These rare metals form a coherent subset of about thirty raw materials whose common point is to be often associated in nature with the most abundant metals. Distilling an essential oil of orange blossom is a long and tedious process, but the fragrance and therapeutic powers of a single drop of this elixir still amaze researchers. But it is the same with rare, very rare metals You have to purify eight and a half tons of rock to produce one kilo of vanadium, sixteen tons for one kilo of cerium, fifty tons for the equivalent in gallium, and the staggering figure of one thousand two hundred tons for an unfortunate kilo of an even rarer metal, lutecium.
Like demiurges, we have multiplied their uses in two areas that are essential pillars of the energy transition: Because, we are told today, it is from the convergence of green technology and computing that a better world will emerge The former wind turbines, solar panels, electric vehicles , thanks to the rare metals with which they are loaded, produce carbon-free energy that will pass through so-called "ultra-efficient" electricity networks that allow energy savings.
However, these are driven by digital technologies, also stuffed with such metals see Annex 11 on the main industrial uses of rare metals. By wanting to free ourselves from fossil fuels, by switching from an old order to a new world, we are in reality sinking into a new, stronger dependence. Robotics, artificial intelligence, digital hospitals, cybersecurity, medical biotechnologies, connected objects, nanoelectronics, driverless cars All the most strategic parts of the economies of the future, all the technologies that will increase our computing capacities and modernize our way of consuming energy, the least of our daily gestures and even our great collective choices will prove to be totally dependent on rare metals.
These resources will become the elementary, tangible, palpable foundation of the 21st century. However, this addiction already sketches the outlines of a future that no oracle had predicted. We thought we were freeing ourselves from the shortages, tensions and crises created by our appetite for oil and coal; we are replacing them with a new world of shortages, tensions and unprecedented crises.
It is no secret that the extraction and refining of rare earths are highly polluting. Indeed, in ores, the latter are naturally associated with radioactive elements such as thorium and uranium. Rather than assuming the leadership of rare metals, the West has preferred to transfer their production - and the associated pollution - to poor countries willing to sacrifice their environment to enrich themselves. Contrary to popular belief, rare metal reserves are not concentrated in the most active mining countries China, Kazakhstan, Indonesia, South Africa, etc. They exist everywhere on the planet, with areas where their concentration is higher.
They are therefore rare and not rare at the same time Deposits of the most strategic of these metals, the famous rare earths, are listed in dozens of states. The same logic applies to green technologies. In the last two decades of the 20th century, the Chinese and the West simply divided the tasks of the future energy and digital transition: In other words, the world has organized itself as Larry Summers intended: Is this energy transition to green technologies possible? Is it really green? Our politicians seem to ignore the irreconcilable facts with the politics of the best of worlds thanks to green energies.
Digital technologies, the knowledge economy, the green energy sector, the electricity transmission and storage sector, and now the space and defence industries: This new society of the digital age, of green energies, of transhumanism is dependent on the extraction of rare metals. There are some estimates of our future needs. During a symposium organized at Le Bourget in , on the margins of the Paris climate negotiations, a handful of experts revealed several projections. By , they predicted, we will have to extract three times more rare earths, five times more tellurium, twelve times more cobalt and sixteen times more lithium than today.
Olivier Vidal, a CNRS researcher, has even carried out a study on all the metals needed in the medium term to support our high-tech lifestyles. His work was published in and was mentioned on the BBC. Vidal has also given about thirty lectures in Europe, before an audience composed mainly of students. Vidal's study should be the bedside book for heads of state around the world. Based on the most commonly accepted growth prospects, the researcher first underlines the considerable quantities of base metals that will have to be extracted from the subsoil to keep pace with the fight against global warming.
Take the case of wind turbines: At equivalent[electricity generation] capacity, wind infrastructure requires up to 15 times more concrete, 90 times more aluminum and 50 times more iron, copper and glass than conventional fuel facilities," says Vidal. According to the World Bank, which conducted its own study in , this also applies to solar and hydrogen, whose "composition The overall conclusion is aberrant: Let the reader forgive us for insisting: Vidal admits that the study is incomplete: All the resources of the future will present us with new protean challenges.
So, it is time to ask ourselves now: Isn't it absurd to carry out an ecological change that could poison us all with heavy metals even before we have completed it? Can we seriously advocate Confucian harmony through material well-being if it is to generate new sanitary evils and ecological chaos - the exact opposite? Subscribe To Our Newsletter Join our mailing list to receive the latest news and updates from our team. Pope Francis joins religious leaders of different faiths, in fight against modern slavery https: A portrait of Boskovic, published in Milano in in a collection of famous people living between 18th century the beginning of the 19th.
Antun Sorkocevic Compte de Sorgo, , a good friend of Marko Bruerovic, was the last ambassador of his native Republic of Ragusa in France, where he spent 35 years. During the French occupation in the Republic of Dubrovnik was abolished, although the Senat refused such a decision with indignation.
He also helped Jewish merchants in Sarajevo. His wife was Katarina Hodic, a Bosnian Croat who gave him two children. See [ Dolbeau ], p The name of Katarina is very frequent among the Croats in central Bosnia. This is related to the last Bosnian Queen Katarina. That same year he published Les Piesni razlike de Zlataric. The latter at the outset of the XIX century complains that some of the people of Dubrovnik forsake their "Croatian heritage" and are ashamed "to speak only Slavic" slovinski.
This paragraph is taken from Mr Vicko Rendic web page, where you can find more information. Augustin Kazotic , a Dominican from the beautiful city of Trogir 13th century , the future bishop of Zagreb, studied at the University of Paris Sorbonne by the end of the 13th century. He was reputed to be "an excellent orator and brilliant diplomat" not only in Croatia, but also in France and Italy. He also founded the important Library of Metropolitana in Zagreb, existing continuously from 13th century to these days. It seems that Dante traveled through Croatia , and with help of Croatian pilgrim, now a friend and guide through Croatia, Bishop Kazotic, he visited Jurandvor on the island of Krk and saw the Baska Tablet.
After spending almost 20 years as a secretary and diplomat at the court of Ivan Zapolja, he continued his career at the court of Ferdinand I Habsburg in As the king's envoy he had a delicate task to negotiate with the Turks he spent altogether 6 years as a diplomat in Turkey. Together with a Flamish diplomat Busbeck he discovered the Ankara plate Monumentum ancyranum, held in the National Museum in Vienna , which is quite important for understanding the history of the Roman Empire, especially during the time of the Emperor Augustus.
In Krakow, Poland, he published two collections of poetry in the Latin language "Elagiae" and "Otia". Antun Vrancic, that is, Antal Verancsics , is in Hungarian literature usually described as Hungarian, which is no surprise. The same for Faustus Verancsics , his very famous relative. Bartol Kasic , a Croatian Jesuit, was the author of the first Croatian Grammar "Institutiones lingue illyricae", printed in Rome About the same time he prepared the Croatian - Italian dictionary, which remained unpublished until In the period of he translated the whole Bible into spoken Croatian, but unfortunately the book remained only in handwriting.
In his "Ritual Rimski" "Rituale Romanum", Rome, he cites very old Croatian names for months that are in use even today:. He wanted to show his renowned colleagues of Sorbonne that except Hebrew, Greek and Latin also existed a genuine Croatian alphabet, or alphabetum chrawaticum as he called it, having a great graphic and lexical value. In he defended his doctorate in theology. In his name was included in the big scroll of professors of the University of Paris.
Since he was also a canonist-penitentiary in Tours, in the nun's convent Beaumont, until the end of his life. With his book "Le chasteau de virginite", written in Latin and French, he entered the history of French and European literature. There exist many of its copies from the 15th century, plus three French printed editions , , and one Latin , thus proving its popularity in Europe. He was also very fond of Istria, to which he referred as a part of his Croatian homeland: Istria eadem patria Chrawati.
Photos of some of his manuscripts can be seen at Juraj iz Slavonije in Croatian. One of his original manuscripts is held at Yale University Library. Among Croatian Latinists and writers in Croatian a central place is occupied by Marko Marulic , who is the "father of Croatian literature" born in Split , He was the most famous spiritual writer of his time in Europe, and also the first who defined and used the notion of psychology , which is today in current use.
His book De institutione bene vivendi six volumes, 64 chapters , published in Venice in , had fifteen editions until and was translated from Latin into. It is well known that St. Furthermore, in his testament St. Francis Xaver asked that Marulic's book be buried with him. Therefore we may conclude that Marulic was a spiritual father of St. Francis Xaver's personal sample of Marulic's book was kept in Madrid in a collection of valuables until , when it had dissapeared.
Ignazio Loyola included De Insitutione into the list of basic references for the formation of Jesuits. Francis Xaver and St. Ignazio Loyola were Basques. Marulic left us many beautiful verses and the epic poem Judita written in the Croatian language, for which he says expressly to be written in the Croatian verses versi harvatski. Some of his original verses are held in Glasgow GB. The original Marulic's manuscript of "De institutione bene vivendi" has been stolen from the Croatian National Library in Zagreb around Any information about this would be appreciated.
It is considered that two of the king's three literary works were written under the influence of Marko Marulic. Verdiani, Marulic is also the author of the Florence Codex , which contains a biography of St Jerome written in the Croatian language. Jerolim je nass Dalmatin, on je dika, posstenje i slava i svitla kruna hrvatskoga jezika.
Marko Marulic sent a dramatic letter to the Pope Hadrian VI, describing an extremely tragic position of the Croats threatened by the onslaughts of the Ottoman Empire and asking for help. His books were known not only in the whole of Europe, but also in Japan in the 16th century and South America. For example, parts of De institutione bene vivendi were translated into Japanese already in Alonso de Villegas , Spanish author of a famous book Fructus Sanctorum printed in Paris in , refers to Marulic's De Institutione on almost every page.
Another Spanish Christian humanist, Juan Lorenzo Palmierno Laurentius Palmyrenus , in four of his texts published between and mentions expressly to be inspired by Marulic's books.
Moreover, in one of his dramas there is a figure called "Marulus". There is no doubt that Cervantes was familiar with Marulic's books, since they were translated into Spanish by Fernandez de Ruenga. Francis Xaver arrived to Kogoshima in Japan in , he also brought Marulic's "De insitutione bene vivendi". According to bishop Hamao from Yokohama, president of Japanese Bishop's Conference and of Asian Caritas, the formation of earliest Japanese Christians had been very probably based on the spirituality of Marulic.
See here in Croatian. It is interesting that in Berlin a monument of Marko Marulic was set up in In the Library of Congress, Washington, a symposium was held devoted to his work. As a young Croatian philosopher, at the age of 24 he was appointed to be a professor of Hebrew and Greek at the University of Wittenberg, the center of Protestantism. The bibliography of his work is enormous - three hundred books and brochures. His "Catalogus testium veritatis" Magdeburg, represents a tremendous historical documentation, probably the best polemical book of his time.
French edition appeared in Strasbourg in and in Lyon in He wrote also about Croatian churches that ever since had liturgy in the Croatian version of the Old Church Slavonic language, using holly books written in the Croatian Glagolitic Alphabet. He was the organizer, editor in chief and the chief writer of the famous "Ecclesiastica historia" The History of the Church , that appeared in 13 volumes in Basel. He is considered to be the founder of hermeneutic philosophy.
A Croatian Jesuit Mark Antun de Dominis born as Marko Domnianich on the island of Rab , ranked among the greatest European philosophers and scientist of his time. His career of a university professor started in Padova. He was especially esteemed in England, where he was invited by king James I. There he lived at the Court of the Archbishop of Canterbury and was appointed to be the Windsor Dean and the king's chancellor.
Dominis arrived to London in December with a great pomp after his apostasy from Rome. Four days after the spectacular welcome, Dominis was placed fifth place next to King James. This meant, according to the protocol of the time, that he was fifth in the hierarchy of the state. In he was lecturing in Cambridge and Oxford. In Cambridge he was awarded the title of doctor of divinity.
His sermons in London were printed in Italian, English and Latin. It is interesting that Dominis introduced the word " puritan " into English in its modern meaning, which was earlier used only in theological literature and had a very narrow meaning. His work in physics was cited in I. Newton's book "The optics" published in page Among other things he contributed to the explanation of the phenomenon of the double rainbow. His theory of tides was based on the idea of attractive force between the Moon and the Earth, which was later made precise in Newton's theory of gravitation.
He also discovered the phenomenon of diffraction of white light see G. Hund's "Geschite der Physik". However, his main preoccupation was the problem of European peace and the reform of the Church. It was held an important apologetic work of Protestant theology, and was soon translated into French. It was read throughout Europe. After six years of stay in England his relation with the Anglican Church and the King himself cooled down, though he had given the Anglican Church one of the most important doctrinal weapons for more details see [ Mardesic ], p.
His work "De Republica Ecclesiastica", which was published in ten books in London, brought him the anathema of Rome. He was imprisoned by Inquisition and when he died, the burial of his body was not allowed. It was burnt, together with his manuscripts, on the square of Campo dei Fiori in Rome, where Giordano Bruno had been burnt twenty four years earlier. Two Croatian refugees at St. An extremely interesting biography has Bartol Gyurgieuits Bartol Jurjevic or Gjurgjevic, born in the region of Turopolje near Zagreb, known for nice wooden churches, - ? After 13 years of slavery he managed to escape.
Since that time he travelled a lot throughout Europe, agitating for the creation of a strong union against the Ottoman Empire. His numerous writings in the Latin language were published first in Antwerpen and then extensively reprinted in many other languages: These extremely interesting testimonies about the Ottoman Turkish Empire can be found in the libraries of almost all larger European cities:. Most of his writings contain small dictionaries of the Croatian which he calls Slavonian , Turkish, Persian and Hungarian languages.
As a part of his "De afflictione He is also the author of the practical Italian - Arabian - Hebrew - Chaldean dictionary, added to the description of his pilgrimage to Yerusalem when escaping from the Turkish slavery. It was written in Italian: He also mentioned a Croatian Script, which is "different from any other script in the world" Glagolitic. He indicates that the Croatian language is spoken among others on the Constantinople court of Turkish sultans.
Gyurgieuivits' works are also of interest for the study of Islamic music. He was not only the first Croatian author, but also the first Slav author whose writings were popular throughout Europe. For more information see [ Zoric ]. Georgijevic's Description of Turkish Ways and Customs: Unique Work Published in London in In Goughe's book there is a dialogue in Croatian with a parallel English translation, alongside with two prayers in Croatian Our father and Hail Mary.
Gyugyieuits himself is called the "first Croatian lexicographer" in this book. Regarding early dictionaries of the Croatian language, let us mention a German knight Arnold von Harf who visited the Croatian lands along the coast during his pilgrimage to the Holy Land in He also visited the beautiful, strong and freedom loving city of Dubrovnik as he says , for which he states to be in the Croatian Kingdom - in den Koenynckrijh van Croatijen.
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After having met Sir Henry Watton, English ambassador in Venice, with whom he shared the same interests as a lawyer and literature fan, he journeyed to England and carried confidential messages to King James I. Obviously, he was considered a competent scholar and diplomat, since James himself entrusted him with important diplomatic missions. Bjundovic wrote a trilogy in Italian: Their English translations enjoyed exceptional popularity, as well as German and French.
It was published in three volumes, where he described the Wars of the Roses. It was first published in Italian L'istoria della Guerre civili d'Inghilterra and printed in Venice in Its English translation started to appear in Dragutin Antun Parcic was a Glagolitic priest, linguist, philologist, and lexicographer born in the lovely town of Vrbnik on the island of Krk, important site of Croatian Glagolism.
He wrote extensive Croatian - Italian and Italian - Croatian dictionaries "Rjecnik ilirsko - talijanski," Zadar, , its last edition was printed under the title "Rjecnik hrvatsko - talijanski," ; "Vocabolario Italiano - Slavo," Zadar His dictionary contains 90, words on pages. He also published a grammar of the Croatian language in Italian: Only four years later it was translated into French, but under the title "Grammaire de la langue Serbo-Croate"!
Paris , Paris His probably most interesting work is the Glagolitic Missal that he prepared for the needs of the Croatian Glagolitic Liturgy, published in Rome in See an article by Igor Gostl for more details in Croatian , or his book. After Zagreb was again the center of encyclopaedic activity, as a continuation of a very long tradition, with many publications and books being issued during the past 40 years. Here we should mention Miroslav Krleza , one of the most outstanding Croatian writers of the 20th century.
He also signed the important Declaration about the Name and Position of the Croatian language in At this moment a project is initiated that should result in a new Croatian Encyclopaedia. Five centuries of the Croatian lexicographic work can endure any serious critical judgement, which ranks it to the highest achievements of European lexicography Igor Gostl. This unusual situation is especially striking in view of the fact that the Croats represent a small European nation.
It is remarkable that the convent is not far from the famous Charles University, built the next year, in Charles IV also founded the University of Vienna in This Glagolitic book was written in , and represents a copy of an older Croatian book, written probably in Omisalj. In fact, the Glagolitic book was bound together with a Cyrillic book which is of the Ukrainian Ruthenic provenance, written in Kiev, and dates from the 12th century the Cyrillic part has 16 leaves, and the Glagolitic part has 31 leaves.
The book was ornamented with gold, precious stones and relics, and according to [ Dolbeau ], p , probably calligraphed on the island of Krk or in a Czech monastery. These Dolbeau's pages are available here. Precious stones, relics, and a part of the true Cross disappeared from the cover of the book during the French revolution. See [ Raukar ], p. Hrvatsko-francuski glagoljaski dodiri [ PDF ]. It is interesting that a table of the Glagolitic Script was included as early as in in a book prepared by Richard Daniel and published in London.
It represents a catalogue of various Scripts in use in the Christian world. The Glagolitic Script presented there is called expressly the Croatian hand or Alphabetum Charvaticum. The book contains also the table of Croatian glagolitic quick-script , which Daniel calls Sclavorum Alphabetum , and Croatian - Bosnian cyrillic many thanks to Professor Ralph Cleminson for this information. The book is entitled Daniels Copy-Book: See [ Franolic ]. Here are two parts of the title page of Daniel's Copy-Book: Also a renowned French polyhistorian and encyclopaedist Guillaume Postel included a table of this script which he calls Alphabetum Hieronymianum seu Dalmaticum, aut Illiricum in his book Linguarum duodecim characteribus differentium alphabetum [ pdf ] at Bibl.
Nationale, Paris published in Here is Postel's Glagolitic table: The French Encyclopedie by Diderot and D'Alambert from has a table and a short description of the Glagolitic script, called Ilyrien ou Hieronimite in section Alphabets anciens. This enabled wide European cultural circles to be better acquainted with this exotic script For more information see [ Hercigonja: Na temeljima hrvatske knjizevne kulture, pp ].
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Istud alphabetum est Chrawaticum -This is a Croatian Alphabet:. It contains standard prayers like:. It also introduced the institution of witnesses. It was unique in Europe by determining moral protection and integrity of women. The Vinodol Code does not allow torture during legal proceedings, and is considered to be one of the most important documents of medieval Europe.
The first Croatian edition of the Vinodol Code was published in Zagreb in Two of its Russian translations with comments were issued soon after: The code was published in many European countries: The Poljica Principality Poljicka knezija was a unique phenomenon in Europe. It existed continuously for almost seven centuries, with its own very original legal system.
Thomas More calls Poljica man - Poly it eritu, i. Glagolitic, Cyrillic, and Latin. Legend has it that the Principality was founded by three sons of dethroned Croatian king Miroslav in the mid 10th century. It was abolished during the French rule in As remarked by scientists already in the 19th century, the "Poljica Statute" is very closely related to the above mentioned Ruskaya Pravda, though they appeared in very distant areas Kiev and Dalmatia.
See [ Pascenko ], p. One of the items of Poljica statute is that "everybody has the right to live," contrary to many medieval European laws replete with punishments involving torture. Thomas More added to the edition of his Utopia a frontispiece showing 4 lines in the Utopian language and Utopian alphabet. If you live in Prague , then you can see about 20 Croatian Glagolitic manuscripts from 14th to 15th centuries in the library of Narodni Muzeum. In "Narodni a univerzitetni knihovna" National and University library you can see the Kirin Croatian Glagolitic psalter , known also as Lobkowitz Glagolitic psalter, according to one of its proprietors in Czechia , written by Kirin from Lika - Krbava region.
The National library also has a monumental Czech Glagolitic Bible from 38x29 cm , where the copyists found it important to state that "the book was was not written by Croat monks, but by Czech monks".
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If you visit an important Czech benedictine convent of Sazava now museum built in 11th century, 60 km from Prague, then you will have opportunity to see a room dedicated to the activities of Croatian benedictines in Prague in 14th century. One of them was Louis XIV. More about this book can be seen here. Two exceptionally important Glagolitic codices are held there: Code Slave 11 14th century containing the oldest known collection of Croatian religious lyrics, and Liber horarum Simun Kozicic Benja, the Krbava-Modrus bishop, founded his glagolitic printing house in the town of Rijeka in One of 6 published books was Knizice krsta, printed in Only two copies exist today: Besides Lukacic, Vinko Jelic was the most important representative of Croatian church music of the time.
He was born in Rijeka, and died in Alsace in France Zabern. This Early Baroque composer is noted for introducing new techniques like chromatics and sequences into his music, which have just begun to appear in Europe. In he published a collection consisting of 24 motets plus 4 other pieces Parnassia militia in Strassbourg. Ivan Mane Jarnovic Italianized name Giornovichi, was an outstanding Croatian violinist and composer of the 18th century, probably from Dubrovnik.
Franjo Dugan , studied mathematics and physics, and was outstanding organ player and composer, the Zagreb Cathedral organist since It is maybe worth mentioning that the French pianist Alfred Brendel , at that time 10 years old, met Dugan in Zagreb, who gave him lessons that he found extremely useful. Berislav Klobucar , one of the greatest Croatian conductors, born in Zagreb, student of Lovro pl. Matacic , started his impressive career leading the Zagreb Philharmonic Orchestra.
Croatian cultural society Napredak Progress from Sarajevo, capital of Bosnia - Herzegovina , has a nice mixed choir called Trebevic. During the ferocious bombing of the city of Sarajevo, they gave numerous concert in the ruined city in conditions that are difficult to describe , as well as 30 concerts in France, including Notre Dame in Paris.
Napredak also organized very successful postwar international concerts in Sarajevo, starting from This vocal ensemble has singers from Norway, Venezuela, Bulgaria, Sweden, France and Croatia, specialized for Middle Age music and liturgical tradition among Mediterranean cultures. Their program includes also old Croatian glagolitic singing from Istria and very archaic singing from the island of Hvar. The glagolitic chant from medieval Croatia has been performed and recorded with great musicological interest.
The ensemble has won prestigious awards of French critiques like Diapason d'or and Monde de la Musique. Puce moj [ mp3 ], that is, Popule meus, from Poljica. In she founded a department for interpretation of Gregorian coral at the University of Limerick, Ireland, which is one of very rare in the world.
Ce travail est donc un travail de reconstruction musicale: Puce moj [ mp3 ] Popule meus, from Poljica.
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Katarina Livljanic photo from www. The story of Tondal, where an unconscious man has a journey where his soul leaves the body, was written in the 12th century by the Irish monk Marcus. It spread across the face of Europe, including a late Medieval version dedicated to Benedictine nuns on the Dalmatian coast. Glagolitic liturgy is in the vernacular Croatian-Slavonic, but follows the Roman Catholic rite of mass.
Zvjezdice Little Stars , all girls' choir, founded in in Zagreb, conducted by Mr. They are often compared with the Vienna Boys Choir. You can listen to their singing of Croatian Christmas Songs. Accordcase is important equipment for every cellist, guitarist, hornest etc. The best, ultralight kg accordcases have been designed using carbon fibre technology by Mr. Robert Schenk in Pula, Croatia. These cases are used by many outstanding musicians, like Rostropovic, Sting, Santana, to name just a few. Many thanks to Mr. Nenad Bach for this information.
In Croatian pop singer Tereza Kesovija received an important French recognition Chevalier des Arts et Lettres for contributions to culture. She is known in Croatia and France for her promotion of the French chanson. Tereza will be remembered also for her numerous humanitarian concerts during the aggression on Croatia, held not only in her homeland, but also in central Bosnia Nova Bila. Her house in native Konavle near the City of Dubrovnik was ravaged by Serbian and Montenegrin troops.
Very rich personal archives and valuable concert piano were burnt down. She was very much involved in humanitarian help to her homeland during Greater-Serbian aggression in Dunja Rajter photo by dpa. Katusic , opera singer, laureate of the French Legion of Honor in Illma de Murska born as Ema Puksec in the town of Ogulin , - was an opera diva of international fame. The prima donna Ilma di Murska on the London stage.
Mia Slavenska born in Slavonski Brod, , became ballerina of the Zagreb Opera , studied also in Vienna, and joined the Paris Opera in She later formed her own company, Ballet Variante. Iin she established the Slavenska-Franklin ballet company with Frederic Franklin. In 's she was printable of the Metropolitan Opera. By the end of her career she was teaching in Los Angeles, California. Slavenska starred in a wonderful French film, La Mort du Cygne Mia Slavenska on the London stage. Joseph Angster was born in Jagodnjak Kacsfalu in eastern Croatia near Danube river , famous church organ constructor.
Darko Varga from Bilje, Baranja for having contributed Angster's biography to this web.
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Franjo Krezma born in Osijek in had a reputation of an authentic violin virtuoso, and was a concert master in the Royal orchestra in Berlin today's Berliner Philharmonie at the age of Already at the age of 16 he was admired in many European cities: Once he played also with Franz Liszt. Having inscribed the Conservatory of Vienna at the age of 9 as the youngest student ever, he completed his studies at the age of 13, after which started his spectacular European career. Unfortunately, he died very young at the age of Any admirer of classical music certainly knows the Zagreb Soloists , conducted by maestro Tonko Ninic until They also had solemn concerts at the General Assembly of the UN.
Maria degli Angeli in Assisi. Maksim Mrvica , a young pianist born in in Sibenik, who has won the Nicolai Rubinstein International Competition of Pianists in Paris in , and the International Pianist Competition Pontoise in Paris in his second name - Mrvica - means "crumb" in Croatian language! An important cultural manifestation held in Zagreb is the Music Biennale , devoted to contemporary, experimental and avant-garde music.
It has already a long tradition: With his brave soldiers, mostly Croats, he was defending the fortress of Sziget in southern Hungary against 90, Turks. The Turkish troops were under the sultan Sulejman the Great and supplied by cannons. It took them a month to defeat the Croatian soldiers, who all died a terrible death in the final battle. Historians say that the Turks had almost 30, dead. A miracle was necessary for the Habsburg Empire to survive. And the miracle happened in Sziget. The above mentioned epic was written in the Hungarian language. Though written by the Croat, it is regarded to be one of the greatest achievements of the early Hungarian literature.
See also here in Croatian. Ban Viceroy Petar Zrinski and Fran Krsto Frankapan , both outstanding as statesmen and writers, are among the most beloved figures in the history of Croatia.
They had a great successes in liberating the areas occupied by the Turks. However, the Viennese Military council, instead of supporting them to free the rest of the Hungarian and Croatian lands, signed a shameful peace treaty with Turkey, by which the liberated territories had to be handed back to the Turks.
The result of the rebellion against Vienna was a cruel public decapitation of Zrinski and Frankapan in Wiener Neustadt near Vienna in The remains of these two Croatian martyrs were buried in the Cathedral of Zagreb in This was was its first European translation. Frankopan is the author of very famous Croatian verses Navik on zivi ki zgine posteno Forever he lives who dies honorably. Petar Zrinski was also very educated, being a statesman, poet, composer, polyglot. He presented his legendary sword to the town of Perast in Boka kotorska during his sojourn there in The letter sent by Petar Zrinski to his wife Katarina in Croatian just a day before his death is one of the most deeply moving texts ever written in the Croatian language.
It was very soon translated and published in. Je te prie, ma chere Femme, de ne te point affliger en recevant mon dernier adieau. Je te conjure de soufrir ce revers avec la patience. A Neustad le Franjo Mihalic started his active sporting career in the period of the Independent State of Croatia , and after had to move to Belgrade, together with many other best Croatian sportsmen.
There is nothing extraordinary that the handball team of Cannes, France, once won a match scoring altogether 24 goals. But the following is without precedent: During ex-Yugoslavia, although he was one of the best handball players at that time, it had not been allowed to him to enter the representation, and that is why he turned to an individual sport of skiing as a trainer. Kostelic is not only a great expert in sports, but also a person knowledgeable on the classical literature. No doubt, the greatest success achieved by Croatian football is the third place at World Championship Coup du Monde held in France.
The excellent team of Holland was defeated by 2: Thus Croatian team became the greatest surprise of the Championship. Zoran Primorac won several important international table tennis tournaments: The tournaments gathered the best table tennis players of the world. And Tamara Boros was the best ping-pong player in the world among women of non-Chinese origin for and ranked 13th, the first 12 places being occupied by Chinese players, as well as many places after Tamara.
She is famous for her attractive offensive style. After this success she was placed second! She won the third place at the World Championship in Paris in , which is the greatest success of Croatian and European! Tamara is the only one in Europe capable to cope with ping-pong players from Asia China, Japan, etc. In she has been invited to China to play table tennis in their professional league, which is the strongest one in the world.
In , as a young girl Tamara had to escape with her parents from what is now Serbia and Montenegro, when Greater-Serbian aggression on Croatia started. Her both parents are Hungarians. Croatia is the only country in the world with no mountain above 2, meters though with probably the most beautiful mountain in Europe - VELEBIT and with world's top skier - Janica Kostelic.
She was shining in women's slalom in being only 17 years old. Her second victory of the season put her in first place in the World Cup overall standings and strengthened her lead in the specialty standings. In her historical victory in Serre Chevalier, France, 5. December , the difference between the first two was 1. Her ardent supporter is Goran Ivanisevic. This is one of greatest successes in the history of Croatian sport. Upon her arrival to the Zagreb airport she obtained roses and custard slices This was a result of many years of painstaking work undertaken already at her tender age by her father Mr.
Ante Kostelic and the whole family. As stated by Mr. Kostelic, this success would not have been possible without free Croatia. He skied out of the 64th position in the first run, then was fastest in the second run to win in 1 minute, It was the latest starting position for a slalom winner in World Cup history and third latest in any event.
Ivica is also known as the best blues and rock guitarist among skiers, and at the same time the best skier among blues and rock guitarists. Ivica Kostelic, Croatia, 1 minute, Giorgio Rocca, Italy, 1: Mario Matt, Austria, 1: Kjetil Andre Aamodt, Norway, 1: Jure Kosir, Slovania, 1: Lasse Kjus, Norway, 1: Michael Von Gruenigen, Switzerland, 1: Kalle Palander, Finland, 1: Jean-Pierre Vidal, France, 1: Alan Perathoner, Italy, 1: In Ivica and Janica Kostelic both won the title of world champions in slalom.
They became the first siblings to win gold medals in the same event at the world's. With this achievement four gold medals and two silver she became the most successful skier among women in the history of Olympic Games. Her brother Ivica won silver olympic medal in men's Alpine skiing combined event. It is well known that skiing is the sport of the rich. When Kostelic's went back home from Austria, Germany, France or Switzerland, several times it happened to them that they had to sell their skies in order to be able to buy petrol for their Lada And let us not forget, at that time the Greater Serbian aggression was raging throughout Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina Ante Kostelic-Gips himself, father of Ivica and Janica, is an amazing Croatian sportsman and trainer, former handball player, working with his children on the long run.
He remembers with deep gratitude an Austrian, Mr Willie Arnsteiner, wire-keeper, who donated them Schillings daily during a critical period, and who predicted their great skiing future. At the very end of Janica had a tragic fall: After a very difficult operation and reconstruction of her knee, she had a painstaking program of getting back to normal living. She was able not only to walk again, but also to win on European, World, and Olympic competitions in skiing. The human story of Kostelic's is waiting to be written in all details, with a special emphasis on low blows of "independent" media.
This story is much greater than the story about their sport successes. Ivica and Janica, like many others on this web page, would never have appeared without the advent of free Croatia. Janica Kostelic Croatie - Ski alpin , triple championne du monde de ski alpin. Trovati , Sweden, World Cup champion for the third time, set a new single-season points record for women after winning the final Alpine skiing race of the season in the giant slalom.
See his beautiful photos at Fotoklub Split. The Croatian Alpine Association has a long tradition. It was founded in , the same year as in France. Let us mention by the way that the oldest novel in the world about mountains is Planine Mountains , written in Croatian by Petar Zoranic in and printed in Venice in It is also the oldest Croatian novel. Petar Zoranic was born in Zadar in Iva Majoli winner of Roland Garros at the age of 18, Paris, , at that time 4th on the world list was one of best Croatian tennis players, among the top ten in the world in 's.
Marin Cilic won the Roland Garros gold medal in Paris in the junior category at the age of 16, as one of the youngest competitors. He lost only one set in the whole tournament. Marin was born in the famous Medjugorje in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Charles Billich is outstanding Croatian painter born in Lovran in Istria, and since working in Australia.
In he was designated the official artist of the Australian and French Olympic teams for Olympic Games in Sydney in Eterovich on this web since , with kind permission of the author. Giovanni Verrazano traveled to the New World in in the name of the King of France and is credited with the discovery of parts of Canada and the New England coast down to New York and the Carolinas. New England was first called New Dalmatia. Dalmatia in the New World: In fifty leagues we discovered XXXII islands, all near the continent, small and of pleasing appearance, high, following the curving of the land, among which were formed most beautiful ports and channels, as in the Adriatic Gulf, in the Illyrias, and Dalmatia" Croatia.
Lopasic, "Bihac i bihacka krajina", Memoriae regnum et banorim - Vitezovic, kronika hrvatska. Le nom complet, du moins pour une partie de la famille, est Jelacic de Bu z im Jelacic od Bu z ima. Maria Elisabeth , 1. Joseph Cornelius , 1. Johanna Catharina , 1. Josephine Dorothea , 1.
Emilia Aurora , 1. Catharina Adelheide , 1. Razumovsky , il eut quatre enfants: Nicolas s'installa en Ukraine. Kholodowsky , Soeur de Sophia et Anna , cf 1. Kyril - ,. Pomian-Pomazansky - , il eut deux enfants: Alexis - ,. Karpitzky - ,. Alexandre - ,. Ils eurent quatre enfants, dont Igor Stravinsky il eut cinq enfants:. L'auteur de ces lignes est un de ses petit-enfants.
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