Two conflicting philosophies about nature still exist. One believes in exploitation and the other in harmony. The first philosophy believes that horses exist to serve humans and the second one that humans can form partnerships with horses.
A Veterinarian's Take
Scientific research can tell us which philosophy uses the most correct assumptions. Humans need to see horses as they really are, not as they believe or want them to be. An innovative approach to communication reveals new equine abilities and how our beliefs will influence their behavior. Furthermore, my therapy tools shortly after. According to one researcher, the Europeans began e. Initially that horses possess some kind of mystical power with they were known for canine assisted therapy although this which they can absolve humans of their emotional ills and has changed and they take many different species under perceived shortcomings.
Now that horses have been their umbrella, including horses. We find Association EAGALA was formed in response to words attributed to the human interaction with horses such increasing interest in the field. The human species, never of a two-person team being required as of this writing. Horses, like all non-human animals, live in the equine assisted therapy sessions, and no ridden work is to present tense and I think that is one characteristic that be involved.
They are indeed majestic creatures — Pet Partners distinguishes between animal assisted who can resist the soft muzzle and kind eye of a horse? And perhaps more than anything, their the ability to be provided to a broader range of people than present-ness simply grounds us humans. I, for one, cannot therapy [and not requiring facilitation by a licensed imagine life without horses!
But is there a cost to the individual]. This is a question that must be asked. That policy in itself speaks volumes. Horses are very much a social species and they younger generations — teens and pre-teens. There is also can form deep attachments with their herd members over movement within the US prison system to use horses in time; they can as well form attachments to humans.
Unless interact enough with any one horse to nurture any kind of the particular facility is operating under the EAGALA lasting inter-species bond. A restricted area is typically model, they may also utilize riding therapy; a web search utilized for safety purposes; yet the result is that the horse shows that most facilities appear to utilize the EAGALA has no escape route unless the handler specifically allows model to some degree even if not certified by that it. In other words, the handler has to be cognizant and organization. Therefore, a typical equine assisted therapy empathetic enough to know when to remove the horse or coaching session may begin with some structured from what could become a potentially emotionally ground exercises done as a team effort or individually.
For stressful situation for them. Other situations and the horse may be ignored as the attention is times, a session may begin with simply being in an turned to resolving the human issues. It is through questions tendered by the therapist or coach. It is not knowledge of the living form that we can begin to unusual for a client to have a display of intense emotion understand the emotional impact upon the horse in any during a life-coaching session, and structured kind of therapy situation.
What is Gothean Science? One of the mantras molded our current quantitative, materialistic approach in equine assisted therapy is that there should be no within the sciences. Yet the entire profession is built upon the mathematics breaking it down into parts, quantitatively basic expectation that one can use another sentient being to analyzing each phenomenon in primarily artificial assist a healing process of some kind within the human.
This is a being within a basic contradiction. Would this not have science in which human perception is regarded as the potential to cause some amount of conflict in a untrustworthy. It is one in which the methods to achieve sensitive, consciously-aware animal from the very the results have become the ends in themselves rather than beginning? Many people that have participated in equine a means toward extrinsic value Robbins , p. Goethean science does not look Equine Morphology — A Goethean View of Living at just an interconnected set of actualities but also Form considers a holistic structure of possibilities.
Goethean science is formed out of reciprocity for each phenomenon An animal is visibly material, but it is also living being studied. Such are the questions that arise whenever scientific investigations was direct experiential contact; we observe animals.
Our experiencing the world as horses are animals within the class of Mammals; subjective and objective is an artifact of consciousness, not furthermore they are of the order Perissodactyl, meaning a fact of the world, and we find that the inextricable they are odd-toed single-toed in the case of horses dynamic unity of subject and object cannot be quantified ungulates.
The paradox is that this practice places the scientist outside of nature in an exceptional position, and Conventional taxonomy is based upon the system the very anthropocentrism that is shunned has just been developed by Carl Linnaeus , known as the reinforced! In environment much the same as the tropical forest-dwelling contrast, Goethean science is a participative, engaging Agouti paca, a large, heavy-bodied rodent whose native approach which actually becomes therapeutic for the habit ranges from Mexico to southern Brazil, as they both scientist — in the case of equine therapy, for the therapist carry remarkably similar coat patterns Riegner , p.
Brent Dean Robbins says: This was given to us first by Goethe. This was then process is what Goethe referred to as delicate empiricism; recapitulated and expanded by the biologist, Wolfgang in other words direct, sensorial experience. Every part of Schad, more than any single scientist has before or since.
Indeed, the phenomenological mathematical abstractions; it can only be reached through animal sciences base their work upon his seminal book, careful observation and perception of the subject itself. We can use these three broad opposing tendencies; e. It was Schad who saw that the active In these specialized non-human mammals, there are mediation of these polarities is the fundamental process secondary influences that helps us to further correlate that constitutes every living organism, with threefoldness threefoldness to conventional taxonomy, as well as helping being one of the universal signs of life.
He applied these us to better understand the particular animal as it lives and principles to the study of mammalian diversity, saying: From Figure 1, we see that ungulates in is the essence of Goethean science! Metamorphosis in the animal is even-toed, but also in their inherent behavior. These differences are the result of the secondary influence: The Functional Systems of the Body. As we move into the animal world, we begin to gut fermentation vat where digesta spends most of its time see specialization of one aspect or another among in the horse.
When further suggest that the emotional welfare of the horse can we restrict the limb system of a horse e. The metabolic system in a underlying situation is that the horse suffers disruption in horse is true to his biological nature; given an appropriate their lifeworld. It has been my personal and professional diet and lifestyle, the horse is able to transmute via a dual experience that nutrition and lifestyle in domestic horses digestive process enzymatic and fermentative into suffers a high level of discordance with their biological sustenance that which he finds in nature from foraging and demands.
To put this in plain terms: Unfortunately almost all domestic horses experience multiple unnatural stresses. Evolutionary biology This brief introduction has not done justice to the approaches the environment and the animal as two expansive field of Goethean animal science; there is much separate parts, stating that the animal adapts to his more that can be said regarding the threefoldness of environment and then natural selection takes place.
For the reader that is interested in further research In this way, we can begin to see a unity between the two in currently published I would point you to the references which the animal and the environment are, at the same listed here for both Wolfgang Schad and Mark Riegner. All we So what about consciousness? Given what we just have to do is look at various animals removed from their reviewed concerning the principles of the bodily form natural habitat and placed in cages e.
- Human Views and Equine Behavior: Self Fulfilling Philosophies and Communicating with Horses.
- Nye and Rileys Wit and Humor (Poems and Yarns).
- Veronicas Diary, The Journey of Innocence (Veronicas Diaries Book 1)!
From their writings, we find that higher between gut microbiome and emotional stress. This animals do indeed possess a state of consciousness that research is targeted primarily toward humans but much is shares many functions of that found in human, and which, applicable to other mammals. But there are important differences that have microbiome can trigger both physiological as well as the potential to affect the welfare of the horse, or any emotional stress Forsythe et al. While this is animal, if they are not understood in context. This has twofold a science of phenomenology.
Recognizing that the organic consequences of: It is etheric enlivens the physical body with living rather an organ which reaches into the invisible fluids. Yet with only the physical and etheric inner structure of the world itself, and, by deriving bodies, we including animals would remain in a thence the concepts, reconstitutes-from the sleep state.
It is the descending of the soul that unrelated and chaotic detail of pure sense-given awakens the physical and etheric, enabling the perceptions-the original totality. The latter in itself organs of activity and perception Poppelbaum is full of inner relationships and , p. The exists beyond this material physicality. After all, what is it soul is the bearer of consciousness, and both that enlivens the body; that gives it personality? This principle shows us the differences: It is the stages It should be obvious that animals that we find the group ego of the given animal incarnate both the physical and etheric bodies as we form.
Imagine a and willing; in animals this is retained on man's ten fingers thrust through a screen and a group species level, not individualized in movement. We see the moving fingers but as it is in human. We have to assume the intervention of complete waking consciousness. In some kind of being.
Wisdom in the animal stated above. The state of human consciousness allows dwells deeper — within the organism itself — than in human, this — animal consciousness does not — and thus the and the animal at birth finds wisdom already incarnated individual responsibility lies with us, the human. The Poppelbaum , p. An animal can kill but it of heredity Poppelbaum , p. This, in essence, is cannot murder; it does not have the morality to what gives horse-ness to the horse. By contrast, in human, comprehend the difference.
I was participant in an online it is the descent of the spirit ego that allows development discussion several years ago concerning whether animals of the unique individual. Humans have the perceive — particularly relationships within the natural tendency to confound these two very different aspects, world. It was previously discussed that the animal is a particularly regarding animals.
I would between a poisonous and non-poisonous plant. The horse like to take a moment here to clarify something about knows this from within organic wisdom; the current state anthropomorphizing animals: The sometimes this is the only way to make the non-human consciousness of animals is that of the etheric or living experience come alive for us.
Understanding the animal world with an active participation in and dependency upon form and organization as per the above discussion helps us their lifeworld. The evolution of human consciousness — to avoid boxing the animal into a behavioral pattern it is the awakening of the individual spirit and the incarnation not capable of.
We the organic processes of nature, whereas the animal cannot can say that an animal can suffer loss of a companion be it exist without the relationship that flows between him and another animal or human with similar reactions as a his environment in a very active way. In contrast, human human might display from the death of close friend or consciously uses and manipulates his environment to family member: The human ego unites on — emotions that all flow from the trauma of a loss.
The a human might: Some people are questioning whether disappeared, yet human lost the percept of it centuries ago anthropomorphism should be re-defined. Re-discovering the capability point the definition is completely adequate; it is an of seeing the ontological relationship, this time from a understanding of the animal form that gives us the keys place of awareness can help us in every way, including in toward how to use it.
This should not be a contest as individual spirit awakens Mikic , p. Yet one of to which species is more intelligent; this should be about a the hallmarks of individuality is freedom, and with thorough understanding of what the animal is and is not freedom comes responsibility. This is not unlike the weakness will manifest; this aspect parents trying to mold their children into what they want can be manipulated by forced breeding them to become instead of taking time to see the child and programs.
Many therapy facilities use his individual capabilities. It is this space which spans the rescue or re-homed horses, so the control differentiation between human and animals that has over heredity is often missing. The consciousness within the physical brain. Thoroughbred breeding is subject to inherited disorders Bettley et al. Horses are seen in this context as p. The to go out for at least a portion of the day overall ethos, including religious beliefs of a given culture, to graze at will.
The nutrition within the confines of his place list of potential domestic place detriments completely resolved what I erroneously include: A confinement, transporting from place to horse should always be allowed free place or bringing in unfamiliars such as a access to a clean, non-fluoridated water boarding situation , forced weaning, source; a healthy horse will consume five forced separation of dams and foals, to fifteen gallons of water per day, and forced breeding, and so on.
The horse is possibly more depending upon a highly social and affiliative animal; temperature, humidity, etc Reagan , anything less than species-appropriate in p. This shift, while relatively short bouts; it should be noted demonstrably workable for humans, they can only achieve REM sleep when requires re-thinking whether it is truly lying down Goodwin , p. Exercise for a horse should perspective.
The reality for a horse is that many appropriate parameters; however it takes times they are forced into exercise; horses a phenomenological perception of the in the wild do not run around in circles animal, as well as putting human centric like many domestic horses are forced to desires into proper perspective to see do, instead they walk many miles over things differently and thus to accomplish any hour period. We can liken spotted Appaloosa, so while it is difficult our domestic animals to our own t o s p e ci f i ca l l y d ef i n e i n d i v i d u a l kidneys…they filter everything that goes methodologies, the underlying philosophy on in our lives.
Since the time the behavior. However, the NH Equine training methods have evolved methodology is not without issues, two of the primary ones significantly from physical manhandling being: These two aspects often become blurred into horses in small, enclosed circular arenas melding negative reinforcement with positive punishment.
A horse has affect the individual horse through misapplication of consciousness and is cognitive, but he has no concept — no conditioning modalities is great. It is an inescapable, very real possibility, given what behavior? Dominance so-called herd-bound horse exhibits signs of emotional relationships among mares in the wild, in fact, are fluid: Dominance relationships changed negative, an undesirable behavior. I have witnessed and straight away to investigate the woman, sniffed her over a caused myself in years past when ignorant of the bit, then walked away; as explained by the therapist, this Issue 2, Vol 1, April Once the woman had chosen this horse, she was varying amounts of stress upon the horse.
Notice that it was inter-species interaction in which the human is encouraged asserted by the therapist this second horse came straight to process their psychological issues in the presence of a up to the woman because he somehow recognized that sentient animal has the potential to overwhelm the astral need in her. I would like to present another interpretation body, eventually manifesting as either aberrant behavior or of that: There is a came time to put him on a feeding regimen of soaked hay tendency to think of animals in a collective category of… cubes, he became noticeably more assertive whenever I or well, animals.
One well-written piece on ethics within the anyone else would come around as he quickly learned to field states: It has also been my experience with with acquaintance of new environments. It is treat-fed horses that they quickly learned to become more known that animals in captivity may suffer from assertive in this respect toward the human. Does it really boredom and need new stimuli and challenges. Perhaps not and new kinds of contact…might provide the in this one isolated situation or even a couple of such animals with this needed stimulation.
I believe this is an example of one brick in a therapeutic wall potentially built on lies. I do not believe, however, this can be said unilaterally Perhaps we are attributing magical properties to therapy across all species. Dogs are primarily of the rhythmic horses at times when all they are really wanting is to system and pulsate in between the other two poles see satisfy their instinctual needs.
The horse as , p. There exists a unique congruence of body Other is not given the chance to develop his own cognitive and soul within the carnivore, being neither too bound nor map of his lifeworld within the framework of his given too disconnected with the body Schad , p. It is my perspective that is an unstable healthy dog physically and mentally can take great foundation on which to build a therapy practice. And given what has previously relationship can run very deep, the horse tends to live been discussed here, it is not out of the question, within; being primarily of the metabolic system, he turns particularly in the case of canine assisted therapy, the his attention inward toward bodily processes where the animal may form an attachment bond with the patient.
A horse cannot pulsate in between the two outer poles as the dog can. To unduly Where do we go from here? The horse needs its own kind. The dog will What is missing in the mainstream practice of psychology view new surroundings with anticipatory pleasure is a relational ontology Slife , and I believe this is following the lead of human, whereas the horse will view particularly true with respect to animal assisted therapy.
Dog, on the al. Ben- relationships as well: Yet another relationship that is often However, the concept of animal needs must go far beyond overlooked is that of the horse with his surroundings. Philosophically speaking there are two kinds of relationships — weak or analytical and strong or From a Cartesian-science viewpoint, equine assisted synergistic This flawed to the point the conclusions cannot be trusted, and relational ontology is only seen through a particularly twelve out of fourteen studies published on phenomenological approach — a set of shared meanings clinical trials in equine assisted therapy were too small to within any given relationship.
However the process of identifying this kind rarely published Herzog In fact, one study of 81 of psychology is not well defined, with some viewing it as boys with emotional problems ranging from depression to nothing more than a method of introspection or subjective ADHD to PTSD showed that the children became so experience Scalambrino n.
In simple terms, highly attached to the therapy horses, it resulted in higher phenomenology is the interpretive study of human levels of depression and anxiety; the study was never experience Seamon , and one would think this published Herzog Incorporating animals into would fit neatly into psychology, oddly it does not. Even psychotherapy has the attractiveness of increased client though Edmund Husserl is considered the attendance and participation Urichuk and Anderson , founder of phenomenology, over time two major schools 1.
While some benefit may be derived from uses transcendental phenomenology as a research method this kind of approach, it needs to be seen for what it is — an Scalambrino n. The problem phenomenological psychology primarily a method of lies in in addition to what has been previously discussed collecting and analyzing data. Obviously, the research data has a trickle-down effect into practice, but it does not give The methodology of the equine assisted therapy session is phenomenology an actual place in practice.
Nevertheless, interact with their lifeworld. The triad in response. In a healthy person there is nothing the-horse behavioral response. In essence, we have wrong with re-presenting life in thought processes, but attributed consciousness to animals, yet horses in when things go awry we can become stuck in this mode. A true phenomenological attitude26 encompasses the dynamics of the relationship itself as a synergistic or As was discussed previously, the animal consciousness strong ontological relationality.
In a weak relationality, the soul is infused in the organs. Humans, on the other the parts are seen as self-contained local entities that hand, have different modes of consciousness — that of the influence each other causally across space and time. In a intellectual or rational mind and that of the emotional or typical equine assisted therapy situation this occurs when intuitive mind. This is an is the ultimate pairing of the intellect with the intuitive — immediate metaphorical cause-and-effect scenario that is that brings us to a place of true awareness.
This is what Goethe called, delicate upon them. It is the unfolding of the sensorial process as it flows from the realization that we cannot fathom these depths with our synergistic practice of Goethean science is ultimately a usual abstract models and theories that brings us to the much more therapeutic and durable way of bringing the second mode of sensitivity: This is exactly what Goethe spoke to when process Holdrege , p.
One way to engage this he said: This process of conscious development intellect and the senses Lehrs ; reprint , p. In any phenomenologically goes beyond that to involve other conversation, in any relationship, no matter how short- organs of knowledge; as our ability to see outwardly term, the partners involved change and evolve — they move improves, so will our inner perceptions become more to a different place than they were at the beginning. Horses and all times fail to realize is that — from a synergistic relationality animals are not consciously aware of the viewpoint — the horse changes as well.
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Books by Janice M. Ladendorf
How important is the animal in Animal Welfare, 21 1 , 59— An inspiring journey towards a new co-existence. Their true origin, function and Netherlands: The consciousness of higher Psychiatria Danubina, 21 2 , — Anthroposophical Movement, 5 The changing concept of animal Poppelbaum, H. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, differences. Rudolf Steiner , 11— Mood and gut feelings. Applied Equine Ecology Frewin, K. New age or old sage?: A review of equine assisted psychotherapy. Within some First Nations communities, the role of other beings, including horses, holds significance as a part of identity, culture and spirit.
Since the introduction of the horse to some First Nations people and communities, it has had significant working e. The horse has historically been viewed by some with a profound sacredness, just as there is sacredness believed to be in all living things Bastien, New understandings were also uncovered. The creation of new knowledge and its transference into practice is especially required in the substance abuse field Simpson, , and specific to VSM Dell et al.
By designing our study with these key points in mind, awareness of our findings is already being shared by our knowledge using and practice-oriented team members. Several of the key policy and practice implications they are focussing on include the need to:. There are two key limitations to the results of this study. First, the research findings are specific to White Buffalo and Cartier and it is difficult to transfer the data to additional cohorts.
Further research is needed to establish the findings to be able to generalize beyond the studied cohorts. Related, a case-study design has important merits, and especially in an under-researched field, but it also has its limitations. The most significant is that it is not generalizable. A second limitation of the present study relates to data collection.
During the initial stages of the EAL program each cohort fluctuated due to drop out rates. Additionally, the youth had difficulty leaving their families and home community for treatment and their adaption to the treatment centre environment, staff, other youth, routines and their own detoxification upon entering treatment. These issues surfaced during the initial few weeks of treatment and therefore the data collected during this time period is limited. These limitations are important considerations when considering the implications of this study and for future research.
However, a large gap remains in the literature explaining the outcomes. Understanding from the existing EAL literature was likewise supported in this study and new knowledge identified as well. The results of this study offer a meaningful understanding and contribution to the literature, as studies are rare in the EAL and VSM fields and youth addictions treatment generally. We believe this model can also help fill a gap in the literature and practice.
And finally, as shared, the findings of this study offer important implications for both policy and practice. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Hum Anim Interact Bull. Author manuscript; available in PMC Jan Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract There has been recent interest in Canada exploring the benefits of equine assisted interventions in the treatment of First Nations youth who misuse volatile substances. The Present Study A community-based research approach was adopted in this study for several reasons. Open in a separate window.
Case Study Considering the exploratory nature of this study, our team chose a case study design.
Data collection The contextual units of analysis within the case in the study included the horse, the facilitators, the program content and wellbeing. Table 2 Final coding tree findings of youth wellbeing themes. Several of the key policy and practice implications they are focussing on include the need to: A case-study design had not been conducted before and this study showed promise for its ability to offer a contextual understanding of EAL;.
There is growing recognition of the importance of this, as was experienced in this study;. Limitations There are two key limitations to the results of this study. Footnotes 1 The program is now offered in Alberta. Upper aero-digestive tract frostbite complicating volatile substance abuse. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology. Patient attitudes concerning the inclusion of spirituality into addiction treatment. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. Equine-facilitated prison-based programs within the context of prison-based animal programs: State of the science review.
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Indian Journal of Medical Sciences. Blackfoot ways of knowing: The worldview of the Siksikaitsitapi. University of Calgary Press; Baxter P, Jack S. Qualitative case study methodology: Study design and implementation for novice researchers. Adolescent psychological health problems and delinquency among volatile substance users in a school sample in South London.
Education, Prevention and Policy. Demonstrating the benefits of therapeutic horseback riding for individuals with psychiatric disability. The lived experience of volatile substance misuse: How support contributes to recovery and sustained wellbeing. An International Interdisciplinary Forum. Empirical findings and future directions. Journal of Primary Prevention. Bowers M, MacDonald P. The effectiveness of equine-facilitated psychotherapy with at-risk adolescents.
Journal of Psychology and the Behavioral Sciences. Animal-assisted psychotherapy and equine-facilitated psychotherapy. Helping traumatized youth in child welfare: Case studies of adults receiving horse-riding therapy. Journal of Social Work Practice: Psychotherapeutic Approaches in Health, Welfare and the Community. Ethical conduct for research involving humans. Canadian Institutes of Health Research; Equine assisted social work as a mean for authentic relations between clients and staff.
University of Calgary; Calgary, Canada: Fulfilling the fundamentals of life: A grounded theory of the process of human-horse relationship development. Chalmers D, Dell C. Equine-assisted therapy with First Nations youth in residential treatment for volatile substance misuse: Building an empirical knowledge base. The use of animals as co-therapists on a farm: The child-horse bond in person centered equine-assisted psychotherapy.
Clever Hans phenomenon
Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Transition programs in Indian Country. Casey Family Programs; Davis S, Reid R. Practicing participatory research in American Indian communities. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Humanizing prisons with animals: Journal of Correctional Education. Dell C, Beauchamp T.
Youth Volatile Solvent Abuse: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse; Applying equine assisted learning to uncover and strengthen the spirit of first nations youth who abuse solvents. Global issues in volatile substance misuse. Innovative approaches in public health research: Applying life course epidemiology to Aboriginal health research. Canadian Journal of Public Health.
In the Shadow of Horse
Equine-facilitated learning in youths with severe emotional disorders: A quantitative and qualitative study. Relationships and communication in socially natural horse herds. Mills D, McDonnell S, editors. The origins, development and management of its behaviour. Cambridge University Press; Fergus S, Zimmerman Z. A framework for understanding healthy development in the face of risk. Annual Review of Public Health. A theoretical and evaluative study of an equine-assisted psychotherapy program for delinquent girls. Frewin K, Gardiner B.
New age or old sage? A review of equine assisted psychotherapy. The Australian Journal of Counselling Psychology. Handbook on animal-assisted therapy: Theoretical foundations and guidelines for practice. Gonzalez G, Sutton P. Horse and human personalities: A deep interaction at work. Biology, domestication, and human interactions. Nova Science Publishers, Inc; Evolution, domestication and feralisation. The welfare of horses. Kluwer Academic Publishers; Prime Minister offers full apology on behalf of Canadians for the indiuan residential school system.
Alliant International University; San Diego: An exploration of the experiences of adolescents who participated in equine facilitated psychotherapy: Preventing substance abuse in American Indian and Alaska Native youth: