in children, debate continues regarding how to best characterize the relation between ADHD and conduct problems and the deficits that underlie each e.

The measurement of both parental ADHD and parenting in previous studies has left considerable room for improvement. Studies are needed that include measures of the core deficits associated with ADHD, and that select parenting measures consistent with theoretical predictions arising from such dysfunctions. Work linking parenting to core deficits of ADHD will also benefit from more careful consideration of how parenting impairments are related to the two or three symptom clusters currently used to define the disorder.

Although most studies have not distinguished the symptom types, among those studies which did examine links between parenting and inattention vs. Whether these associations arise because of weaknesses in the description of hyperactive—impulsive symptomatology in adults, or because inattention is most intimately tied to parenting remains to be seen. Proposed changes and expansions to the hyperactive—impulsive symptom cluster in DSM-5 may be important in altering the current pattern of findings American Psychiatric Association, In agreement with the suggestion that impairments are likely at even subdiagnostic levels Mannuzza et al.

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A second issue related to the assessment of ADHD in parents concerns self-report of symptoms. The majority of existing studies have relied heavily, if not exclusively, on self-reports of ADHD symptoms typically on very obvious and face-valid measures. Thus, as research on parenting in adults with ADHD progresses, more comprehensive assessment standards are needed along with research pointing to the more efficiently and informative methods for integrating the multiple sources of information. With regard to the measurement of parenting, although some existing studies have used observational measures, this type of objective measurement of parenting is essential and must be more broadly incorporated into this area of research.

In addition, it would undoubtedly be useful for studies to assess parenting behaviors in more naturalistic contexts. The increasing prominence of easy, accessible recording tools e.

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The studies reviewed in this paper have seldom, if ever, addressed how the gender of the child may influence relations among parental ADHD, parenting, and child outcomes. Similarly, gender differences in adult expressions of ADHD symptoms must also be considered as these interact with parenting in mothers and fathers. In addition, the possibility of an interplay between parent and child gender may be particularly important in understanding how parent and child ADHD interact.

Although parent gender has been examined in some studies, and there are preliminary suggestions that parent gender may moderate the relations between ADHD symptoms and parenting e. Further research is needed, particularly within a framework that is sensitive to the differences in the roles of mothering versus fathering of children e.

Parenting a Child With ADHD: 8 Things I Wish People Knew

More than mothers, fathers are responsible for involving the child in the world outside the home, teaching skills, and placing demands on the child for autonomy and self-regulation e. Thus, gender of parent is typically confounded with parenting role and careful attention is needed to sort out which findings are specific to males vs. For example, observations of mother—child interactions typically focus on indoor small toy play and either homework or household chores, such as cleaning up or setting the table. There is a need to expand measurement to include observational situations and parent-report measures that are more inclusive of the distinct role of fathers.

Related to the call for greater study of mothers and fathers with ADHD, more research attention needs to be directed to issues of how parents in these families coordinate their parenting behaviors. In summary, existing studies of ADHD and parenting offer a promising beginning and clearly justify a call for expanded work in this area. However, the future must move beyond correlations between self-report measures of parenting and ADHD symptoms assessed using the available measures from studies not designed to focus on parental ADHD.

New work should be theoretically grounded in models of both ADHD deficits and dimensions of parenting, should address the complex transactional patterns that exist between parent and child behavior and genetic risk, and should strive to understand how such patterns evolve over time and development. As always, there are also questions of the generalizability of existing and emerging findings, and replications across a diversity of families are needed. These are tall orders for future research, but the potential for a fuller understanding of parental ADHD to fuel movement toward early intervention, or even prevention, efforts for children at risk more than justifies the needed effort.

In this section, we consider the implications of parenting difficulties and relative strengths in adults with ADHD with regard to how such information might best be incorporated into parent-delivered interventions for children with ADHD. Even pharmacological treatment for child ADHD relies on parents for timely administration of the medication, monitoring of benefits and side effects, and ongoing collaboration with the prescriber.

Psychosocial interventions for child ADHD rely even more heavily on parent involvement. Sonuga-Barke and Halperin have recently argued for the need to consider early intervention or even prevention efforts for ADHD. Given the documented familial nature of the disorder, and the parenting deficits outlined above, modifying parenting in adults with ADHD would appear as a high priority target for such early intervention efforts. To the extent that child vulnerabilities interact with risk factors such as inadequate parenting to culminate in developmental pathways that lead to ADHD or other disruptive behavior disorders, efforts are needed to maximize the possible impact of parenting interventions in this population.

Unfortunately, current parenting interventions are either untested or less than optimal in affording change in the parenting behavior of adults with ADHD. Pharmacotherapy with stimulants is the most widely established treatment for adult ADHD. However, the effects of medication on parenting have seldom been tested. More recently, Chronis-Tuscano et al. During the titration phase, increasing doses of medication were associated with reductions in mother-reported inconsistent discipline and physical punishment, but not with changes in parenting involvement or positive parenting.

In a subsequent placebo controlled phase, medication was again associated with medium to large effects for maternal reports regarding involvement, discipline, and punishment, although the effect size for positive parenting was still small. In addition, these parent-reported improvements were not corroborated by collateral reports of parenting or by direct observations. Beyond pharmacotherapy, cognitive behavioral interventions have been shown to be efficacious in treating adult ADHD. Yet the impact of such interventions on functioning in the parenting domain has not been examined. Focusing on the evidence-based interventions used in the treatment of child ADHD, it is known that children of mothers with high levels of ADHD symptoms are less likely to benefit from either behavioral or medication treatments Harvey et al.

Looking specifically at behavioral parent training, a recent study by Chronis-Tuscano et al. Targeting parental ADHD seems a needed addition to services provided for these families, and research is needed to address how evidence-based treatments for child ADHD may be best modified to be maximally useful to parents with ADHD.

1. Introduction

Parenting interventions for adults with ADHD may need several modifications, both in content and in format in order to enhance their effectiveness. The structure of these programs may need to shift from a focus on psycho-education to enhanced skill-based practice, both in session and at home given that repetition may be key to building new parenting habits. Modifications to the typical lecture style group format also may be needed, for example, allowing for more individualized, shorter periods of instruction and reducing the emphasis on dyadic presentations in favor of more interactive or faster-paced learning via media presentations, role-plays, or discussions.

Modifications may also be needed to the content of parenting interventions to reflect emerging knowledge regarding the areas of relative strengths and deficiencies in the parenting of adults with ADHD. For example, explicit instruction in organizational and planning skills relevant to parenting may be useful. Programs may need to incorporate teaching of compensatory strategies, such as using friends or partners as parenting coaches, or generating externalized parenting supports such as tutors for the child.

Although it seems likely that combining such modified parenting programs with medication treatment of adult ADHD may maximize the benefits, this remains an open question. Recognizing that ADHD may be more of a disorder of performing what one knows than of knowing what to do Barkley et al. Similarly, there may be a need for more frequent, external reinforcement for the parenting efforts of adults with ADHD, as child behavior may not change quickly enough to provide reinforcement that is sufficient or immediate enough to sustain changes in parenting behaviors.

Strategies may be needed to assist the parent in dealing with low motivation e. In conclusion, we offer this review as a heuristic guide for further, much needed research regarding the impact of adult ADHD on parenting. Research addressing parenting deficits, and possible strengths, as predicted from current theoretical models of the core dysfunctions of ADHD also will provide foundational evidence for the development of prevention and early intervention programs which may ultimately serve to reduce the significant personal and social costs currently associated with ADHD and related conditions.

Barkley for his comments on an earlier draft of this paper. Preparation of this article was supported by a grant from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research to the first author, and a University Graduate Fellowship to the third author. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Author manuscript; available in PMC Apr Mash , b, c Natalie Miller , a and Jerilyn E. The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Clin Psychol Rev. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Introduction At an accelerating pace over the past two decades, ADHD has been recognized as not restricted to childhood, but a disorder which appears across the lifespan Kessler et al.

Conclusion In concluding this section, we reiterate the incomplete and arbitrary nature of our categorization of the core dysfunctions in ADHD. Open in a separate window.

How to help your child with ADHD

Parental ADHD and effective parenting control Many studies of ADHD in parents have included measures of how parents respond to child misbehavior, focusing primarily on lax or permissive versus over-reactive parenting control. Parental ADHD and parenting emotional responsiveness Emotional responsiveness among parents with ADHD symptoms has been assessed in samples of very young children, and several elements of emotional responsiveness often labeled positive parenting such as Sadeh expressing approval or affection or spending time with the child, have been measured in many of the studies reviewed above focused on preschool and elementary-school aged children.

Summary of parental ADHD in relation to parenting Across samples of parents diagnosed with ADHD, parents of children with ADHD, and community samples of parents with ADHD symptoms measured dimensionally, evidence indicates that parental ADHD symptoms are associated with deficits in parenting control behaviors, including family disorganization and chaos, less monitoring of child behavior, less effective child-rearing problem-solving, and more inconsistent and over-reactive discipline.

The interactions among parental ADHD, parenting, and child characteristics We now consider studies where parental ADHD is examined, not as a direct effect on parenting, but as a moderator of the relation between parenting and child ADHD characteristics. Issues and future directions Several issues emerge in assessing the effects of ADHD on parenting behaviors. Conclusion In conclusion, we offer this review as a heuristic guide for further, much needed research regarding the impact of adult ADHD on parenting.

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