Manual Der erste Punische Krieg: Vom Kriegsausbruch bis zum Friedensvertrag (German Edition)

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Half a century ago, Alfred Cobban, with his characteristic sense of paradox, judged: A book which provokes such strong opinions is bound to offer a relevant approach to the question asked above: What periods did Taine distinguish in this history, and particularly, what relationship did he establish between those different periods? Carbonell, Histoire et historiens: Leger, Monsieur Taine Paris, Cobban, Historians and the Causes of the French Revolution s. Still, the War and the Defeat came as a surprise to him as well.

Having just returned from a study tour to Germany — the Germany whose modern spirit had only in been introduced to the French by his former mistress Elise Krinitz7 — he was now confronted with a country balancing on the verge of ruin. During the following months his predominant moods were depression, despondency and anger. France could only be saved, he assured his correspondents, if she would modernize, and here modernization meant transformation. The frivolous French spirit had to change into a spirit which — like the German one — recognized the wholesome effect of ascesis, boredom and devotion to duty.

Taine knew that at the time he himself had mocked the bourgeois viciously. Perhaps, he therefore suggested, the only salvation could come from a younger generation8? This did not mean, however, that Taine wished to evade his responsibility. Earlier, in , he had — on account of its unscientific character — called politics a form of slavery9. Therefore he had avoided it. He had not changed his mind as to the need to establish a scientific form of politics, but this no longer prevented him from forming a political commitment. But it had never got beyond 6 H. Taine, Sa vie et sa correspondance Paris, , vol.

Bern — Frankfurt , On Taine and Germany: Michaud with the cooperation of M. Le Pavec Paris, , Jeune in the volume mentioned in note 1. This time, however, the terrible events of made him go through with it. In December the first volume of Les origines de la France contemporaine was published. It dealt with the Old Regime. With three-year intervals — in , and — successively three volumes were published about the Revolution itself. Two more volumes were to appear, both on the Modern Regime, in and — posthumously — in The book remained unfinished. Moreover, he wanted to do this in a scientifically sound way, using an experimental method.

That came as no surprise to his readers. In his earliest work Taine had insisted that historiography should conform to the scientific model. But Taine preferred to call himself a physician, his book a medical treatise: Did not the Defeat and the Commune prove, after all, that France was sick? And was her history therefore not a history of a disease?

In any case, the Origines became interspersed with medical metaphors: An illness then — but what diagnosis did Taine provide? Convent or barracks, both images referred to a state which was based on a few abstract principles, pursued a rational policy and had a centralized form of organization. This was indeed, according to Taine, the state which could be found in France; there was absolutely no sign of a lively society.

The government was everywhere, local or private initiatives were discouraged, societies which had grown up spontaneously were suppressed, the traditional community spirit had disappeared without a trace. Just like in a barracks, everything was disciplined and regulated This diagnosis was an expression of the neotraditionalistic social criticism and political beliefs Taine adhered to during these years His political maxim was simply: The result had soon become evident.

In the night of 14 to 15 April , it had still been possible for the king to interpret the events as a revolt, until one of his faithful followers had made him recognize the gravity of the situation: But even he had not grasped the true nature of the events: And the damage had been enormous: In the Origines Taine robbed the revolutionaries and their future sympathizers of everything that was dear to them: Quatorze juillet became the day of dissolution, the People the tame elephant that had suddenly turned savage Did not the latter 16 Taine, Origines, vol.

Ozouf, Paris, , ; R. Michaud and Le Pavec, The Anglo-Irish statesman had written the essay first and foremost for domestic reasons: But the success the Reflections met with in England was equalled in France. When the French translation appeared in the same month as the original English text , it was sold out immediately, and measures had to be taken against pirate editions straightaway To a large extent this manifesto was based on the presumption that there was a fundamental difference between English and French polity.

Burke emphasized that the English constitution was a historical inheritance which had always been tended like a plant in need of protection from anything foreign to its nature. From this tendency towards continuity and this respect for the natural order, a society had evolved which was truly historical: The French revolutionaries, on the other hand, had broken with both history and nature.

Krul Groningen, , Cone, Burke and the Nature of Politics, vol. The Age of the French Revolution Kentucky, , The full title of the Reflections was: Reflections on the Revolution in France, and on the Proceedings in certain Societies in London relative to that Event. In a Letter intended to have been sent to a Gentleman in Paris.

Meanwhile the literature on the Reflections has become extensive; see, among others, Burke and the French Revolution. You might have repaired those walls; you might have built on those old foundations. A break, therefore, but also a break which could have been avoided. Burke acknowledged the defects of the Old Regime in France, but he reproached the revolutionaries for dramatizing conditions under the monarchy. Exaggerations of this kind had, in the end, only stirred up revolutionary violence until it had assumed apocalyptic forms.

Not surprisingly, the images evoked in the Reflections brought to mind sublime forces of nature: But the Reflections had caused him difficulties. He had paraphrased its contents, he had certainly not been convinced. In brief, during these years Taine had shown himself unwilling to give up the French revolutionary heritage to the English critics. This was implied by his judgement of Burke. But it became apparent in his attitude towards Carlyle as well. Politieke filosofie Kampen - Kapellen, , Over het sublieme, het wrede en het unheimliche.

Essays [Amsterdam, ], But that had been the case in the s. The images from the Reflections popped up in the preface of the Origines: This had also happened in the days of the Revolution. At that time the old order had been entirely demolished as well. For that reason Taine spoke of a betrayal of nature and of history. Or, in other words: The consequence of all this was obvious: There was a yawning gap between the Old Regime and the era heralded in It was an association which in any event did not fully take into account the occasionally violent style of the Origines.

Another critic grumbled, with some justification, that Taine had apparently forgotten that in natural history people who were dissected were not insulted as well According to articles had previously been collected in H. Taine, Vie et correspondance, vol. Further on it read, therefore: Vijfentwintig eeuwen geschiedschrijving van West-Europa Leuven, , In this interpretation England was the norm and the ideal In , while the Commune raged in Paris, he went there again to give a series of lectures in Oxford.

He now decided — at the exact time his plans for the Origines were beginning to take shape — to edit and publish his travel notes from the s. Of course Taine was not the first French historian writing about the Revolution who put forward England as the ideal standard. They had modelled the French Revolution on the Glorious Revolution of , but had at the same time attempted to fit into a continuous national struggle for freedom For Taine, however, England represented a mirror image: He had a marked preference for England.

Meanwhile critics — such as Monod — were wondering whether Taine himself had not lapsed into exaggeration Was not his representation of the Revolution far too gloomy? Michaud and Le Pavec, comp. Leger, Monsieur Taine, and Mellon, The Political Uses of History. Renan, Taine, Michelet Paris, , For a general survey of the reactions to the Origines: Unlike his young friend Albert Sorel, who also observed that in his history of the Revolution Taine had given less thought to what had made the French live than to what could get them killed, he likewise offered his compatriots no solace by giving them the account of the military successes achieved by revolutionary and Napoleonic France in Europe There was simply nothing good to say about the Revolution.

For obvious reasons, the republican historiography of the Revolution, institutionalized in the s and led by Alphonse Aulard, took the Origines as its first target But what about the volume on the Old Regime published previously? That was, indeed, no overstatement. This appeared to be an anomaly: Those ideas were diametrically opposed to what was maintained in the existing historiography on the Old Regime and the Revolution. The fact is that for Tocqueville the Revolution had already been born during the Old Regime.

Everything that was typical of revolutionary politics had already 48 Taine, Vie et correspondance, vol. Aulard [Paris, ] and A. For the institutionalization of republican historiography of the Revolution: De professionalisering van de geschiedbeoefening in Frankrijk Nijmegen, , Amiel, Journal intime, ed. Monnier Lausanne, , vol. Unity and integrity of the state, administrative centralization, bureaucratization, the emphasis on equality and uniformity — everything that had always been associated with the Revolution Tocqueville traced back to the Old Regime.

In fact, he concluded, the Revolution had not been the destruction of the Old Regime but, on the contrary, its continuation and even radicalization: This obviously went much further than the — selective — incorporation of the Revolution into national history, as was practised by the liberal Restoration historians.

For Tocqueville, the continuity was so predominant and comprehensive that the Old Regime even coincided with the Revolution: They were driven by the desire to put an end to everything that had preceded them. More than that, he described his own attempt to get to the heart of the Old Regime as a disclosure: But Burke too had created an image of French history with a Manichaean touch: Tocqueville employed the same metaphors as Burke had done in the Reflections, but he used them to convey the exact opposite.

About the revolutionaries it was said: And about the Old Regime: The latter indicated that for Tocqueville the Revolution had merely been a 53 A. Mayer Paris, , Tijdschrift voor de Geschiedenis van de Representatie, 2, 4 Furet and Ozouf, and Ozouf Paris, , and For a short while, in , it had appeared as if, owing to the discovery of liberty, history would take a different direction. However, the ancient flow had quickly resumed its course What was interesting, however, because of its enduring effect, was the beginning of this long history: Taine offered an image which was even gloomier than the representation by Tocqueville, who had indeed also not shown himself an advocate of the developments which had commenced during the Old Regime.

Even before the publication of the first volume, Taine had written to a friend: This made the Old Regime into a prehistory, whose essential characteristics were in fact revealed by the Revolution. These characteristics did not present a pleasant sight: With this the Revolution was also announced verbatim. Jardin, Alexis de Tocqueville Paris, , Edgar Quinet et la question du Jacobinisme Paris, , Between the Old Regime and the Revolution, so it appeared, there had been more continuity than could be suspected at first sight.

For Taine, however, the continuity did not stop in In the Origines a revolution-without- phasing was presented. In this respect, therefore, the Origines differed from the work by the liberal historians of the Restoration period. Consequently, for them it was a matter of continuity, a continuity which was now emphasized in the Origines as well. But of course the similarity between the republican democrats and Taine went no further than that: But what about the birth of the Modern Regime and the arrival of Napoleon: When considering this phase in history, Taine again adhered to the idea of continuity.

In other words, the Revolution had worn itself out. Incidentally, the volumes of the Origines dedicated to the Modern Regime again came as a shock to the readers, not least because of the portrait at the very beginning in which Napoleon was represented as a renaissance condottiere This condottiere had not changed the course of French 67 Ibidem, vol. Rigney, The Rhetoric of Historical Representation. See the chapter in P. For and Against Harmondsworth, In this way the three periods distinguished in the Origines were fully brought into line with each other.

The way for the Modern Regime had been prepared by the Revolution, which had abolished itself, while the Revolution in its turn had only sealed the self-destructive developments which were predominant under the Old Regime. One of them consisted in ending each volume and each chapter with thunderclouds heralding the storm which was to break in the next volume or chapter.

A more subtle way to produce the same effect was to return to an image used previously and develop it further. Thus a fire started in a house with all the doors closed in the Old Regime , became a blazing fire a few chapters further down at the onset of revolutionary anarchy , after the doors had been opened and air was allowed to stream in Other images suggested a similar continuity in a manner so straightforward that they did not even need repetition or elaboration.

The image of poison could only lead to the conjecture that those involved would come to a bad end. If this image was nevertheless taken up again, the repetition had the effect of a quod erat demonstrandum Techniques like these were not only used to give shape to the idea of continuity, however. They also created an impression of inevitability: This deterministic perspective pervaded the whole book.

Taine pondered on inescapable consequences, observed that events could not have taken a different course, concluded that the fatal moment had come That did not mean, however, that he only established causal relationships. Quite the reverse, the point is that in the Origines the language of cause and effect was transcended.

He did not 74 Comp. Aden, Wesen und Unterschiede, and It is from this that the book derived its cogency. The metaphor which expressed this concept of history — characterized by an orientation towards continuity, inevitability and logical necessity — most powerfully, could be found in the very prologue of the Origines.

The choice of this biological metaphor of metamorphosis clearly explained the main point Taine wanted to convey in the Origines: But from the metamorphosis perspective it was no longer a question of unnaturalness of this kind. For can an insect be condemned for undergoing a transformation according to the laws inherent in its nature?

This disruption was accompanied by a number of problems concerning the representation of the past which were difficult to solve. They were problems Tocqueville had also been confronted with. First of all this applied to the individuality of the Revolution. After all, what could be the specifically historical character of a revolution which had been so closely connected to the Old Regime?

This acceleration was not only characterized by an eruption of violence, but also by an ideological factor which related precisely to the periodization of history. What separated the Revolution from the Old Regime was not the establishment of a new state or society, but the illusion of having invented such a state or society. This illusion was the Revolution Already in his essays dedicated to Carlyle at the beginning of the s, he had written: He now applied this principle. That was sufficient to explain to the readers what exactly the Revolution had represented: In addition, one medical term after another was used: The French translation, published in , would contain a preface written by Taine It was as if he was trying to take revenge on the Communards by calling their revolutionary ancestors wild gorillas.

Excessiveness of this kind naturally raised questions concerning the manner in which Taine characterized the specificity of the Revolution. Like the study of Napoleon see note 73 , these portraits had appeared as prepublication in the Revue des Deux Mondes and Graeme Ritchie Cambridge, , , esp. Pick, Faces of Degeneration. A European Disorder, c. There was also the problem of finding the cure for the disease which constituted this history.

Rom Hörbuch - Die Punischen Kriege

For, even though the Defeat and the Commune had been a cataclysm, they had not marked the end of history. But what cure could be found for a disease which was so obviously hereditary by nature? Tocqueville had not known either. Just like Taine, in his work he had presented himself as a physician But one of his readers observed, with good reason, that he was a physician who could not make up his mind, in the sense that he could not offer a remedy for the disease he had discovered. Thus he did come up with a diagnosis, but not with a therapy: Taine wanted to avoid that. This chapter never materialized; Taine died before he could write it.

Probably this chapter would only have revealed to what extent the strength of the Origines was at the same time its weakness. The beginning of that history had already been part of the Old Regime. Precisely this emphasis on the — mythical — source of history, however, made it impossible to find a remedy for the French disease. For would not, in the perspective of the Origines, recovery require that the French stop being French? And would not this remedy necessarily have to come from outside? The patient, therefore, seemed beyond salvation.

The American and French Revolutions Cambridge, , Nordmann, Taine et la critique scientifique Paris, , and As it turned out, the end of history could not be narrated. Jahrhunderts mit den Kategorien Individualisierung, historische Ideenlehre und intuitives Verstehen zu erfassen. Sie entstammten dem ausgehenden Europa zwischen Revolution und Restauration Karl Otmar von Aretin und Gerhard A. Beiheft 21 Stuttgart, , und vgl. Stefan Haas, Historische Kulturforschung in Deutschland Voraussehen konnten die Gastgeber des Historikertreffens dieses Problem nicht. Zu nennen sind zum einen der Rekurs auf die in der Weimarer Republik erfolgte Infragestellung der Geschichte als Leitwissenschaft, und zum anderen die im eigenen Lande unternommene wissenschaftstheoretische Untermauerung der marxistisch-leninistischen Fortschrittskonzeption.

In Sowjetsystem und demokratische Gesellschaft. Freiburg-Basel-Wien, , Sp. Der amerikanische Osteuropahistoriker Edward C. Der Geschichtsdeterminismus des Historischen Materialismus stellt seine Instrumentalisierbarkeit auch ohne Formulierung eines weiteren Ideologems unter Beweis. Im Sinne Thomas S. Zur Orientierung seien vorab zwei Thesen genannt, die dem nachfolgenden Interpretationsschema als Leitfaden dienen: Das von sowjetischen Wissenschaftstheoretikern vertretene Prinzip des Historismus hat mit dem deutschen Pendant nichts zu tun, sondern entspricht dem von Karl R.

Popper kreierten Kunstwort Historizismus. Eingang in die Wissenschaftssprache fand der Terminus erstmals 5 Vgl. Miljukov und die Moskauer Schule Hamburg Mommsen, Die Geschichtswissenschaft jenseits des Historismus 2. Ernst Troeltsch konstatierte die im Laufe des Zum einen rehabilitierte er den Historismusbegriff, indem er ihm eine dynamische Komponente verlieh. Zum anderen reduzierte er den Bedeutungsinhalt auf den Entwicklungsgedanken und auf den Aspekt der Individualisierung Historismus in den Kulturwissenschaften.

Frankfurt am Main, Troeltsch, Der Historismus und seine Probleme. Die deutsche Bewegung Berlin, , hier Bd. Neudruck in einem Bd.: Die Entstehung des Historismus. Thaden hat das russische Geschichtsdenken im zweiten Drittel des Im ersten Falle sprach er von einer gegen die proletarische Revolution gerichteten sozialen Erscheinung. Und die aus der deutschen Diskussion abgeleiteten Merkmale — Werterelativismus, Synthesefeindlichkeit und Subjektivismus — gingen als Stereotypen in die Fachliteratur ein.

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Kritische Studien zur Geschichtsphilosophie in der Epoche des Imperialismus ] Moskva, , 25 und Die Geschichtsphilosophie des Die Geschichtsphilosophie der Epoche des Imperialismus. I, 29 und Eine Auseinandersetzung mit dem Historismus als im Jahrhundert vorherrschendes Wissenschaftsparadigma ist lediglich punktuell im Hinblick auf die deutsche Historiographie erfolgt. Moskva, , 6 Vorwort und Teil 2. Ergebnisse und Aufgaben der Forschung ], Voprosy istorii , 1 , Nur in Ivan D.

Berlin, , 18, Anm. Noch eine Vernichtung des Sozialismus, in Lenin, Werke. Dezember August Berlin, , , hier Ivanovs sind von der historiographiegeschichtlichen Forschung nicht zur Kenntnis genommen worden. Ivanov, Princip istorizma v proizvedenijach V. Methodologie und Methode der Untersuchung. Moskva, , S. Moskva, , Sp.

Kon , Zitat Sp. Der Historismus als methodologisches Prinzip der marxistischen Geschichtswissenschaft fordert [ Moskva, , 5. Sammelband verschiedener Hochschulen] Ufa, Neue Akzente wurden erst in den 80er Jahren gesetzt. Popper, The Poverty of Historicism London, , 3rd ed. The Spell of Plato. The High Tide of Prophecy: Hegel, Marx, and the Aftermath London, ; 5th ed. Die offene Gesellschaft und ihre Feinde. Hegel, Marx und die Folgen Bern, ; 7. Ein systhemtheoretisch-gnoseologischer Zugang] Moskva, , Georg Klaus und Manfred Buhr. Neubearbeitete und erweiterte Ausgabe.

Reinbek bei Hamburg, , Berlin, , Diesmal wurde eine dem Verlauf der deutschen Historiographiegeschichte angemessene Unterscheidung zwischen dem im Band in Hamburg erschienen ist Jahrhundert auf Elemente des Historismus. Auf diese Weise gerieten der Sozialkritiker Aleksandr N. Ernst Engelberg Berlin, , , hier und Versuch einer vergleichenden Analyse ],Voprosy istorii. Barg, Eochi i idei.

Stanovlenie istorizma [Epochen und Ideen. Die Entstehung des Historismus] Moskva, Helmut Grasshoff und Ulf Lehmann. Karamzin zu Protagonisten des Historismus. Problemy istorizma v russkoj literature. Probleme des Historismus in der russischen Literatur.


Jahrhunderts unter Zugrundelegung des marxistisch-leninistischen Historismusbegriffs findet sich bei Erich Donnert, Neue Wege im russischen Geschichtsdenken des Philologisch-historische Klasse Berlin , vgl. Baron had finished his Habilitation in January and was waiting to be offered a professorship while serving as a lecturer Privatdozent at the University of Berlin.

He maintained himself and his family as a research associate at the Historical Commission of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences in Munich1. Likewise, in 1 Baron was married to the art historian Edith Alexander, whom he had met during one of his research trips to Florence. She was the daughter of a Jewish industrialist in Berlin, who went bankrupt as a result of hyper-inflation in Eberhard Kessel, Werke vol. They are now deposited at the William R. Thus a period of 16 years of professional and financial uncertainties and disillusionment began for Baron. Therefore, for Baron, the Renaissance became instrumental in determining the historical origins of his own time as well as enabling him to cope with the catastrophes of modernity as they affected his own life.

Although not a member of the Charlottenburg well-to-do Jewish upper middle class, Theodor Baron had reached a position of some prestige. Baron was one of 22 associate professors and Privatdozenten lecturers dismissed from German and Austrian academies, archives, libraries and research institutes. Lebensversuche zwischen den Kriegen Frankfurt a.

Peukert, The Weimar Republic. The Crisis of Classical Modernity London, , 16, In addition to a rather limited supply of open positions in German academia, however, German-Jewish scholars were faced with a rising tide of antisemitism after the end of World War I, both in and outside the universities9. In Baron finished his secondary education at the Leibniz-Gymnasium in Berlin. In this book, published as a supplementary volume to the Historische Zeitschrift and therefore marking his entry into the discipline as a promising young historian, Baron was particularly interested in the larger issue of the role of the Age of Confessionalism in the development of Enlightenment philosophy and the rise of the modern liberal nation-state.

In the tradition of German historiography since the Hans Baron, Lebenslauf des Dr. Die deutsche Geschichte in der Historiographie zwischen Kaiserreich und Nationalsozialismus Munich, Entwicklungen vor und nach Fragestellungen, Ergebnisse, Desiderate, ed. Wolfram Fischer et al. Of course, in many ways [ The most important sources for both the exact sciences and scholarly perspectives on the state originate from there.

Nevertheless, the quintessential character of the Renaissance only represented the autochtonous product of an ancient Mediterranean mind, which flourished for a short moment, yet faded away before it had reached perfection. Therefore, it did not have the vigor to reshape the innermost center of the Western world He did extensive research in Florence and the Vatican Library for his Habilitation in under the supervision of Meinecke and Albert Brackmann, a well-known medievalist Yet as the title and the appraisals of both Meinecke and Brackmann in the files of the Berlin philosophical faculty suggest, this thesis already reflected the characteristics of his interpretation of the Renaissance, his ensuing concentration on the early Quattrocento and the positive emphasis on the political and moral thought in Florence from that epoch In , in his acceptance speech for the Premio internazionale Galileo Galilei, one of the few academic honors conferred upon him, Baron, rather than naming his Berlin teachers, claimed to have received his first inspiration to study the Renaissance in a seminar at Leipzig: I came upon the prevailing theories of those years, according to which Humanism north of the Alps and in particular in Germany, developed from a native, late medieval background essentially independent of any — at least any salutary — influence from the south.

I was given the assignment of forming my own opinion on the basis of a good many original sources and after concentrated study I formulated a statement [ I concluded that all the current theories were to a degree prejudiced and that the change in the intellectual 12 Hans Baron, Calvins Staatsanschauung und das konfessionelle Zeitalter, Beiheft I der Historischen Zeitschrift Munich, Berlin, , In ihr entsprangen die wichtigsten Quellen exakter Wissenschaft und wissenschaftlicher Staatsbetrachtung.

German humanism, including during the Reformation, could not be understood without its foundations in Italy.

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Therefore, Baron self-confidently and outspokenly defined his identity as a historical scholar in terms of a larger historico-political agenda. He identified himself with the nineteenth-century historicist tradition of conceiving history in Romano-German and in European, rather than Protestant-German or nationalist, terms. He based his view on the precepts of historicism which had re-established the Judeo-Christian foundations of European culture in Greek and Roman antiquity as well as the Near East Walter Goetz Stuttgart, 10th ed.

On the nineteenth-century roots of this approach, see critically Maurice Olender, The Languages of Paradise. He relied on Wilhelm Dilthey and Ernst Troeltsch, both of whom had suggested that late-fifteenth-century Florentine neo-Platonism was the dominating influence on European intellectual and religious reform movements during the later Renaissance, particularly on Erasmian humanism Accordingly, while in Italy, Baron initially did manuscript research on still unpublished works of Marsilio Ficino and Pico della Mirandola, both members of the Florentine Platonic Academy of the late fifteenth century.

During his research at the Biblioteca Nazionale in Florence and the Vatican Library, Baron discovered a completely different type of Florentine writings in the miscellaneous manuscripts containing neo-Platonist treatises, stemming from the first rather than the second half of the fifteenth century. The Dilthey revival did not come to a full bloom before the s, when the most significant writings of the philosopher finally became available as part of his Gesammelte Schriften Georg Misch, Gesammelte Schriften vol.

Hans Baron, Gesammelte Schriften vol. Therefore, for Dilthey and his students during the Weimar Republic, the study of the living experience, world-picture Weltbild and world-view Weltanschauung of a particular age was required in order to truly understand verstehen the philosophy and religion of that age In short, for Dilthey, history included the living experience of the student of history as well Baron, thanks to his teachers, took part in those debates in his early academic career.

Literaturwissenschaft und Geistesgeschichte bis , ed. Zur Theorie und Geschichte der hermeneutischen Wissenschaften Stuttgart, Leibniz und sein Zeitalter. Das achtzehnte Jahrhundert und die geschichtliche Welt, ed.

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Paul Ritter, Gesammelte Schriften, vol. Ernst Troeltsch had co-founded the German Democratic Party and represented it for two years in the Prussian constitutional assembly, while Walter Goetz was one of its deputies in the Reichstag from to Both of them saw their respective professorships in philosophy at Berlin and history at Leipzig as public and political offices or, at the very least, semi-political posts in the sense of serving an educational function for the German nation.

Goetz repeatedly emphasized the role of the DDP in both political and ethical terms as a party of liberal and democratic world view, which intended to serve the interest of the German state and nation as a whole, rather than a specific economic or class interest Likewise, Troeltsch believed that the aim of politics was to find compromises between conflicting social forces rather than to dominate, marginalize or suppress them, as had repeatedly been the case during the Wilhelmine Empire with, for example, the Kulturkampf and the legislation against the Social Democratic Party. For both Goetz and Troeltsch, the small Jewish segment of the German population also represented a significant element in the social and political make- up of the new republic.

Quite naturally, both Troeltsch and Goetz were passionate adversaries of racial antisemitism, the latter belonging to the Verein zur Abwehr des Antisemitismus, which was perceived by many German Jews as the Christian support-group for the CV, the liberal Central Association of German Citizens of Jewish Creed The Jews were a minority group, which, in a similar way to the German Calvinist diaspora and the Catholic minority in some parts of Germany, was a significant influence on the political and social life of the nation.

Klaus Schwabe Boppard, , Baron was offered this task after having just finished his doctoral dissertation, which had been co-supervised by Troeltsch. Not surprisingly, Troeltsch never dedicated a detailed study to the Renaissance. Meinecke wrote a preface to this volume. November Berlin, , Eine kurze Geschichte der deutschen Bildungsidee Frankfurt a. Like Burckhardt, he believed that the direct origins of the culture of the modern Western world could be ascribed only to the former. Troeltsch believed that the Reformation in turn marked the restoration of the prophetical Christian world of religion, of a strictly ecclesiastic, super-naturalistic culture.

This world of religion rested upon an immediate and sharply defined biblical authority, which clearly distinguished itself from secular influences of any kind and therefore stood in deep contrast to the secular humanistic cultures of both antiquity and the Renaissance Like Burckhardt, Troeltsch defined the characteristic traits of the Renaissance as individualism and, in conjunction with the revival of classical culture, a turning away from otherworldliness and asceticism In a series of essays in the Historische Zeitschrift from on, which resulted in his Der Historismus und seine Probleme, Troeltsch had highlighted the discrepancies between the German historicist tradition and early-twentieth-century socio-economic developments In contrast to their French and British colleagues, whose cultural foundation in positivism and naturalism resulted in causal, genetic and mechanical, essentially 37 Wallace K.

Ferguson, The Renaissance in Historical Thought. Versammlung deutscher Historiker zu Stuttgart am April Munich, Berlin, Ringer, The Decline of the German Mandarins. Yet, as a reassurance against this dilemma of historicism, Dilthey still possessed a vision of the totality of mankind that legitimized the study of history as a study of the connections and relations within this totality. And, as Gadamer put it, Dilthey had not reached the full recognition of the consequences of this insight: Cultural history is not simply an addition of the results of religious, literary and art history, history of manners and economic history etc.

On the contrary, its particular task is to determine the characteristic traits of the entire culture and spirit of a specific epoch out of the complete existing material for historical knowledge [ From early on in his scholarly career, Goetz had dedicated himself to the Geistesgeschichte of 43 Ringer, Decline of the German Mandarins, He pointed out the combination of both humanism and the civic education of a bourgeois elite, as represented in only one Italian commune, namely Florence in the first half of the fifteenth century: At that point in time, humanism still seemed to be capable of an active role in the civic education of the commune.

The economically aspiring bourgeoisie was able to offer humanism the opportunity to bind itself intimately to the tasks and ideals of the native polity Along the lines of Goetz, Baron linked the emergence of this ideology with a dominant middle class. His perspective, however, was a far cry from the sociological class-based interpretations of history, as represented by Max Weber and Karl Mannheim.

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Humanistisch-philosophische Schriften Leipzig, Berlin, , xiii [my translation]. Baron emphasized politics and culture rather than socio-economic factors. For Jaeger, third humanism was a program both to reinvigorate classical scholarship and to imbue German society in the s with a renewed awareness for cultural values derived mainly from Greek antiquity. Bildung as auto-poiesis, as Goethe had defined it in his Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre Bildung had been at the core of the both elitist and individualistic self-conception of the German educated bourgeoisie since the first decades of the nineteenth century.

For those aspiring to join this class, among them many German Jews, an education in a secondary school of this type was mandatory. In these institutions the emphasis in education was clearly moving away from the ancient languages in favor of a more concrete preparation for a profession within a modern society. The traditionally educated personality was supposedly in danger of being superseded by the Massenmensch of modern industrial capitalism. Yet, in a similar way to Troeltsch and other eminent intellectuals and scholars, the classicist was driven by both a perception of crisis and a hope for renewal.

For Jaeger, this epoch was represented by Thucydides, the historian of Periclean democracy in Athens and of its great war against the Spartans, and the philosophers of the aftermath of Athenian defeat in BC, Socrates and Plato. Consequently, both Socrates and Plato as well as Thucydides were not seen as specific historical individuals bound to their own time, but rather as meta- historical and fixed role-models and educators, in short, as humanist exempla.

See Manfred Landfester, Humanismus und Gesellschaft im Jahrhundert Darmstadt, , Jaeger saw a single philosophical position in Plato from the early dialogues to the Republic and the Laws. Yet in his discussion of both the Republic and the Laws there was no place for a systematic treatment of moral and political theory as such. Clearly, Jaeger had given up the distinction between the cognitive and normative aspects of the hermeneutic process by using a rhetorical device.

The classical philologist and scholar and the praeceptor Germaniae in Jaeger were one and the same, whenever he bridged the gap between these two roles with the Greek word for education, paideia His justification for this rhetorical trick was as follows: In fact, for Jaeger, German Bildung was identical with Greek paideia.

Diodorus Siculus, The Persian Wars to the Fall of Athens: by Peter Green PDF

He found the teachings of Plato, philosopher of crisis-ridden Athens, equally valid for his own crisis-ridden present, a paideia for a defense of German Bildung The Enlightenment traits of Bildung, like humanitarianism, universalism and cosmopolitanism, were channelled into a program of national pedagogy Humboldt himself underwent a personal transition after , accepting the 59 Charles H. See also Suzanne L. Marchand, Down from Olympus: Power is put to the higher service of spirit; and then again spirit [ Power and spirit, individual, nation and humanity, politics and culture [ Furthermore, notwithstanding differences in political orientation, Baron, Jaeger, Meinecke, Troeltsch and Goetz were all elite representatives of the German bourgeoisie.

See also Landfester, Humanismus und Gesellschaft, Studien zur Genesis des deutschen Nationalstaates Munich, Berlin, 4th rev. Meinecke clearly preferred Humboldt over the less universalistic and individualist Prussian reformers Stein and Gneisenau and over the historian Ranke and Bismarck, the representative of autocratic Prussian state-power.

He was, however, always searching for an academic position equivalent to the one he had held in Berlin. For example, the Heidelberg Romance philologist Leonardo Olschki, dismissed in August , taught at La Sapienza University in Rome, where he had held a visiting professorship even before the Nazi dictatorship.

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Even though Olschki was not paid for his Rome professorship, his German pension for the time being allowed him to remain in his chosen profession He held this post until September when the Italian government also passed racial decrees. Likewise, Kristeller eventually found a temporary position at the University of Pisa and the Scuola Normale Superiore at Pisa in the fall of Baron, however, did not have any success in finding a post, academic or otherwise.

In July , a depressed and bitter Baron wrote to Kristeller: There were simply too many unpleasant events and disappointments for us during these months of summer, indeed an entire chain of disappointments which still does not seem to end. God knows whether there will be a way out for us, whether I will still be able to do scholarly work on a continuous basis.

For now there is not even the faintest trace of blue in the sky Artisti e Intellettuali Tedeschi in Italia Klaus Voigt and Wolfgang Henze Milan, , While in Italy, however, neither Die Entstehung des historischen Denkens im italienischen Humanismus nor Lebensanschauung und Bildungsidee des italienischen Humanismus were completed or translated and published As a result of this lack of success, Baron changed geographic direction.

With a feeling of hope, in he went to London with his wife and their two young children Baron was planning on finding either an academic career in the United Kingdom or using the country as a platform for a job search in the United States. As he wrote to Kristeller: Even if the difficulties are quite great, for those who came here in person ultimately something happened, at least so far.

Furthermore, for people like us the easiest road to America goes through London Baron, however, failed to kindle any particular interest in his work on either the Italian Renaissance or the Protestant Reformation among historians in Great Britain. As a result, neither found he an academic position nor even managed to obtain a research fellowship from the London-based Society for the Protection of Science and Learning, for which expelled scholars from Germany needed the endorsement of a British authority in their field With two remarkable essays, written in still quite uneven English, Baron caught the interest of American scholars They contain extensive correspondence between Baron and the Society between and I owe this information to Prof.

Moreover, with these two essays Baron laid the basis for a monograph in English, the necessary threshold for success for historians in American academia The accumulation of wealth was now viewed not as an obstacle to knowledge and salvation, but, on the contrary, as a resource for the promotion of learning and morality. Contrary to Dilthey, who had interpreted the intellectual development from early Renaissance to Enlightenment philosophy as a steady progression of Stoicism and rationality, Baron introduced a different reading of Aristotle as a philosopher who had expressed esteem for both the worlds of human emotions and rationality Naturally, Baron associated this new Aristotelianism with the Florentine urban bourgeoisie of the Quattrocento.

In a letter Baron identified his debt to Dilthey for his interpretation of Stoicism and Aristotelianism; he also, however, stressed the main difference of his own perspective: Studies in Honor of Hans Baron, ed. Anthony Molho and John A. After a lecture-tour, which led him to Yale, Johns Hopkins and the University of Wisconsin at Madison among other schools, he indeed succeeded in finding a preliminary post as assistant professor of history at Queens College of the City University of New York.

In order to find a qualitative equivalent to his position at Berlin, Baron contacted his American colleagues, offering to give visiting lectures, but there was not much interest in Renaissance studies in American academia at the time. Many historians in this country have practically rejected the concept of an Italian Renaissance [ Indeed, the Renaissance was unpopular in the United States, particularly among medieval historians.

Haskins, the cultural historian and doyen of medieval studies in the United States between the wars, had ardently rejected the concept of a significant break between the Italian Renaissance and the Middle Ages. As he put it: How could there be a renaissance in the Middle Ages [ The answer is that the continuity of history rejects such sharp and violent contrasts between successive periods and that modern research show us the Middle Ages less dark and less static, the Renaissance less bright and less sudden, than was once supposed Strayer was particularly interested in the subjects of royal administration, political rationalization and the medieval foundations of the modern nation-state in France and Britain In short, the s were rather hard times for a Renaissance historian in the United States, let alone for a scholar informed by Diltheyian Geistesgeschichte methodology.

In his own words: To put it in a short comparison: Among the somewhat older and more influential historians in America at the moment, there are no historians, like Walter Goetz or Karl Brandi, or even any medievalists interested in the Renaissance as a cultural phenomenon, such as Percy Schramm or Albert Brackmann. Naturally, my colleagues in classical philology cannot be of any assistance in their departments and even less so, since with my half-historical, half-history of philosophy in the sense of Dilthey or Troeltsch , indeed non- philological background, I cannot be seen as working in the field of neo-Latinist philology The situation was somewhat better in neighboring disciplines, such as intellectual history and the history of philosophy.

Family as Social PDF. The relations is a topical factor for stories of the traditional global. This quantity expands that dialogue to enquire the early Christian kin constructions in the better Graeco-Roman context. The Church in the Age of Constantine: The Church within the Age of Constantine offers a cultured theological screening of the doctrinal and moral considering in the course of the fourth century.

He makes transparent that, in spite of the fact that a lot the successful positions have been depending on the interfering of the kingdom, the theological mirrored image went however its right approach, conditioned because it was once by way of a number of understandings of salvation-in-Christ.