The grindstone proved so heavy, that they could not carry it, and finally they returned with only a number of trinkets. Pocahontas, a girl of thirteen years of age, loved the captain dearly. She afterwards embraced the Christian faith and was baptized Rebecca. After the return of Smith to England in , a young English settler, John Rolfe, assured her that Smith died and persuaded her to marry him.
Three years later the couple visited England and she was received with great ceremony at the royal court. There she met with Captain Smith and it is said, that she died heart broken finding herself the victim of deceit. She left one son, who was educated in England and who then re- turned to Virginia, where several of the most prominent families claim to be his descendants.
The poetical Pocahontas tale has been related here in full, to prove the correctness of the assertion made previously in re- gard to the lack of devotion to the memoirs of history on part of Anglo-Americans. No prominent American poet has taken hold of this admirable story, but the German-American teacher, Johann Straubenmueller, published in German in at Balti- more, Md. The original painting of Pocahontas, a picture -which has long been sought for and which is now ascertained to be in Norfolk, is probably too the work of a German artist, Nicolaus Locker.
He granted them full pardon and detailed a Swiss, by name William Volday, to persuade them, but his messenger also preferred to stay with the Indians and only one German, named Adam, availed himself of the captain's offer. Smith then charged the Dutchmen, — or the cursed country- men of the Swiss Volda or Volday, as he called them, — to have conspired with the Spaniards to destroy the colony. Eduard Huber, Baltimore, Md. On page of this Dutch book is stated, "They the Englishmen had also many trou- bles with the High-Germans Hochdeutschen, which having been badly treated, joined the Virginians the Indians to de- stroy the English settlement.
Being unable to induce the German mechanics to return to Jamestown, Capt. Smith persuaded Thomas Douse and Thomas Mallard "to bring the Dutchmen and the inconstant savages in such a manner amongst such ambuscades, as he had prepared, that not many of them should return from the peninsula. Birmingham, 18S4 18 "The Three Travels. In the spring and again in the fall of Capt.
New- port arrived with provisions and new immigrants. Among the newcomers were a number of Poles and Germans, brought over with the purpose to manufacture pitch, tar, glass, sope-ashes, etc. Smith complained of the habits and character of the men sent out and entreated the council, "when they send out again, rather to send but thirty carpenters, husbandmen, gardeners, fisher- men, blacksmiths, masons and diggers of tree roots, well pro- vided, than a thousand of such as they had. In the year the London Company obtained a new charter, granting enlarged territory and putting the manage- ment of affairs of the colony in the hands of a governor as- sisted by a council.
Lord Delaware was appointed governor, after Capt. Smith, by the accidental explosion of a bag of gun- powder, had been wounded and obliged to return to England. Besides Jamestown, that was strongly palisaded, containing some fifty or sixty houses, he left five or six other forts and plantations. It was an unlucky day for the colony when Capt. Smith departed, — his actions had not always been free of harshness and cruelty, — but the circumstances that sur- rounded him may serve for his excuse, — and when he had left, disorder, sickness and famine ensued.
The winter of to was properly termed "the starving time. Smith stated,-" "the adventurers never knew what a day's work was, except the Dutchmen and Polos, and some dozen others. For all the rest were poor gentlemen, tradesmen, serving men, libertines and such like, ten times more fit to spoil a commonwealth, than either begin one, or but help to maintain one.
Nearing the mouth of the James river, they descried a fleet entering Hampdon roads. It was Lord Dela- ware with new colonists and provisions, and the disheartened fugitives were persuaded to return to the abandoned James- town. The new arrivals were of a better class and by the ju- dicious management of the governor the future of the colony wore a brighter aspect.
Among the new settlers were many Dutch and Germans, they plowed the soil, corn was raised in abundance and no further famine again endangered the lives of the colonists. Tobacco and cotton were extensively cultivated for export, and tobacco was used as money, being worth about 75 cents a pound. Waldo, before mentioned and highly esteemed by Capt. Smith, went to England and persuaded the merchants to com- mence mining in Virginia. But the mines he had found did not prove rich and he was treated as an impostor and died most miserably. Very likely these iron works were estab- lished by Capt.
In the Price-Lists of iron is marked at twelve pounds sterling per ton, but in the Chesterfield furnace was broken up by the massacre of the Indians under the chief Opechancanough. Ill health soon obliged governor Delaware to give up the administration of the colony and he was succeeded by Sir Thomas Dale. The last act of governor Dale marks an era in the history of Virginia. Ever since the foundation of the colony all property was held in common, the settlers worked together and the products of the harvest were deposited in a common storehouse and distributed by the council.
Governor Dale now introduced the policy of assigning to each settler a few acres of land to be his own, and the advantages of this system soon became apparent in the general improvement. Vol I, p 24L Richmond, In sev- eral of the reports to the London Company the presence of Germans is confirmed and they show, that the administration appreciated diligent labor and endeavored to encourage immi- gration from France, Germany, Switzerland, and Holland.
The intolerance of the clergy and of the worldly rulers in Europe furthered the realization of this plan. Before the colonists had no part in the making of the laws by which they were governed, but in that year, un- der the administration of Sir George Yeardley, a representative government was established, and in order to further ensure the permanency of the colony through the establishment of family life, one hundred and fifty agreeable young women, poor but respectable, were brought over.
They were sold to the planters in marriage bound at the cost of their transportation expenses, at the price of one hundred pounds of tobacco, and the demand exceeding the supply, other transports were fur- nished and the price advanced to pounds. This almost comic transaction proved of the highest merit, as domestic and moral life was its result and even the restless adventurers re- linquished the fondled hope of returning to the mother land.
It is very probable that many of the German settlers mar- ried English women and thereby became anglicized. Acquisitions of a different and decidedly unfavorable char- acter were also made to the population of the colony. One hundred criminals were, by the order of King James, sent over to be sold for a term of years as servants to the planters, and this beginning created a desire on part of some of the colonists to employ labor and the opportunity to gratify it came only too soon.
In a Dutch ship from Africa touched at Jamestown and landed twenty negroes, who were sold for lifetime as slaves, and thus the abominable institution of slavery was introduced, spreading gradually over the entire territory of the English colonies — and it became the curse of the inhabitants. In the beginning slavery was only silently tolerated, but in the course of time slave holding, slave breeding and slave trade were pro- tected by law, However, the great majority of the colonists 30 were opposed to the institution and especially to the importa- tion of negroes, and only through the influence of the large land-owners, mostly English lords, was slavery forced on Vir- ginia.
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Twenty-three statutes were passed by the House of Burgesses to prevent the iinpo7-tation of slaves, but all were vetoed by the English government. The general education was pur- posely neglected and even from the pulpit slavery was declared to be a divine institution. Sir William Berkeley, who was appointed gover- nor in , said in the year in a report to the English government, "I thank God there are no free-schools or print- ing, for learning has brought disobedience and heresy and sects into the world, and printing has divulged them and libels against the best government.
God keep us from both! The census of showed only 85, pupils in schools, so-called, though many were but private classes in which some public fund pupils were in- structed. Not until the year was the present excellent public school law inaugurated in Virginia and at once the en- rolment showed for that year , pupils in all schools, — an immense advance on any previous year. Slave holding also had most injurious effects 'on the de- velopment of industry and commerce. As long as the mass of a people is without an own income, — as long as all the pro- 23 "Gescliichteder deatsclien Sclmlbcstrebungen in Amcrika," by Herrmann Sell q- ricllt, p.
Report ot the Commissioner of Education for , p Washington, govern- ment printing oiflce, This is shown by statistics. Of imports, the share of the South as compared with the free states before the war of secession, was like 40 to , and this proves, that a very small portion of the southern commerce was in southern hands. There certainly would have been tenfold more commerce and manufacture in Virginia and the other southern states, if there had been intelli- gent, industrious and patriotic free laborers, receiving pay for their work and spending their money for the necessaries and luxuries of life.
But for slavery, Virginia would to-day be, as it was in , the most populous state of the Union, as well as the most wealthy and influential. Slavery still had another dis- astrous effect, — it has the tendency to degrade free labor and to render the free laborer worthless. The habit of giving prefer- ence to slave-labor has operated to the prejudice of free labor. It has caused the population of little means to grow up in idle- ness, to think labor degrading, to be incapable of earnest regular work, and it kept away immigration of white workingmen, be- cause they disliked to be looked down upon and treated as ne- groes.
The German settlers, whose number was much larger than is generally conceded, were with very few exceptions opposed to slavery, — resulting to their great disadvantage. The slave- holders consequently distrusted the Germans and a new feeling of animosity towards them sprang up. Their political influence was curtailed, and the majority of them submitted in order to secure toleration and peace. In this way a valuable civil ele- ment was almost excluded from building up the future state, — but only in political respects and not in its social and economical life.
In farming and in commerce the Germans became impor- tant factors, as will be shown hereafter. But outside of slavery there was another obstacle in the path of quick development of the colony, that impeded foreign and particularly German immigration. Agricul- fural Report ofisee, p. One of these grants or "patents," as they were called, gave the patentee the right to divide the said tract or ter- ritory of land into counties, hundreds, parishes, tithings, town- ships, hamlets and boroughs, and to erect and build cities, towns, etc.
Convicts and a great many indentured white servants, Irish and Scotch prisoners of war, were sent over from England in and after the year , — but after a generation or two all these elements became blended into a homogeneous mass of "cavaliers," — aristocratic because they had an inferior race be- neath them. Still, in spite of all the mismanagement and unlucky cir- cumstances, the colony extended its lines and soon after immi- gration began to penetrate into the interior.
Until the death of Powhatan in the settlers lived fairly in peace with the natives, but after his brother Opechancanough speak Ope-kan-kano became the head of the confederate tribes, the relations changed. Eyeing with suspicion the increasing numbers of the palefaces, he laid a murderous plan in for their total extermination. Lewis"'' describes the cruel massacre, which also caused the death of many a German settler, as follows: The friendly relations were continued up to the very day, even to the fatal hour. They borrowed boats from the English, brought in veni- son and other provisions for sale and sat down to breakfast with their unsuspecting victims.
It was twelve o'clock noon on the 32nd day of March, , when every hamlet in Virginia was attacked by a band of yelling savages, who spared neither age, sex nor condition. The bloody work went on until men, women and children had fallen victims at the barbarous hands of that perfidious and inhuman people. Had not a converted Indian, who lived with a man named Pace, revealed the plot and so put the people of Jamestown and neighboring settlements on their guard, and therefore in a state of defence, every settlement would have been laid in ruins and the inhabitants put to the tomahawk.
So the plan failed. There were yet fighting men in the colony and the Indians were made to pay dear for their perfidy. The English pushed into the wilderness, burning wigwams, killing every Indian that fell into their hands, and destroying the crops, until the foe was driven far into the interior. Confidence was once more restored, and a feeling of security brought a return of prosperity ; immi- gration revived and at the end of the year the population num- bered Game was plentiful and they were hunters and trap- pers rather than farmers, sending their peltries to market and only cultivating enough land to supply their immediate wants.
This unrestrained life became a passion and frequently led to conflicts with the Indians, who claimed the forests as their hunt- ing ground, — and the peaceful and active farmers on the fron- tier, mostly Germans, suffered much on this account. The London Company had not gained any profit by the colonization of Virginia so far.
She had sent over more than persons at an expense of about , pounds sterling, — many of the immigrants perished, others had joined the Indians or left the country, — and after eighteen years of existence the colony counted only inhabitants, and the annual export scarcely amounted to 20, pounds. King James too was little pleased with these meagre results, and when the Indian troubles commenced and the very existence of the colony was endangered, he dissolved the company and in Virginia was declared a royal province. The Colonial As- sembly was however allowed to exercise its former power, and by and by the importance of Virginia was felt.
A thousand immi- grants arrived in the single year and took to farming where- ever fertile land invited them. BricTce, Elizaieth Salter, Cli. Waller, Georg Graues, Tli. Rees, John Rose, Wm. Perley Poor, Agricul- tural Report of the U. Foreman, Daniel Francke, Rich. Ranhc, Vallentyno Gentler, Tli. Horner, Cathrin Cajjpe and a very large number of doubtful names. Tobacco had become the staple product of Virginia and ef- forts were made to also encourage other branches of rural indus- try. Cotton was first planted in King James I, prompted doubtless by his anti- pathy to "the Virginia weed," as he termed the tobacco plant, and having understood that the soil naturally yielded store of excel- lent mulberries, gave directions to urge the cultivation of silk and to erect silk-mills.
Men of experience were brought over from France, Switzerland and Germany, and premiums were of- fered to encourage the raising of the silk-worm, and later also that of indigo, hops and other agricultural staples ; but fresh disturbances interfered. The war with the Indians just ended, the political and reli- gious troubles in England, the immorality of the royal court, the corruption of the office holders, the animosity of the tories and wighs, the contest between the church and its opponents, and finally the establishment of a republican government by Cromwell, exercised their convulsive influences even upon dis- tant Virginia.
After the restoration of Charles II to the throne of his beheaded father, he failed to fulfill the expectations of his people, who were in hope that the king, who had gone through a school of misfortune, would give his country peace and pros- perity. But Charles II soon lost the confidence and respect of his subjects. He was incapable of resolute action and self-sacri- fice, without trust in humanity or virtue.
Charles II deceived the Protes- tants by favoring the Catholics, and he rushed England into un- lucky wars. England, which had advanced during the republican administration to the first naval power of Europe, had to endure the mortification, that a Dutch fleet under de Euy- ter sailed up the Thames and alarmed the city of London by the thunder of its cannon. In the treaty of Dorn Charles II agreed to adopt the Catholic faith and to support the claim of the King of Prance on the Spanish throne with his fleet and army, while on the other hand Louis XIV obliged himself to pay subsidies and to land an army in England in case of revolution.
The king himself was a mean and spirit- less voluptuary, without the morals of a Christian and almost without the feeling of man. His ministers had not one of the attributes of statesmen and nearly all of them were pensioned by the crown of France. The same effect was visible in the Eng- lish colonies and finally resulted in outbursts of indignation. This was particularly the case in Virginia, where a great number of disgusted English and Scotch refugees had settled, while the immigrants from the European continent possessed no special at- tachment to the English throne and advocated American inde- pendence.
The rights of the mass of the colonists were every- where restricted. Sir William Berkeley, who had held the office of governor by the will of the people, and who had administered the colonial affairs in a liberal manner, was confirmed by Charles II in , but thereupon commenced a rule of despo- tism and oppression, — the affairs of the Church were placed in the hands of vestries, — and the Assembly composed of aristo- crats made themselves permanent. Vol I n 27, New York, Virginia expected after the Eestoration, in acknowledgment of her loyalty, some speci9,l marks of the king's favor, but by compulsory laws, as the above mentioned, she was required to look to England as her sole mar- ket for her exports and to receive from England alone her im- ports.
In duties were even imposed upon articles carried from one colony to another, and these aggressions drove the colonists finally to insurrection. But the great natural wealth of the land assisted, in spite of restrictions and obstructions, the progress of Virginia. Among the various strange and surprising things which the settlers found on Virginian soil, were a great variety of wild grape vines, and the London Company determined, as early as , to make some experiments with the culture of the European canes through French and German experts.
The favorite drinks of the Eng- lish were, at that time: Premiums were offered to encourage the- cultivation of vines, but the delicate European sorts did not re- sist the injuries of climate and insects, and the results were un- satisfactory. New Amsterdam, now New York, — New Jersey and Maryland, and in fact the Dutch colonies are principally entitled to claim him as theirs, but his services in regard to Virginia are of such great merit, that his name ought for all time to be given a place of honor in her history.
There is very little known about the early life of Herrmann, — even the year of his birth is only judged to be It seems that he came to Virginia in , for in a petition addressed to the Dutch governor Stuyvesant, dated , he says: Numbers 2 and 4. He was also a wholesale dealer in wine, bought and sold furs, Virginia cotton and tobacco, which he exported to Holland. It is proved by documents that lie received the last named arti- cles, by the intervention of Georg Hack in Northampton, Va.
Herrmann, ne Jeanetie Verlet, from Utrecht, and who frequently visited her relatives in New Amsterdam. In exchange for Virginia products Herrmann sup- plied his brother-in-law with all kinds of imported goods. Georg Hack apparently was a man of energy and influence, who took an active part in politics. This ac- tion of Hack deserves special mention, as most Virginians were at that crisis loyal royalists and bitterly opposed the "Navigation Act" enforced by the British Parliament.
This law, as has been stated, prohibited export and import except to and from Eng- land and was necessarily a severe blow to the foreign trade es- tablished by Hack's brother-in-law. Georg Hack appears there- fore as a man of character, who would rather sacrifice the inter- ests of his relative and his own, than depart from his principles.
Herrmann on the other hand defended the interests of the Dutch with energy and soon gained respect and influence. Several times during the period of the Commonwealth, he was 32 L. An English translation is to be found in ; "Documents relating to the colonial history of New York," Vol. He advocated, as early as , in a letter to governor Stuyvesant: He was well posted in literature, spoke the most impor- tant languages: German, English, Dutch, French, Spanish and Latin, and he was an efficient draughtsman, mathematician and surveyor.
Purple calls him'' " "a man of good educa- tion, a surveyor by profession, talented in sketching and a draughtsman, — a smart and enterprising business man, — a rare and noble man, — and an admirer of this country. Beyond all doubt he has drawn in the "map of the English and Dutch colonies," which was published by the government in and embraces the section between the line of North Carolina and the Hudson river. Although incorrect in several respects, it gives a very comprehensive picture of the land, mouths of rivers and inlets of the sea.
Virginia is particularly well drawn, and Herrmann must have explored the tidewater- region very carefully. The map shows the likeness of its de- signer with the inscription, "Augustine Herrmann, Bohemian," and a vignette with the inscription, "Virginia and Maryland as it was planted and inhabited this present year Surveyed and exactly drawn by our own labor and endeavor of Augustine Herrmann, Bohemiensis," and at the side of which are repre- sented a young Indian with bow and arrow, and an Indian girl.
It is of great interest that Herrmann's map also gives some German names of places in Virginia, as: Scharburg and Backer's 34 "Dutch Manuscript. This is almost proof, that in the very infancy of the colony German settlements existed. Augustine Herrmann died in G. It appears also that Germans occupied high political offices, before and during the governorship of Sir Wm.
One Richard Kempe was secretary of the land office of Henrico in , member of the council of Virginia in , president of this body in , and during the time Sir Berkeley visited Eng- land, acting governor. The name Kempe is undoubtedly Gei'- man, but some historians write him "Kemp," and claim erron- eously that this form of the name is English.
Yet Kemp, as well as Kempe, are to this day German family names and the land-registers of Henrico of '''' contain many signatures in Rich. Kempe's own handwriting — and with but one exception he signed "Kempe. Kempe's biography, and this omission also speaks for his German origin. Surely there is no full evidence that E. Kempe was a German, but the probabilities are in favor of it. During the same period some Germans rendered very valu- able services by exploring the unknown country in the interior. Johannes Lederer was the first explorer of the Alleghany mountains, and he is one of the brightest figures in the early history of the German element in Virginia.
The German-Ameri- can historian H. Eattermann, of Cincinnati, 0. In the year Johannes Lederer came to Jamestown and offered his services to governor Berkeley. Governor Berkeley readily equipped an expedition to Brook, Secretary of the Historical Society of Virginia. Johannes Lederer," by H. Rat- termann, "Deutscher Pionier. Lederer undertook three trips, but failed to discover an easy passage through the mountains, which the gov- ernor wisiied for. During his last expedition his companions became disheartened and deserted him, while he ventured to con- tinue his researches with only an Indian guide, who served him as interpreter.
At his return he was ill-treated, — his com- panions, ashamed of their cowardice, circulated false reports about him, — and finding even his life endangered, he fled to Maryland. Sir William Talbot, governor of the colony, received him kindly, and upon his suggestion he wrote an account of his trips in Latin, which was printed in English in London in with a map of the country drawn by the author.
This interest- ing little book was entitled: A copy of it is preserved in the li- brary of the U. Congress at Washington City. It is the first scientific report about the geology, botany, animals and native tribes of the extensive district as far as Florida, seen by the cour- ageous German, and it deserves special acknowledgment in a German-American history, giving evidence, that the first explo- ration of the AUeghanies was the work of a German.
Very little is known of Lederer himself and no reports are left of his later career and end. The family name of Lederer is well known in Austria and Germany. Some Lederers held diplomatic offices in the United States of America. Lederer's map, which appeared with his book, gives only an inaccurate picture of the country, but it must be taken in con- sideration that, his instruments had been carried off by his faith- less companions. It shows the land from Virginia to Florida. In those early times maps only gave general outlines, and all parts not explored had to be guesswork. This may be illus- trated by the following.
Delisle, published by Joh. Another German explorer of Virginia is mentioned by Klau- precht, the chronicler of the Ohio valley, — by John Esten Cook, — and by Stierlein in his history of Kentucky and the city of Louis- ville: Heinricli Batte, who in crossed the Alleghanies and reached the Ohio river. All these historical facts show that the colonial govern- ments have used German scientific men to open the wilderness to civilization, and the history of North Carolina, the neighbor- ing state of the Old Dominion, furnishes further evidence.
The report of this exploring expedition appeared in London in and bears the signatures of its leaders: Milton and Peter Fabian. The last named was cer- tainly the author of the report and the scientific man of the ex- pedition, as is shown by the estimates of distances in German 40 Mr. The report, for instance, states: Canton Bern planned to establish colonies in North America with the surplus of her population. Vischer, Hamburg, in , — that he met on his voyage to the Carolinas the German explorer, who was well acquainted with the land and its peo- ple.
Many of these people afterwards settled in Virginia, as will be related further on. Towards the close of the seventeenth and in the beginning of the eighteenth century, under the leadership of Claude Phi- lippe de Kichebourg, another numerous immigration of French Huguenots and German Calvinists or Eeformists from Elsace and Loraine took place. These newcomers were industrious and pious people and they scattered successively over the tide-water district, middle Virginia and the Shenandoah valley, but most of them settled in the counties of Norfolk, Surry, Powhatan and Prince William.
In the Shenandoah valley they met with a numerous German element and these French Huguenots were perfectly Germanized. In , by issue of the first law of naturalization, immi- gration was materially supported. This law prescribed that any 41 "Die Deutschen in Nord-Carolina. The number of German settlers during the first century of the existence of the colony was, as has been stated, much larger than is commonly admitted, and some Anglo-American historians unfairly ignore or belittle the share the Germans have taken in the development of Virginia, desiring to repre- sent it as an "entirely English colony.
The following investigations will prove how incorrect and devoid statements of such "manufacturers of history" are. Johann Busch, Thomas Spilmau Spielmann ,. John Chooh- man Schumann , Ph. The oldest volume of the county-records, kept at Henrico Courthouse at Richmond, Va.
Gregory, John Bowman Bau- mann. Risboc, — the last two in German let- ters. Eller, — the last three in partial Ger- man writing. Grouse Krause , and in German writing: Starke, Mary Skirme, Henry Shur- mann that is: Schuermann, — in later entries the same man signs: Sherman , — Thos. Enck, Joshua Stap prob- ably Stapf , and in German letters: Taking in consideration the small number of white sett- lers, these German names in the registers and records of a single county, which was at the time still predominantly in- habited by Indians, are proof that the German immigration was numerally worthy of notice.
James mentions in his "Antiquary" among the earliest landowners the following names of German sound: Samuel Boush, John Weblin, Thos. The population was, as has been mentioned, heavily op- pressed during the government of Sir Berkeley, and dissatis- faction was spreading. The English high-church by its in- tolerance greatly furthered the rebellious spirit. The peace- able Quakers were especially made to suffer. However, the immediate cause of the outbreak of the revolution was the renewed depredations of the Indians in revenge for the treach- erous murder of some of their chiefs. Alarmed and disgusted by the inefficient measures for defence taken by governor Berkeley, the indignant settlers rose in opposition in They asked permission to arm and defend themselves and to appoint Nathaniel Bacon, a patriotic young lawyer, their leader.
This the governor, fearing to put arms in the hands of the discontented men, and jealous of 46 Bacon's popularity, refused ; while the savages continued to commit many outrages on the planters. Bacon now put him- self at the head of his followers, defeated the Indians and then turned round against the governor, who had declared him a traitor. He drove Sir Berkeley and his adherents from James- town and the town was partly destroyed. Bacon died suddenly, and there was not a second man brave and worthy enough to take his place.
Berkeley recovered his power and wreaked vengeance on the patriots by confiscations and executions un- til the thoughtless and profligate King Charles II declared: In governor Berkeley was discharged from office and for the space of 31 years the king granted the colony to Lords Culpepper and Arlington. The first named was appointed governor for life. He came over in , but trying only to get as much money as possible out of his province, another rebellion was threatening, when the king, for fear of its re- sults, revoked the grant and recalled Culpepper.
Lord Howard, was little better, he also deemed Virginia his "milk cow," and it is really surprising that in spite of all the ill-treatment and mismanagement the colony prospered. In the year there were , white inhabitants in Vir- ginia, and at the end of the seventeenth century the popula- tion nearly reached , In England Roman-Catholics were exposed to persecution and most barbarous punishments were inflicted upon them. With the thirty-nine articles of the Anglican High Church a political organism was created, that lacked true religious sen- timent, real Christian love and ideal theory of life.
The ha- tred towards the dissenters, Catholics and Protestant sects, led Lord Baltimore, one of the most influential Catholics in old England, to look for some place of refuge in the New World, where those of his creed might follow their worship unmo- lested. He first tried Newfoundland, but found the climate too severe, and then he tried Virginia, but found its English people more intolerant than in England. Finally he obtained, in , from King Charles I a large tract of land, east of the Potomac and extending along the coast of the Chesapeake bay, to which he gave the name of Maryland, in honor of the queen Henrietta Maria.
Although Lord Baltimore was an ar- dent Catholic, he made his land an asylum for all those pur- sued and unfortunate. The historian Bankroft says: But be- fore long difficulties arose. Virginia claimed that Lord Bal- timore's grant belonged to her, and Clayborne, a member of the Jamestown Council, who had already established two trad- ing posts in Maryland, opposed the authority of Lord Balti- more. A bloody contest followed, and religious trouble and 48 war between the Protestants and Catliolics, caused by the in- tolerant and ambitious Puritans and Episcopalians, soon clouded the fair dawn of the rising colony.
In England the reign of the Stuarts had been superseded by the new rulers William and Maria, and Lord Baltimore, hesitating to recognize the new government, was in entirely deprived of his priv- ileges and Maryland became a royal province. Not until did the fourth Lord Baltimore recover the government — and religious freedom was again restored. During this long period of disturbance the number of the discontented enlarged con- siderably and many, especially a great number of German colonists, left Maryland and wandered to the fertile valleys in the mountain region of Virginia. Pennsylvania was also colonized towards the close of the seventeenth century, but religious quarrels and English pre- sumption fostered like results.
To enjoy freedom of religion many Germans had emigrated to Pennsylvania. They had en- dured the dangers and hardships of a long sea-voyage, and they were not disposed to allow themselves to be again de- prived of the liberty gained by such sacrifice. Seidensticker,''''' "caused the prosecuted Puritans and Quakers to go in search of an asylum to the New World.
For these reasons the Ger- mans left the Fatherland. Only three creeds, the Catholic, Lutheran and Calvin, were granted the right of tolerance within the German empire by the treaty of Westphalia. Who- ever was moved by scruples of conscience to give to his Chris- tian belief some different shape or to interpret the Bible in another way, persecution was his lot.
Such secular Christians, prosecuted and abused without mercy, were plentiful in Ger- many towards the close of the seventeenth century. The in- offensive Mennonites found only in a few states a precarious admittance, — the pious ScTiwenkf elder had to endure the most terrible treatment, and even the Pietists, the followers of Ja- cob Spencer, who only endeavoured a more earnest and con- scientious devotion to religion within the bounds of the Lutheran creed, were abused and denounced as dangerous inno- The Mystics of various nuances, who had adhei-ents among the literary men as well as among the people, the au- thorities would have liked best to shut up in lunatic asylums or prisons.
Penn, the son of an English admiral, whom the English government owed a large sum of money, received in- stead of payment a large grant of forest land west of the Delaware. Charles II recommended to name this territory "Sylvania," that is, forest land, but finally he prefixed to it the name of Penn and baptized it "Pennsylvania.
Very correctly he is considered the talented and noblest leader of his sect, — his highest am- bition was to advance the happiness of his fellow men. Even if, as has been asserted, he had aimed to convert his extended landed property into money, it must be acknowledged that he carried out his plan in a disinterested way, advancing an ideal design. In Germany some Quaker communities existed at Crefeld and Kriesheim near Worms, and akin to them were the Men- nonites and Anabaptists.
Friendship and equality of all men were the leading doctrine of the Quakers, who originated in England in through the teachings of John Fox. They believe, that he who implores the Holy Ghost by fervent prayer, will share in divine revelation. Their worship is sim- ple, without the ringing of bells they assemble in a plain 44 "Die ersten deutschen Secten in Amevika," von L. Hennighausen Bclleliis- tiaches Journal, No. In solemn silence and with covered heads they await for a member of the congregation to be moved by the Holy Q'host and to preach to them.
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They re- fuse to take oath and consider war wrong even when waged in self-defence, they condemn all worldly amusements and lux- uries, use the article thou and thee no matter whom they ad- dress, keep their hats on even in presence of the king, and dress very plain. Hennighausen, of Baltimore, Md. They had been oppressed and perse- cuted in their old Fatherland. Imprisonment, scourging, heavy fines and confiscations was their lot. In some states of north- ern Germany the magistrates paid a reward of five florins for the information of the whereabouts of a Quaker.
The Friends at Orefeld, in June , bought of Wm. Penn 18, acres and those of Frankfurt 25, acres. In , on the 6th of October, the first thirteen families from Crefeld were landed at Philadelphia. Two days later they selected the land for their settlement, on the 24th it was surveyed, on the 25th the homesteads were divided and the building up of Germantown was begun at once. Many more Germans, especially from Kriesheim, followed and in a few years Germantown had be- come a flourishing city. In an English book, printed at Phi- ladelphia in , George Frames sings: The Germantown of which I spoke before, Which is at iJast in length one mile or more.
Where live high German people and low Dutch, Whose trade in weaving linnen cloth is much. There grows the flax. William Penn, the proprietor of the province, frequently visited them, — preached to them in the German language and always remained their true friend. In they erected the first meeting-house in Germantown and Franz Daniel Pastorius wag their leader and preacher. Pas- torius, who also was the first mayor and delegate of the town, 51 was a man of lofty character and classical education. These Germans were not uneducated people, as they have falsely been represented to be.
The most glorious and famous ac- tion of these German men was: They belonged to different sects, who had lived in hatred and discord in their native land, and they imported unpleasant feelings of jealousy, intolerance and pretention in- to the abode of peace founded by the noble Penn. They were only on one point of one mind, and that was their envy and antipathy towards the prosperous Germans, who were rapidly increasing in number. The English settlers called them "for- eigners," and a very deplorable spirit of native presumption grew up. This spitef ulness ' of the two nationalities was heightened when the Germans issued their protest against the institution of slavery.
The Mennonites and Anabaptists originally were closely connected. Both disputed the legality and efficacy of the christening of children, which they condemned as being in contradiction of the Holy scripture. The Anabaptists were rather troublesome people and religious fanatics, they desired the restoration of the empire of Christ on earth, community of property, belief in sacred revelation, etc. Conse- quently they were bitterly persecuted. But they deserve high credit for having unfolded the banner of constant progress or perpetual reformation — and to have enforced, like the Quak- ers, rigid morality and recognized equality of mankind.
Ni- colas Storch was the founder of this sect, born at Zwickau in Saxony, he was in assisted by Marcus Stubner and Tho- mas Muenzer. Simmons was a Catholic 52 priest at Witmarsum, when in several Anabaptists and among them his own brother, were executed. This event made a deep impression on his mind, he left the Roman Catholic Church and joined the Anabaptists, taking charge of one of their congregations at Groeningen.
Simmons reorgan- ized the Dutch Anabaptists, disapproving all religious and po- litical agitation.
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He was opposed to christening children, but declared the baptism of adults to be indispensible — and he desired to restore the original character of the Christian Church. Taking oath, warfare, public offices, law-suits and divorces were rejected by him. Although his followers were very peace- able people, they were confounded with the fanatic Anabap- tists, who engaged in a bloody conspiracy at Muenster, and persecution followed.
In twenty-five fugitive Mennonites were already landed at the mouth of the Delaware, but noth- ing is known of their fate. However, many more followed, and from to the Mennonite immigration was very great. Another kind of Anabaptists are the Dunkards Tunker or Dunker. Alexander Mark was the founder of this sect.
The Dunkards were not tolerated in their native state: The nickname of Tunker was given them because they perform the act of baptism by immersion, but they call themselves Brethren and in America "the German Baptist Brethren. They resign all worldly amusements, and only admire a truly Christian char- acter and life, they are highly esteemed for their morality and reliability.
A promise given they hold sacred. The first twenty families of this sect arrived from Crefeld in Pennsyl- vania anno Their number soon increased and commu- nities of Dunkards were organized" at Germantown, at Coventry, Chester Co. Oswald Stidenstickcr, page But soon they divided into various groups like the Ephrata-sect or Beisselians in Com- monly they are classed as "Old Conservatives," who consider ignorance as less dangerous to the welfare of the soul than the possession of a treasure of worldly knowledge, — and the "Progressive," who are in favor of public education.
They soon came to Virginia from Tennessee and Ohio. In Count Nicolaus Ludwig von Zin- zendorf, the founder of this sect, arrived in America, where he intended to propagate his creed. Prom this they derive an ascetic theory of life — but also a grave religious seriousness and reverence. Dogmatical cunning and distinctions of creed they treat with indifference, the serenity of mind they value most.
This devotion is to them no tiresome toil, but a pleasure; the death wounds of Christ do not frighten but enchant them. If the Moravian faith is of confined view in sev- eral respects, it has nevertheless infused the deadening dogmatics of Protestantism with new life; proclaiming: Count Zinzendorf first endeavored to unite the various sects in Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania into one community, but unsuccessfully, and then he directed his attention to the conver- sion of the Indians.
The Moravians devoted special care to edu- cation. Their schools at Bethlehem, Litiz and Nazareth were counted among the very best in Pennsylvania. The strict separation of the sexes during juvenile years, the match-making by the old folks with disregard of mutual affection of the betrothed, the use of lottery tickets as decisions of God, the tasteless costumes of the women, were among these strange regulations. The nature of the Luth- eran and Calvin church are supposed to be familiar to the reader, but the great part they have played in the civilization of the col- onies, will receive in this history full mention in its place.
The religious motives of the early German immigration to Pennsylvania and the adjoining colonies are very well defined by the following public statement of Christian Saur, printer and publisher at Germantown, published in This noble liberty is like a decoy bird or bait which draws men first to Pennsyl- vania, and if good lands get scarce, they move into the adjoining English colonies, and these English colonies are settled by many immigrants from Germany to the advantage of the Crown on ac- count of Pennsylvania. Topographical Survey of Virginia. HE State of Virginia, after the excision of West Virginia, is divided, with reference to the surface and natural character of the land and extending from East to West, into the following grand divisions: Tidewater Virginia 11, sq.
The Tidewater Division extends from the Atlantic ocean to the lower falls of the Appomattox, James and Eappahannock rivers, and is divided by the large tidal rivers and the waters of Chesapeake bay into nine principal and a large number of sec- ondary peninsulas.
An imaginary line drawn diagonally across the State and touching the cities of Petersburg, Eichmond, Fred- ericksburg and Alexandria, will represent this section. In this belt the winter is mild, snow seldom covers the ground for any length of time, and in summer a large portion of it is refreshed by the. Near the line of North Carolina is the swamp and fever-district of Virginia and the fear of "Malaria" keeps away settlers from this unhealthy section.
The navi- gable water-ways give the inhabitants special advantages and make the "low country," as it was called, a very desirable part of the State. Hampton roads and Norfolk bay present the finest and deepest harbors on the Atlantic coast. Here the early settlers established themselves, and here are found those elegant mansions and baronial estates for which Virginia was once celebrated.
The coast district absorbed most of the 56 English- immigration and the people of some counties, especially those adjoining Maryland, show to this day, the strongly marked individuality of the English, retaining in a marked degree the manners and expressions of the mother country a century or more ago. We are as intelligent and industrious as most people, but we need new life to pull us out of the grooves and ruts and turn us into different and more progressive chan- nels. The reputation of Virginia tobacco was built upon the product of this region, in colonial times it was the staple product, but now it is only raised to a limited extent in some of the tidewater counties.
The tobacco grown at "Varina" on the James river had a special high reputation, and the name of the place is said to have been given to it because of the quality of the tobacco grown there, resembling that of Varinas in Cuba. There is no other sheet of water in the country that supplies such an abundance of excellent fish and oysters. Travellers from Europe, especially the Germans, who visit Vir- ginia, generally remark upon two things in particular, one is the habitual waste of bread, and the other that they see so few beg- gars or paupers.
It extends to the range of hills parallel to the Blue Kidge and about 20 miles dis- tant from it. This is the great tobacco region of Virginia, and the cereals and fruits of the temperate climate are cultivated here. The extensive and negligent cultivation of tobacco and corn has exhausted much good land, but careful management soon restores to it its original productiveness. This district also suffered greatly during the late war, for it was the main battle Richmond, Va , However, this healthy and most improvable region gradually regains its former condition.
The forest growth changes as we ascend from the tidewater division to Piedmont, the cypress disappears and the cedar, pine and holly, the gum, oak, chestnut, hickory, tulip tree, walnut, locust, maple, syca- more and other timber become more and more frequent. The mineral resources are very extensive, besides coal this country yields: The population corresponded during the 17th and 18th centuries with that of the tidewater region, but it had a visible tincture of German.
Since the end of the war enterprising settlers from Europe and from the North and West, have come here, and with- in the last ten years a marked improvement is manifested in the general appearance of the country. The Piedmont Division, as its name implies, lies at the foot of the Blue Eidge mountains, and extends from the Poto- mac to the Dan river. It is a delightful country — for climate, beauty of landscape, variety of scenery, natural fertility of soil, water courses contributing to practical purposes as well as to beauty of scenery, this section is surpassed by few, if any other sections in the United States, and it may justly be called: The climate is, as has been stated before, mild and invigorating.
Piedmont is in fact the best sanitarium in the United States, east of the Mississippi. The population is of a cosmopolitan character — and to her industrious German ele- ment this section is indebted for much of its prosperity. The Valley is a portion of the great central Appalachian valley, that extends for several hundred miles from Canada to Alabama, a broad belt of rolling country, enclosed between lofty mountain ranges, diversified by hills and valleys with many winding streams of water.
The various grasses for hay and pasture, the natural blue grass lands, make the valley the home of the stock raiser and dairy man. Washington, the no- ble and great son of Virginia, remarked about this rich section: These people brought with them their frugal habits, their conservative systems and modes of farming, which served to keep it what nature made it to be — one of the most desirable tracts of country in the United States. This district is naturally divided in the following sub-divisions: Its mean elevation over the sea is about feet, and the soil is covered by timber and grass.
These counties send to market herds of fine healthy cattle, flocks of sheep, much high prized tobacco, wheat, dried fruit, etc. The mineral resources are very great, but unde- veloped, and offer profitable investment to enterprising capi- talists. Tlie Ajypalacliian Country is a rough mountain district thinly populated. It is composed of a number of parallel moun- tain chains, with trough-like valleys between them, the moun- 52 " Virginia, a Geographical and Political Summary,'" by the Board of Immigration, pages.
Richmond, Va , 1S7C. It is rich in timber, coal and iron and also has some mineral springs of sanitary value. Beethoven, Ludwig van - Big Band Eigentlich Gruppe mit mindestens zehn Musikern. Im Rock und Pop sehr selten. Blackmore, Ritchie Hardrock -Gitarrist u. Black Uhuru Roots-Reggae -Band par excellence.
Blakey, Art Blasinstrumente sind in der Rock- und Pop-Musik eher selten. Verschachtelter Rock auf einer LP von Bluegrass Sehr traditionsverbundene Spielart des Country. Traurige Stimmung, taktiges Grundschema, eher schleppend intoniert, charakteristisch auch durch Blue Notes. Danach einige Soloalben, Kevin Russell v macht auch alleine weiter. Bowie, David vertrat ab die jeweiligen Musikstile seiner Zeit. Nebenbei ist der charismatische Bowie kein schlechter Schauspieler.
Broonzy, Big Bill geb. Brown, Charles Trotz seines Alters geb.
Browne, Jackson Der Komponist z. Bruford, Bill Virtuoser Schlagzeuger u. Mitte der 90er ertrunken. Budd, Harold New Age -Musik z. Bullfrog Deutsches melodisches Hardrock quintett mit kraftvollem Gesang in den 70ern. Bunka, Roman Experimenteller deutscher Gitarrist; u. Can , von u. Charakteristisch sind oft die helle, sehr hohe Stimme und das gekonnte Mundharmonika-Spiel Al Wilsons. Die Folge war wild-skurril und eine kurze Zusammenarbeit mit Frank Zappa. Textlich stets Derbes aus der Pathologie. Bietet heute seichten Pop. Ihre erste Aufnahme wurde zu einem der meistgespielten Klassiker: Weil Anfang der 90er Versuche in Richtung Pop erfolglos blieben, versuchten sie sich Mitte der 90er ebenso erfolglos an aktuellen harten Trends.
Heftig, Kult, langlebig und doch nie wirklich erfolgreich. Der Blues ist spannungsgeladen, sozialkritisch und aggressiv. Van Morrison , Rolling Stones. Chilton, Alex siehe The Box Tops. Christian Death 80er- Underground aus Amerika. Es folgten die bis heute erfolgreichen Schmachtfetzen ''I did what I did for Maria'' und ''Is this the way to Amarillo''. Cobham, Billy Fusion -Schlagzeuger bei diversen Bands u. John McLaughlin , Santana und ab auch unter eigenem Namen.
Abschiedstournee Anfang der 90er. Seit aktiv und Anfang der 80er kurzzeitig sehr gefragt. Collective Soul durften nach dem Erfolg ihrer ersten Platte Anfang der 90er in totalem Stilmix, Blues , Hardrock , Dancefloor und was noch eine geradlinige Rock-Platte nach eigenen Vorstellungen aufnehmen. Er starb schon Moderner City Blues jazzig angehaucht, rhythmisch perkussiv. Country Blues Der Blues vom Land: Seit macht Country Joe McDonald solo weiter. Cousins, Dave v, g, k Kopf der Folk -Rock-Band Strawbs.
Nahm in den 70ern alles was Rang und Namen hatte aus und unter seine Fittiche, auch den jungen Bob Marley. Creedence Clearwater Revival aus Kalifornien. Cro Mags Eine der wichtigsten Vertreter der amerikanischen Hardcore - Punk -Szene der 80er, da sie als eine der ersten schnelle Spielweise und sozialkritische Texte verbanden. Einzig Neil Young war erst ab ab und zu wieder dabei.
Nicht so aggresiv und sozialkritisch wie die Sex Pistols. Michael Prophet, Leroy Sibbles. Er schrieb Songs u. Bob Dylan und Leonhard Cohen. Weitere wichtige Vertreter sind: Spielte mit Jerry Garcia Grateful Dead u. Miles Davis starb Mit klassischen Anleihen auf den ersten 3 LPs Hit: Schlagzeuger Rick Allen verlor bei einem Autounfall einen Arm und ist wohl der einzige einarmige Schlagzeuger der Rockgeschichte.
Nach kurzer Zusammenarbeit mit Edgar Winter startete er eine wechselhafte Solokarriere zwischen Blues und Hardrock und trat immer wieder als Studio-Gitarrist und Produzent auf. Detroit, Marcella Gekonnte Pop-Singerei u. Andere Bands wie Lake , Triumvirat , Lucifers Friend oder Birthcontrol orientierten sich recht und schlecht an internationalen Vorbildern. Nur wenige Gruppen u. Vorreiter des Speed-Metals Thrash-Metal in den 80ern. Dicke Lippe siehe Geier Sturzflug.
Musikalisch mit den Toten Hosen vergleichbar. Kennzeichnend ist der weinerlich-depressive, dennoch teilnahmslose und manchmal falsch intonierte Gesang von J. Dissidenten In den 80ern als Ableger von Embryo gestartet, entwickelte sich die multikulturelle Band bis in die 90er in Richtung World Music.
Der Blues-Bassist mit tiefer, rauher Stimme wurde schon in den 50er Jahren zu einer der wichtigsten Figuren in der Bluesszene Chicagos. Er machte Karriere als Plattenproduzent, Studiomusiker und Songschreiber. King und konnte den Erfolg sogar steigern z. Drogen waren immer ein wesentlicher Teil des kulturellen Umfelds, in dem sich die hier behandelte Musik abspielte auch und gerade im Blues und Jazz - also in Bars, Clubs und neuerdings bei Rave -Events. Heute vorwiegend als Revival-Truppe unterwegs. King Tubby , Ende der 60er Jahre. Dubliners Seit den 60ern die bekannteste traditionelle irische Folk -Band.
Dupree, Champion Jack geb. Eddy, Duane Amerikanischer Gitarrist vor allem der 50er und 60er mit tiefergestimmtem Instrument und etwas Hall, um sein Einzel-Saiten-Spiel aufzudonnern. Eek-A-Mouse Ist der 1. Einheit electronics, perc, v ist seit Mitte der 90er nicht mehr dabei. Electric Light Orchestra E. Lynne war solo und u. Sie experimentierten schon ab als eine der ersten psychedelisch und manchmal mit sakralem Einschlag. Oder doch ausgezeichnet heftiger Tiefgang? Emperor Black-Metal aus Skandinavien.
Eroc Keyboarder der Grobschnitt mit Soloplatten, als der Synthesizer noch neu klang 70er. Europe Hardrock band in den 80ern aus Schweden. Versuchte sich neben ihrer Rapkarriere auch an der Schauspielerei. Es schlossen sich noch einige Hits an: Als Produzent sehr gefragt! Seit Ende des Jahrtausends wieder aktiv jetzt auf CD.
Fergie Hauptberuflich Frontfrau der Black Eyed Peas , dazu gelegentlich auf genrebetreffend flexibel agierenden Solopfaden unterwegs. Anfang der 90er deftig unterwegs, Mitte der 90er abwechslungsreicher, z. Ein Comeback scheiterte. Flamin' Groovies orientierten sich ab in Amerika an Vorbildern wie den Rolling Stones oder Beatles , wurden von der Kritik sehr gelobt und schafften nie den Durchbruch. Nach dem Ausscheiden Peter Greens kamen u. Oft sind jedoch nur die Instrumente etwa Banjo, Dudelsack oder auch menschliche Stimme typisch; siehe auch Ethno.
Dezente kompositorische Verweise zu Madness. Fraternity of Man Ambitionierter Rock mit z. Fripp, Robert Experimenteller Gitarrist der King Crimson mit einigen Soloalben vor allem in den 80ern und in den ern fester Bestandteil der Avantgarde. Frisell, Bill Ab den 80ern Sound- und Krach-Experimentator auf der Jazz -Gitarre, der auch lyrisch klingen kann und bis in die er fester Bestandteil der Avantgarde. Funk bezeichnet eine tanzbare Musik auf sehr starkem rhythmischen Fundament: Er betreibt ein anerkanntes World Music -Label mit eigenem Studio.
Rauher Proleten rap unter Schirmherrschaft von Dr. Gamma Mainstream -Hardrock von Ronnie Montrose in den 80ern. In den 70ern ging es stetig und drogenbedingt bergab. General Levy Rapper u. Gibbs, Joe Beachtenswerter jamaikanischer Dub -Produzent. Giltrap, Gordon Britischer Gitarrist, der seit verschiedene Stile, vor allem Folk , recht einfach und geschmackvoll kammermusikalisch aufbereitet. Ihren blues igen Sound versucht man auf einer zweiten LP als Dancefloor auszurichten.
Noch in den 90ern ist seine abgehalfterte TV-Show in England zu sehen. Godflesh Langsamer Death-Metal ab , aus Birmingham. Drumcomputer verleihen einen monotonen Industrial -Touch. Auch in kleinen Besetzungen ernst zu nehmen. Gospel Die geistliche Musik der Schwarzamerikaner: Gotthard ist mit dem Herunterbeten althergebrachten Hardrocks bis heute die erfolgreichste Band ihrer Heimat, der Schweiz. Ab jazziger mit Keith Godchaux k, v. Ab wieder rockiger. Zahllose Neben- und Soloprojekte Garcia spielte u. B mit Billy Cobham. Gravenites, Nick Amerikanischer Blues -Musiker g, v.
Im Pop simpel vermarktet z. Groundhogs fingen als Begleitband der Blues -Legende John Lee Hooker an und machten Hardrock -orientiert und mit sozialkritischen Texten bis alleine weiter. In Thematik und nasalem Vortragsstil Vorbild u. Einzigartige Stimme, moderner tiefer Blues, blitzschnelle, manchmal jazz orientierte dynamisch-spannungsgeladene Gitarrensoli. Hampton, Lionel Flotter Vibraphonist vor allem des amerikanischen Swing. Tolkien seinen einzigen Erfolg.
Hanrahan, Kip konnte ab Mitte der 80er moderne Jazzer und sonstige Freunde Jack Bruce zu ausgefallenen avantgardistischen Klanggebilden verleiten. Besonders verbreitet ist der Begriff im Punk: Eine Weiterentwicklung ist der Heavy-Metal. Ted Templeman ist seither erfolgreicher Produzent. Harrison, George Gitarrist bei den Beatles. Was sie teils ausmachen.
Head Pins Kanadischer Mainstream - Hardrock der 80er. Heavy Rotation siehe MTV. Heckstall-Smith, Dick Jazz -angehauchter britischer Saxophonist, u. Hello Die britische Glamrock-Band existierte zwischen und Hendrix, Jimi wurde in London zum Superstar aufgebaut. Mitte der 80er wurde mit Samples auch z.
Nach seinem Ausstieg solo poppiger und bei weitem nicht so erfolgreich. Hole Ende der 80er entstandene amerikanische Gitarren- Alternative -Band. Versuchten sich, zeitweilig ohne Sabrina, erfolglos als Nachahmer aktueller Trends. John Lee Hooker und Jimi Hendrix. Hopkins, Nicky Studio-Pianist u. Seit in komplett neuer Besetzung.
Was man von solch versierten und inspirierten Musikern erwarten durfte, klappte mit lebendigem und vielgestaltigem Rock vor allem live hervorragend - oft blues ig-getragen von satten Gitarren und Orgel. Hunter, Ian machte nach seinem Ausstieg bei Mott the Hoople mit blues betontem Hardrock solo weiter. Auch als Produzent z. Liner Notes und Image. Im Gefolge soll sich der Fan mit irgendwelchen aufgesetzten Attributen identifizieren und vor allem: Inchtabokatables Berliner Band der 90er zwischen Punk und irischer Folklore. Incredible String Band aus Glasgow.
Jackson, Jermaine Mitglied der Jacksons und ab auch solo. Mitte der 90er vor allem von Phish und Widespread Panic vorangebracht, gibt es oder wandelten sich bis heute u. Eher eine Gitarren-Rock-Band mit Wurzeln in den 60ern; textlich sozialkritisch. Schade um das Stimmwunder. Ende der 80er war bei den Starship kein Original-Mitglied mehr an Bord, diese versuchten sich noch einmal als Jefferson Airplane.
Billy Joel , beteiligte er sich an diversen Projekten wie z. Jobson, Eddie spielte u. Mitarbeit bei Diamanda Galas. Jones, Quincy Der farbige Amerikaner begann in den 50ern als talentierter Jazz -Trompeter, mutierte enorm seichtelnd und enorm erfolgreich zum kommerziellen Wunderwesen, und trotz wenig Jazz, Funk und Soul kommt manche gediegen produzierte LP gut an.
Als Produzent ebenso erfolgreich u. Anfang der 80er recht erfolgreich, ist es ruhiger um die Songwriterin geworden. Live bis zur Raserei tobend sang sie jederzeit alle an die Wand: Bill Haley ; starb Er hat allerdings keine Rock-Vergangenheit, sondern einen guten Produzenten. Vor allem live auch ein ernstzunehmender Vertreter der afrikanischen Tradition. Den hohen Erwartungen an die beiden Gesangstalente konnten sie in den folgenden Jahren nicht gerecht werden. Keaton, Michael Blues gitarrist der 80er an der Grenze zum Hardrock. Platz in der deutschen Single-Hitparade und mehr als Klavier, Spinett, Kirchenorgel etc..
In den 90ern versucht sie mit ihrer weichen und dennoch enorm kraftvollen Stimme ein jazz orientiertes Comeback. Dessen manchmal verschrobene Ideen fanden auch in zahlreichen Soloprojekten Ausdruck. Diese Sound-Revolution setzt sich bis in die 90er in der internationalen Musikszene fort. Das hat ihnen gut getan: Sie sind durch ihre brachialen Gitarren wichtige Wegbereiter des Hardrock.
Kinsey, Big Daddy geb. Klassik meint eigentlich die Wiener Klassik ca. Korn Amerikanischer Crossover ab Bassist Helmut Hattler ist ab solistisch unterwegs, zuletzt bei Tab Two. Zwei rundherum typische Vertreter sind Dr. John und die Neville Brothers. Nachdem es Ende der 80er einige Zeit still um die Band wurde, schaffte sie deutlich Heavy-Metal orientiert ein Comeback.
Guns g seit den 80ern. Kurz darauf starb das Projekt selbst. Rock oder World Music. Lambert, Adam Zweitplatzierter der 8. Huddie Ledbetter aus Amerika, Lee, Bunny Wichtiger Dub -Produzent u. Fundament waren meist einfache Rhythmik und seltener aufwendige Arrangements oder auffallende Melodik. Ab auch auf weniger inspirierten, aber ungebrochen erfolgreichen Soloalben. Seithin Versuche im Country -Gewerbe. Er startete als Schlagzeuger diverser Jazz -Bands u. Textlich von witzig-ironischem Unterhaltungswert und oft anklagend sozialkritisch.
Musikalisch vom Hardrock bis zum Synthesizer -Pop, driftet er mit zunehmendem Alter in seichtere Gefilde. Lindisfarne vertraten vor allem in den 70er-Jahren eine Mischung aus Rock und britischer Folk -Musik, oft leise und mit vielen typischen Folklore-Instrumenten vln, banjo, h. Lindley, David g Virtuoser amerikanischer Blueser bis experimenteller Rocker mit ausgefeilter Slide -Technik und Erfolgen in den 80ern. Ein gesellschaftskritischer Blues man und einer der wenigen, die noch mit akustischer Gitarre spielen. Sein Spiel und scharfer Gesang lassen an Muddy Waters denken.
Im Zeitalter der analogen Vinyl-Scheibe meist ca. Ab Mitte der 80er die Band des Ex- S. MacAlpine, Tony Typischer amerikanischer Gitarrenzwirbler der 80er mit synthetischer Hardrock begleitung. Der farbige englische DJ toastet sich seit Anfang der 80er mit vom o. Magma ist ab ein ausuferndes Konzept von Christian Vander aus Frankreich mit selbsterfundener Sprache, seltsamen Experimenten und kruder Mystik.
Marino, Frank Typischer amerikanischer Gitarren- Mainstreamer der 80er. In den 90ern einige Hits zwischen Hip Hop und Tanzpop: Bob Marley starb in Miami an Krebs. Nach den Small Faces und Humble Pie ab solo gestorben. Marshall Tucker Band lieferte ab typisch amerikanischen Country -Rock in wechselnder Verpackung. Mason, Harvey Vor allem Fusion -Schlagzeuger; u. Stilistisch weiterhin dem Folk verpflichtet, war sein Erfolg seither bescheiden. Ende der 70er vom Ex- Scorpions und U. Er spielte vornehmlich Spirituals und Gospel -Songs; gestorben. McLaren, Malcolm machte ab als ausbeuterischer Manager u.
McPhatter, Clyde kam u.