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Be the first to ask a question about La primera reina tolteca. Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. May 31, Nemo Velazquez rated it liked it Shelves: Apr 05, Vmontgzz rated it liked it Shelves: Clara Valentti rated it it was amazing Apr 21, Flor Vita rated it liked it Aug 29, Citlalli rated it really liked it May 01, Laura Contreras rated it liked it Jan 29, He took this as the submission of the inhabitants, but was met by armed resistance when he tried to enter the province. The conquistadors were met with a barrage of missiles and boiling water, and found the nearby town defended by a formidable 1.

The Spanish stormed the wall, to find that the inhabitants had withdrawn under cover of torrential rain that had interrupted the battle. Again the inhabitants offered armed resistance before abandoning their town to the Spanish.

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Conquistador Diego Godoy wrote that the Indians killed or captured at Huixtan numbered no more than The Spanish, by now disappointed with the scarce pickings, decided to retreat to Coatzacoalcos in May Pedro de Alvarado rapidly began to demand gold in tribute from the Kaqchikels, souring the friendship between the two peoples, [] and the Kaqchikel people abandoned their city and fled to the forests and hills on 28 August Ten days later the Spanish declared war on the Kaqchikel.

Annals of the Kaqchikels []. A day later they were joined by many nobles and their families and many more people; they then surrendered at the new Spanish capital at Ciudad Vieja.

At the time of the conquest, the main Mam population was situated in Xinabahul modern Huehuetenango city , but Zaculeu's fortifications led to its use as a refuge during the conquest. The Mam army advanced across the plain in battle formation and was met by a Spanish cavalry charge that threw them into disarray, with the infantry mopping up those Mam that survived the cavalry. The Mam leader Canil Acab was killed and the surviving warriors fled to the hills. The Spanish army rested for a few days, then continued onwards to Huehuetenango only to find it deserted.

Kayb'il B'alam had received news of the Spanish advance and had withdrawn to his fortress at Zaculeu, [] with some 6, warriors gathered from the surrounding area. Mam warriors initially held firm against the Spanish infantry but fell back before repeated cavalry charges. Kayb'il B'alam, seeing that outright victory on an open battlefield was impossible, withdrew his army back within the safety of the walls. As Alvarado dug in and laid siege to the fortress, an army of approximately 8, Mam warriors descended on Zaculeu from the Cuchumatanes mountains to the north, drawn from towns allied with the city; [] the relief army was annihilated by the Spanish cavalry.

Kayb'il B'alam finally surrendered the city to the Spanish in the middle of October Alvarado himself launched the second assault with Tlaxcalan allies but was also beaten back. The Poqomam then received reinforcements, and the two armies clashed on open ground outside of the city. The battle was chaotic and lasted for most of the day, but was finally decided by the Spanish cavalry.

This tactic allowed the Spanish to break through the pass and storm the entrance of the city. The Poqomam warriors fell back in disorder in a chaotic retreat through the city. Those who managed to retreat down the neighbouring valley were ambushed by Spanish cavalry who had been posted to block the exit from the cave, the survivors were captured and brought back to the city. The siege had lasted more than a month, and because of the defensive strength of the city, Alvarado ordered it to be burned and moved the inhabitants to the new colonial village of Mixco.

There are no direct sources describing the conquest of the Chajoma by the Spanish but it appears to have been a drawn-out campaign rather than a rapid victory. Chiquimula de la Sierra "Chiquimula in the Highlands" was inhabited by Ch'orti' Maya at the time of the conquest. The indigenous population soon rebelled against excessive Spanish demands, but the rebellion was quickly put down in April Montejo was received in there in peace by the lord Aj Naum Pat. The ships only stopped briefly before making for the mainland, making landfall somewhere near Xelha in the Maya province of Ekab.

Montejo garrisoned Xelha with 40 soldiers and posted 20 more at nearby Pole. The provisions were soon exhausted and additional food was requisitioned from the local Maya villagers; this too was soon consumed. Many local Maya fled into the forest and Spanish raiding parties scoured the surrounding area for food, finding little. At Belma, Montejo gathered the leaders of the nearby Maya towns and instructed them to swear loyalty to the Spanish Crown.

After this, Montejo led his men to Conil, a town in Ekab, where the Spanish party halted for two months. In the spring of , Montejo left Conil for the city of Chauaca , which was abandoned by its Maya inhabitants under cover of darkness. The following morning the inhabitants attacked the Spanish party but were defeated. The Spanish then continued to Ake, where they engaged in a major battle, which left more than 1, Maya dead. After this Spanish victory, the neighbouring Maya leaders all surrendered.

Montejo's party then continued to Sisia and Loche before heading back to Xelha. The support ship eventually arrived from Santo Domingo, and Montejo used it to sail south along the coast, while he sent his second-in-command Alonso d'Avila via land. Montejo discovered the thriving port city of Chaktumal modern Chetumal. The fledgling Spanish colony was moved to nearby Xamanha, [] modern Playa del Carmen , which Montejo considered to be a better port. Pedro de Portocarrero , a young nobleman, led the next expedition into Chiapas after Alvarado, again from Guatemala.


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One of the scarce mentions of Portocarrero's campaign suggests that there was some indigenous resistance but its exact form and extent is unknown. By , Spanish colonial power had been established in the Chiapas Highlands, and encomienda rights were being issued to individual conquistadores. In , captain Diego Mazariegos crossed into Chiapas via the Isthmus of Tehuantepec with artilley and raw recruits recently arrived from Spain.

After this, Mazariegos and his companions proceeded to Chiapan and set up a temporary camp nearby, that they named Villa Real. Mazariegos had arrived with a mandate to establish a new colonial province of Chiapa in the Chiapas Highlands. He initially met with resistance from the veteran conquistadores who had already established themselves in the region. The two conquistadors eventually met up in Huixtan. Although Mazariegos had managed to establish his new provincial capital without armed conflict, excessive Spanish demands for labour and supplies soon provoked the locals into rebellion.

In August , Mazariegos replaced the existing encomenderos with his friends and allies; the natives, seeing the Spanish isolated and witnessing the hostility between the original and newly arrived settlers, took this opportunity to rebel and refused to supply their new masters. Villa Real was now surrounded by hostile territory, and any Spanish help was too far away to be of value. The colonists quickly ran short of food and responded by taking up arms and riding against the Indians in search of food and slaves.

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The Indians abandoned their towns and hid their women and children in caves. The rebellious populations concentrated themselves on easily defended mountaintops. At Quetzaltepeque a lengthy battle was fought between the Tzeltal Maya and the Spanish, resulting in the deaths of a number of Spanish. The battle lasted several days, and the Spanish were supported by indigenous warriors from central Mexico. The battle eventually resulted in a Spanish victory, but the rest of the province of Chiapa remained rebellious. After the battle of Quetzaltepeque, Villa Real was still short on food and Mazariegos was ill; he retreated to Copanaguastla against the protests of the town council, which was left to defend the fledgling colony.


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  • He occupied his post for a year, during which time he attempted to reestablish Spanish control over the province, especially the northern and eastern regions, but was unable to make much headway. In , Pedro de Alvarado finally took up the post of governor of Chiapa. Once again, the encomiendas of Chiapa were transferred to new owners. The Spanish launched an expedition against Puyumatlan; it was not successful in terms of conquest, but enabled the Spanish to seize more slaves to trade for weapons and horses.

    The newly acquired supplies would then be used in further expeditions to conquer and pacify still-independent regions, leading to a cycle of slave raids, trade for supplies, followed by further conquests and slave raids. They also managed to acquire special privileges from the Crown in order to stabilise the colony, such as an edict that specified that the governor of Chiapa must govern in person and not through a delegated representative. This situation would not stabilise until the s, when the dire shortage of Spanish women in the colony was alleviated by an influx of new colonists.

    In , the New Laws were issued with the aim of protecting the indigenous peoples of the Spanish colonies from their overexploitation by the encomenderos. Their arrival meant that the colonists were no longer free to treat the natives as they saw fit without the risk of intervention by the religious authorities. Colonial opposition to the Dominicans was such that the Dominicans were forced to flee Ciudad Real in fear of their lives. James the Moor-slayer as a readily identifiable image of Spanish military superiority.

    Montejo was appointed alcalde mayor a local colonial governor of Tabasco in , and pacified that province with the aid of his son , also named Francisco de Montejo. In Montejo moved his base of operations to Campeche. D'Avila continued southeast to Chetumal where he founded the Spanish town of Villa Real just within the borders of modern Belize. At Campeche, a strong Maya force attacked the city, but was repulsed by the Spanish. After this battle, the younger Francisco de Montejo was despatched to the northern Cupul province, where the lord Naabon Cupul reluctantly allowed him to found the Spanish town of Ciudad Real at Chichen Itza.

    Montejo parcelled out the province amongst his soldiers as encomiendas. After six months of Spanish rule, Naabon Cupul was killed during a failed attempt to kill Montejo the Younger. The death of their lord only served to inflame Cupul anger and, in mid , they laid siege to the small Spanish garrison at Chichen Itza.

    Montejo the Younger abandoned Ciudad Real by night, and he and his men fled west, where the Chel , Pech and Xiu provinces remained obedient to Spanish rule. Montejo the Younger was received in friendship by the lord of the Chel province. The Montejos founded a new Spanish town at Dzilam, although the Spanish suffered hardships there.

    He was accompanied by the friendly Chel lord Namux Chel. Around this time the news began to arrive of Francisco Pizarro 's conquests in Peru and the rich plunder there. Towards the end of or the beginning of the next year, Montejo the Elder and his son retreated to Veracruz, taking their remaining soldiers with them. Montejo the Elder became embroiled in colonial infighting over the right to rule Honduras, a claim that put him in conflict with Pedro de Alvarado, captain general of Guatemala, who also claimed Honduras as part of his jurisdiction. Alvarado was ultimately to prove successful.

    In Montejo the Elder's absence, first in central Mexico, and then in Honduras, Montejo the Younger acted as lieutenant governor and captain general in Tabasco. His initial efforts were proving successful when Captain Lorenzo de Godoy arrived in Champoton at the command of soldiers despatched there by Montejo the Younger.

    Godoy and Testera were soon in conflict and the friar was forced to abandon Champoton and return to central Mexico. In the ten years after the fall of Zaculeu various Spanish expeditions crossed into the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes and engaged in the gradual and complex conquest of the Chuj and Q'anjob'al. By the time the Spanish physically arrived in the region this had collapsed to , because of the effects of the Old World diseases that had run ahead of them.

    After Zaculeu fell to the Spanish, the Ixil and Uspantek Maya were sufficiently isolated to evade immediate Spanish attention. Gaspar Arias , magistrate of Guatemala, penetrated the eastern Cuchumatanes with sixty Spanish infantry and three hundred allied indigenous warriors. Olmos launched a disastrous full-scale frontal assault on the city. As soon as the Spanish attacked, they were ambushed from the rear by over two thousand Uspantek warriors. The Spanish forces were routed with heavy losses; many of their indigenous allies were slain, and many more were captured alive by the Uspantek warriors only to be sacrificed.

    A year later Francisco de Castellanos set out from Santiago de los Caballeros de Guatemala by now relocated to Ciudad Vieja on another expedition, leading eight corporals, thirty-two cavalry, forty Spanish infantry and several hundred allied indigenous warriors. The expedition recruited further forces on the march north to the Cuchumatanes. On the steep southern slopes they clashed with between four and five thousand Ixil warriors; a lengthy battle followed during which the Spanish cavalry outflanked the Ixil army and forced them to retreat to their mountaintop fortress at Nebaj.

    The Spanish besieged the city, and their indigenous allies penetrated the stronghold and set it on fire. This allowed the Spanish to break the defences. Although heavily outnumbered, the Spanish cavalry and firearms decided the battle. The surrounding towns also surrendered, and December marked the end of the military stage of the conquest of the Cuchumatanes. Further Q'anjob'al reducciones were in place by Q'anjob'al resistance was largely passive, based on withdrawal to the inaccessible mountains and forests.

    Spanish conquest of the Maya

    In the Mercedarian Order built the first church in Santa Eulalia. This name was Hispanicised to Lacandon. The ecclesiastical authorities were so worried by this threat to their peaceful efforts at evangelisation that they eventually supported military intervention. This successful resistance against Spanish attempts at domination served to attract ever more Indians fleeing colonial rule. Two Spanish missionaries also remained in the town. The soldiers commanded by Barrios Leal conquered a number of Ch'ol communities. Mercederian friar Diego de Rivas was based at Dolores del Lakandon, and he and his fellow Mercederians baptised several hundred Lakandon Ch'ols in the following months and established contacts with neighbouring Ch'ol communities.

    By the area immediately north of the new colony of Guatemala was being referred to as the Tierra de Guerra "Land of War". Whenever the Spanish located a centre of population in this region, the inhabitants were moved and concentrated in a new colonial settlement near the edge of the jungle where the Spanish could more easily control them. This strategy resulted in the gradual depopulation of the forest, simultaneously converting it into a wilderness refuge for those fleeing Spanish domination, both for individual refugees and for entire communities.

    In this way they congregated a group of Christian Indians in the location of what is now the town of Rabinal. The Dominicans established themselves in Xocolo on the shore of Lake Izabal in the midth century. Xocolo became infamous among the Dominican missionaries for the practice of witchcraft by its inhabitants. By it was the most important staging post for European expeditions into the interior, and it remained important in that role until as late as , although it was abandoned in In early Montejo the Younger joined his cousin in Champton; he did not remain there long, and quickly moved his forces to Campeche.

    Shortly afterwards, Montejo the Younger summoned the local Maya lords and commanded them to submit to the Spanish Crown. A number of lords submitted peacefully, including the ruler of the Xiu Maya. The lord of the Canul Maya refused to submit and Montejo the Younger sent his cousin against them also called Francisco de Montejo ; Montejo the Younger remained in Campeche awaiting reinforcements. He was greatly impressed by a Roman Catholic mass celebrated for his benefit and converted to the new religion.

    Montejo the Younger then sent his cousin to Chauaca where most of the eastern lords greeted him in peace. The Cochua and Cupul Maya resisted Spanish domination, but were quickly defeated. Montejo continued to the eastern Ekab province. When nine Spaniards were drowned in a storm off Cozumel and another was killed by hostile Maya, rumours grew in the telling and both the Cupul and Cochua provinces once again rose up against their would-be overlords.

    The Spanish hold on the eastern portion of the peninsula remained tenuous and a number of Maya polities remained independent, including Chetumal, Cochua, Cupul, Sotuta and the Tazes. On 8 November an alliance of eastern provinces launched a coordinated uprising against the Spanish. The rebellious eastern Maya were finally defeated in a single battle, in which twenty Spaniards and several hundred allied Maya were killed. The leaders of Xocolo and Amatique, backed by the threat of Spanish action, persuaded a community of Toquegua to settle on the Amatique coast in April The new settlement immediately suffered a drop in population.

    The new Spanish garrison in an area that had not previously seen a heavy Spanish military presence provoked the Manche to revolt, which was followed by abandonment of the indigenous settlements. A number of local Maya men and women had also been killed, and the attackers burned the town. The Sajkab'chen company of native musketeers engaged in a skirmish with about 25 Kejache near the abandoned Kejache town of Chunpich.

    Several musketeers were injured, and the Kejache retreated without injury. The company seized large amounts of abandoned food from two more deserted settlements and then also retreated. In December the main force was reinforced with soldiers, of which were Spanish and pardo and were Maya, together with labourers and muleteers. Pak'ek'em was sufficiently far from the new Spanish road that it was free from military interference, and the friars oversaw the building of a church in what was the largest mission town in Kejache territory.

    A second church was built at B'atkab' to attend to over K'ejache refugees who had been gathered there under the stewardship of a Spanish friar; [] a further church was established at Tzuktok', overseen by another friar. The king of the Itza, cited Itza prophecy and said the time was not yet right. About a dozen of the Spanish party were seized, and three were killed.

    The Spanish soldiers opened fire with their muskets, and the Itza retreated across the lake with their prisoners, who included the two Franciscans. Zubiaur ordered his men to fire a volley that killed between 30 and 40 Itzas. Realising that they were hopelessly outnumbered, the Spanish retreated towards Chuntuki, abandoning their captured companions. An advance party was led into an Itza trap and 87 expedition members were lost, including 50 soldiers, two Dominicans and about 35 Maya helpers. Once there they built a heavily armed galeota attack boat, [] which carried men and at least five artillery pieces.

    They were resettled on the south shore of the lake. By the latter half of the 18th century, the local inhabitants consisted entirely of Spaniards, mulattos and others of mixed race, all associated with the Castillo de San Felipe de Lara fort guarding the entrance to Lake Izabal. The Ch'ol of the Lacandon Jungle were resettled in Huehuetenango in the early 18th century.

    Surviving Itza and Kowoj were resettled in the new colonial towns by a mixture of persuasion and force. Kowoj and Itza leaders in these mission towns rebelled in , but although well-planned, the rebellion was quickly crushed. Its leaders were executed and most of the mission towns were abandoned. The initial shock of the Spanish conquest was followed by decades of heavy exploitation of the indigenous peoples, allies and foes alike. The Spanish reducciones created new nucleated settlements laid out in a grid pattern in the Spanish style, with a central plaza, a church and the town hall housing the civil government, known as the ayuntamiento.

    This style of settlement can still be seen in the villages and towns of the area. New crops were also introduced; however, sugarcane and coffee led to plantations that economically exploited native labour. The sources describing the Spanish conquest of Guatemala include those written by the Spanish themselves, among them two letters written by conquistador Pedro de Alvarado in , describing the initial campaign to subjugate the Guatemalan Highlands.

    Pedro de Alvarado's brother Jorge wrote another account to the king of Spain that explained it was his own campaign of — that established the Spanish colony. The Tlaxcalan allies of the Spanish wrote their own accounts of the conquest; these included a letter to the Spanish king protesting at their poor treatment once the campaign was over. Other accounts were in the form of questionnaires answered before colonial magistrates to protest and register a claim for recompense.

    The book was written in and is regarded as one of the most important works of Guatemalan history. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Spanish conquest of the Maya. Indian wars and conflicts in New Spain. We came here to serve God and the King, and also to get rich. Spanish conquest of Guatemala and Spanish conquest of Chiapas. Spanish conquest of Chiapas. Page from the Lienzo de Tlaxcala depicting the conquest of Iximche. The Kaqchikel began to fight the Spanish. They opened shafts and pits for the horses and put sharp stakes in them to kill them Many Spanish and their horses died in the horse traps.

    Many K'iche' and Tz'utujil also died; in this way the Kaqchikel destroyed all these peoples.

    La primera reina tolteca

    Part of a series on the. De otras cosas y proyectos que se han seguido de nuestras ilustres conquistas y trabajos "Of other things and projects that have come about from our illustrious conquests and labours". Schele and Fahsen calculated all dates on the more securely dated Kaqchikel annals, where equivalent dates are often given in both the Kaqchikel and Spanish calendars. The Schele and Fahsen dates are used in this section. The archaeological site now known as Mixco Viejo has been proven to be Jilotepeque Viejo, the capital of the Chajoma. The Mixco Viejo of colonial records has now been associated with the archaeological site of Chinautla Viejo, much closer to modern Mixco.

    Alvarado, Pedro de []. In Matthew Restall; Florine Asselbergs. University Park, Pennsylvania, US: Pennsylvania State University Press. Journal of Anthropological Research. Albuquerque, New Mexico, US: University of New Mexico. Historia Social de los K'iche's in Spanish. Caso Barrera, Laura Caminos en la selva: Migration, Commerce and Resistance: Yucatec and Itza Maya, 17th—19th Centuries ] in Spanish.

    Caso Barrera, Laura; Mario Aliphat Archived from the original PDF on Cecil, Leslie; Prudence M. Chuchiak IV, John F Francis in the Americas: Academy of American Franciscan History. Clendinnen, Inga []. Maya and Spaniard in Yucatan, — 2nd ed. Ancient peoples and places series 6th ed. Archived from the original on Dary Fuentes, Claudia Albany, New York, US: A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies.