Конституция на английском языке
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English Choose a language for shopping. Amazon Music Stream millions of songs. Amazon Advertising Find, attract, and engage customers. Amazon Drive Cloud storage from Amazon. A citizen of the Russian Federation may not be deprived of his or her citizenship or of the right to change it. The Russian Federation is a social State whose policy is aimed at creating conditions for a worthy life and the unhindered development of man. In the Russian Federation the labour and health of people shall be protected, guaranteed minimum wages and salaries shall be established, state support ensured for the family, maternity, paternity and childhood, for disabled persons and the elderly, a system of social services developed, state pensions, allowances and other social security guarantees shall be established.
In the Russian Federation guarantees shall be provided for the integrity of the economic space, a free flow of goods, services and financial resources, support for competition, and the freedom of economic activity. In the Russian Federation recognition and equal protection shall be given to private, state, municipal and other forms of ownership. Land and other natural resources shall be utilised and protected in the Russian Federation as the basis of life and activity of the people living in the corresponding territories. Land and other natural resources may be in private, state, municipal and other forms of ownership.
State power in the Russian Federation shall be exercised on the basis of its division into legislative, executive and judicial. The legislative, executive and judicial authorities shall be independent. State power in the subjects of the Russian Federation shall be exercised by the bodies of state authority created by them.
The division of authority and powers among the bodies of state power of the Russian Federation and the bodies of state power of the subjects of the Russian Federation shall be effectuated by this Constitution, federal and other treaties on the delimitation of the authority and powers. In the Russian Federation local self-government shall be recognised and guaranteed.
Local self-government shall be independent within the limits of its authority. The bodies of local self-government shall not be part of the system of state authorities. In the Russian Federation ideological diversity shall be recognised. No state or obligatory ideology may be established as the only one. In the Russian Federation political diversity and the multi-party system shall be recognised. The creation and activities of public associations whose aims and actions are aimed at a forced change of the fundamental principles of the constitutional system and at violating the integrity of the Russian Federation, at undermining its security, at setting up armed units, and at instigating social, racial, national and religious strife shall be prohibited.
As public associations see Federal Law No. The Russian Federation is a secular state. No state or obligatory religion may be established. Religious associations shall be separate from the State and shall be equal before the law. See Federal Law No. The Constitution of the Russian Federation shall have the supreme juridical force, direct application and shall be used on the whole territory of the Russian Federation. Laws and other legal acts adopted in the Russian Federation shall not contradict the Constitution of the Russian Federation. The bodies of state authority, bodies of local self-government, officials, private citizens and their associations shall be obliged to observe the Constitution of the Russian Federation and laws.
Laws shall be officially published.
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Unpublished laws shall not be used. Normative legal acts concerning human rights, freedoms and duties of man and citizen may not be used, if they are not officially published for general knowledge. The universally-recognised norms of international law and international treaties and agreements of the Russian Federation shall be a component part of its legal system.
If an international treaty or agreement of the Russian Federation establishes other rules than those envisaged by law, the rules of the international agreement shall be applied. The provisions of the present chapter of the Constitution comprise the fundamental principles of the constitutional system of the Russian Federation, and may not be changed otherwise than according to the rules established by this Constitution. No other provision of the present Constitution may contradict the fundamental principles of the constitutional system of the Russian Federation.
In the Russian Federation recognition and guarantees shall be provided for the rights and freedoms of man and citizen according to the universally recognised principles and norms of international law and according to the present Constitution. Fundamental human rights and freedoms are inalienable and shall be enjoyed by everyone from the day of birth.
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The exercise of the rights and freedoms of man and citizen shall not violate the rights and freedoms of other people. The rights and freedoms of man and citizen shall operate directly. They determine the essence, meaning and implementation of laws, the activities of the legislative and executive authorities, local self-government and shall be ensured by the administration of justice. The State shall guarantee the equality of rights and freedoms of man and citizen, regardless of sex, race, nationality, language, origin, property and official status, place of residence, religion, convictions, membership of public associations, and also of other circumstances.
All forms of limitations of human rights on social, racial, national, linguistic or religious grounds shall be banned. Men and women shall enjoy equal rights and freedoms and have equal possibilities to exercise them. Capital punishment until its complete abolition may be envisaged by a federal law only as a penalty for especially grave crimes against life, and the accused shall be granted the right to have his case examined by a jury.
Human dignity shall be protected by the State. Nothing may serve as a basis for its derogation. No one shall be subject to torture, violence or other cruel or humiliating treatment or punishment. No one may be subject to medical, scientific and other experiments without voluntary consent. Arrest, detention and remanding in custody shall be allowed only by court decision. Without the court's decision a person may not be detained for a term of more than 48 hours.
Everyone shall have the right to the inviolability of private life, personal and family secrets, the protection of one's honour and good name.
Everyone shall have the right to privacy of correspondence, of telephone conversations, postal, telegraph and other messages. Limitations of this right shall be allowed only by court decision. The collection, keeping, use and dissemination of information about the private life of a person shall not be allowed without his or her consent.
The bodies of state authority and local self-government, their officials shall ensure for everyone the possibility of acquainting themselves with the documents and materials directly affecting his or her rights and freedoms, unless otherwise provided for by law. The home shall be inviolable. No one shall have the right to enter a home against the will of those living there, except for the cases provided for by a federal law or by court decision. Everyone shall have the right to determine and indicate his nationality.
No one may be forced to determine and indicate his or her nationality. Everyone shall have the right to use his or her native language, to a free choice of the language of communication, upbringing, education and creative work. Everyone who legally stays in the territory of the Russian Federation shall have the right to free travel, choice of place of stay or residence. Everyone may freely leave the Russian Federation. Citizens of the Russian Federation shall have the right to freely return to the Russian Federation.
Everyone shall be guaranteed the freedom of conscience, the freedom of religion, including the right to profess individually or together with others any religion or to profess no religion at all, to freely choose, possess and disseminate religious and other views and act according to them. Propaganda or agitation instigating social, racial, national or religious hatred and strife shall not be allowed. The propaganda of social, racial, national, religious or linguistic supremacy shall be banned. No one may be forced to express his views and convictions or to reject them.
Everyone shall have the right to freely look for, receive, transmit, produce and distribute information by any legal means. The list of data comprising state secrets shall be determined by a federal law. The freedom of mass communication shall be guaranteed. Censorship shall be banned. Everyone shall have the right to association, including the right to create trade unions for the protection of his or her interests. The freedom of activity of public association shall be guaranteed.
No one may be compelled to join any association and remain in it. Concerning trade unions, their rights and guarantees for their activity see Federal Law No. Concerning activities of public associations see Federal Law No. Citizens of the Russian Federation shall have the right to assemble peacefully, without weapons, hold rallies, meetings and demonstrations, marches and pickets.
Citizens of the Russian Federation shall have the right to participate in managing state affairs both directly and through their representatives. Citizens of the Russian Federation shall have the right to elect and be elected to state bodies of power and local self-government bodies, and also to participate in referenda.
Citizens recognised by court as legally unfit, as well as citizens kept in places of confinement under a court sentence, shall be deprived of the right to elect and be elected. Citizens of the Russian Federation shall enjoy equal access to state service.
Конституция на английском языке
Citizens of the Russian Federation shall have the right to participate in administering justice. Citizens of the Russian Federation shall have the right to address personally, as well as to submit individual and collective appeals to state bodies and local self-government bodies. For the procedure for handling applications of citizens of the Russian Federation, see Federal Law No.
Everyone shall have the right to free use of his abilities and property for entrepreneurial and economic activities not prohibited by law. Economic activity aimed at monopolization and unfair competition shall not be allowed. Everyone shall have the right to have property, possess, use and dispose of it both personally and jointly with other people. No one may be deprived of property otherwise than by a court decision. Forced confiscation of property for state needs may be carried out only with the condition that preliminary and complete compensation. Citizens and their associations shall have the right to possess land as private property.
Possession, utilization and disposal of land and other natural resources shall be exercised by the owners freely, if it is not detrimental to the environment and does not violate the rights and lawful interests of other people. The terms and rules for the use of land shall be established by a federal law. Everyone shall have the right to freely use his labour capabilities, to choose the type of activity and profession. Everyone shall have the right to labour conditions meeting the safety and hygiene requirements, to labour remuneration without any discrimination whatsoever and to wages and salaries not lower than the minimum established by federal law, as well as the right to protection against unemployment.
Recognition shall be given to the right to individual and collective labour disputes with the use of methods for their resolution established by federal laws, including the right to strike. Everyone shall have the right to rest and leisure. Those working under labour contracts shall be guaranteed a fixed duration of working time, days off and holidays, and annual paid leave established by federal laws.
Maternity and childhood, and the family shall be protected by the State. Care for children and their upbringing shall be equally the right and obligation of parents. Able-bodied children over 18 years of age shall take care of disabled parents. Everyone shall be guaranteed social security at the expense of the State in old age, in case of illness, disability, loss of the bread-winner, for bringing up children and in other cases established by law. State pensions and social allowances shall be established by law. Promotion shall be given to voluntary social insurance and the creation of additional forms of social security and charity.
Everyone shall have the right to a home. No one may be arbitrarily deprived of his or her home. The bodies of state authority and local self-government shall encourage housing construction and create conditions for exercising the right to a home. Low-income people and other persons mentioned in the law and in need of a home shall receive it gratis or for reasonable payment from the state, municipal and other housing stocks according to the norms established by the law.
Everyone shall have the right to health protection and medical aid. Medical aid in state and municipal health establishments shall be rendered to individuals gratis, at the expense of the corresponding budget, insurance contributions and other proceeds. In the Russian Federation federal programmes for protecting and improving the health of the population shall be financed by the State; measures shall be adopted to develop state, municipal and private health services; activities shall be promoted which facilitate the improvement of health, the development of physical culture and sport, ecological and sanitary-epidemiological well-being.
The concealment by officials of facts and circumstances posing a threat to the life and health of people shall entail responsibility according to federal law. Everyone shall have the right to a favourable environment, reliable information about its state and to restitution for damage inflicted on his health and property by ecological transgressions. Guarantees shall be provided for general access to and free pre-school, secondary and higher vocational education in state or municipal educational establishments and at enterprises.
Everyone shall have the right to receive on a competitive basis a free higher education in a state or municipal educational establishment and at an enterprise. The basic general education shall be free of charge. Parents or those acting as such shall enable their children to receive a basic general education. The Russian Federation shall establish federal state educational standards and support various forms of education and self-education. Everyone shall be guaranteed the freedom of literary, artistic, scientific, technical and other types of creative activity, and teaching.
Intellectual property shall be protected by law. Everyone shall have the right to participate in cultural life and use cultural establishments and to access to items of cultural value. Everyone shall be obliged to care for the preservation of cultural and historical heritage and protect monuments of history and culture. State protection of the rights and freedoms of man and citizen shall be guaranteed in the Russian Federation.
Everyone shall be free to protect his rights and freedoms by all means not prohibited by law. Everyone shall be guaranteed judicial protection of his rights and freedoms. Decisions and actions or inaction of bodies of state authority and local self-government, public associations and officials may be appealed against in court. See Law of the Russian Federation No. Everyone shall have the right to appeal, according to international treaties of the Russian Federation, to international bodies for the protection of human rights and freedoms, if all the existing internal state means of legal protection have been exhausted.
No one may be deprived of the right to the consideration of his or her case in that court and by that judge in whose cognizance the given case is according to law. A person accused of committing a crime shall have the right to the examination of his case by a jury court in cases envisaged by federal law.
Everyone shall be guaranteed the right to qualified legal assistance. In cases envisaged by law the legal assistance shall be free. Any person detained, taken into custody or accused of committing a crime shall have the right to receive the assistance of a lawyer counsel for the defence from the moment of detention, confinement in custody or facing charges accordingly.
Everyone accused of committing a crime shall be considered innocent until his guilt is proved according to the rules fixed by the federal law and confirmed by the sentence of a court which has come into legal force. Unremovable doubts about the guilt of a person shall be interpreted in favour of the accused.
In administering justice it shall not be allowed to use evidence received by violating the federal law. Everyone convicted for a crime shall have the right to appeal against the judgement of a superior court according to the rules envisaged by the federal law, as well as to ask for pardon or mitigation of punishment. No one shall be obliged to give evidence incriminating themselves, a husband or wife or close relatives the range of whom is determined by the federal law.
Additionally, Article provides for open and fair trials, as well as equal application of the law . Three courts are delineated: The Constitution requires 19 judges for the Constitution Court  , but does not specify the number of justices for the other courts. As of , the Supreme Court has members  ; due to expansion of duties in the number of seats was increased to . In September of , the Institute of Modern Russia reported that the Russian Federation's Supreme Arbitration Court had been dissolved, and judicial matters previously under its authority had been transferred to the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court .
Despite the ideals written into the constitution, most citizens do not feel that they will receive justice  ; additionally, human rights violations occur regularly .
Constitution of Russia
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