The WST fragmentation is similar to the fragmentation of biological phylogenic trees. These features of word evolution are interesting from the viewpoint of theoretical biology. Previously etymologically obscure words find place in reconstructed WSTs that gives a possibility for further more detail research. Psycholinguistics The paper intends to demonstrate cognitive mechanisms underlying the formation of new poetic images. It is hypothesised that a verse represents a poetic image space that can be regarded as the medium where everyday concepts undergo modifications and become poetic images.
The image landscapes of poetic texts differ from each other in the way poetic images are interwoven in them. A poetic image is seen as a cognitive structure which has two planes - conceptual and verbal. The conceptual plane of the image is understood as a unity of the eidetic holistic and the logic discrete. Conceptual analysis of rich empirical data obtained from contemporary American poetry suggested figuring out two groups of poetic images: In this research, the latter is regarded as a set of poetic isotypical similar images.
All these images are presumed to descend to a definite archetype. Archetype can be embodied in several prototypical images. Each of them underlies a number of idiotypes. Idiotype is a prototype's modification preferred by a particular writer. It is a complex image which reflects idiolect and idiostyle of the author, his peculiarities of world perception. Idiotype is built on the basis of a certain prototype and a set of isotypes. Among idiotypes there can be found kainotypes , or the concepts the novelty of which provides a breakthrough into a new conceptual domain.
In certain cases a clash between the image space of the archetype and the image space of the idiotype gives birth to a kainotype. The analysis of the data confirms the hypothesis put forward in the paper. One of the most frequent archetypal concepts found in poetry is human life. A prototypical incarnation of this concept is represented in the metaphorical image schema " human life is like water ". Specification of this schema results in the sub-schema " human life is like running water " This sub-schema is developed into the idiotypes " human life is like a river " this river of young-woman life: Sandburg and " human life is like a stream " life's clear stream: The example of a kainotype is " human life is like a shower " in a shower of all my days: Thomas , in which the image of " running water " is expanded via adding the concepts of " intensity " and " ablution ".
Within a poetic image space we observe the extension: Conceptual metaphor serves as a cognitive mechanism to trigger this extension. Another mechanism which performs the same function is conceptual metonymy. This statement can be illustrated by the prototype " human life whole is motion part ". Specification of this prototypical schema results in the sub-schemas " human life is an intended motion ". The sub-schema is developed into the idiotypes: Owen , " life is a journey " two roads diverged in a wood, and I - I took the one lest traveled by: Frost's idiotype is modified into the kainotype: Verfahren, die bislang wenig genutzt wurden.
Die Terminologie ist nicht einheitlich und bedarf der weiteren Diskussion. Was genau ist also unter diesem Begriff zu verstehen? Dabei wird auf Gemeinsamkeiten verwiesen, die eine solch abgrenzende Definition eher problematisch erscheinen lassen. Dieser Werbeslogan ergab im Spanischen: Das Gottschalk-Gleser-Verfahren konzentriert sich auf inhaltstragende Worte, wie z.
Beim ND schlagen sich konkrete politische Ereignisse der damaligen Zeit sehr deutlich im zeitlichen Verlauf der sprachpsychologischen Indikatoren nieder. Gleichzeitig steigt der Angstwert: Die Ereignisse um den Ihr Haupziel besteht heutzutage darin, zwischen der Dialoggrammatik und der Konversationsanalyse zu vermitteln. Der Dialog wurde in der Polonistik in erster Linie als Erscheinung der gesprochenen Sprache angesehen; die Dialoguntersuchung erwuchs aus der Tradition der Dialektforschung.
Die Zukunft der Dialogforschung in Polen besteht sicherlich darin, die pragmatisch orientierte Dialoguntersuchung als Teilgebiet zu entwickeln, das als Ausgangsbasis die Arbeiten von Krystyna Pisarkowa und Jacek Warchala nimmt. Sociolinguistics Das Problem der sprachlichen Gleichstellung der Frauen im Bereich der nomina agentis und das damit verbundene Problem des Abbaus des sog. Syntax This paper is a contribution to the discussion of the syntactic and semantic status of resultative constructions which involve a matrix verb e.
Consider the following sentences:. While this proposal correctly suggests that the postverbal NP always has to be a patient, it does not have a mechanism to determine whether the patient has to be realized as a "regular" internal argument cf. In addition to that, Goldberg's account does not predict whether the postverbal NP can be realized as a regular object cf. In my paper I will first briefly summarize the main points against an analysis of resultatives as Small Clauses cf.
Then, I will show that Goldberg's constructional approach to resultatives lacks predictive power as to what kinds of postverbal NPs are allowed in resultative constructions. Finally, I will propose an analysis of resultatives as complex predicates. I will argue that there are verb classes which behave differently with respect to the kinds of postverbal NPs and resultative predicates they select for. I will present evidence that the semantic information associated with the matrix verb contains the crucial information that determines the formation of complex resultative predicates. Thus, this semantic information determines the selection of both the postverbal NP and the resultative phrase.
Syntax The paper examines the relationship between parasitic gaps and VP deletion in Polish. It is argued that Polish parasitic gaps, which are normally unacceptable within islands, improve considerably when they are contained within deleted VPs. This observation holds true especially in the case of a complex NP constraint, a wh -island and a Coordinate Structure Constraint. In the literature two different accounts of this issue have been postulated in relation to English.
Another account, due to KENNEDY , specifies that the parasitic gap in the deleted VP is not a gap but rather a pronoun, which is interpreted as a variable bound by the overt wh - operator. We will argue that the latter of these proposals is valid for Polish, as all Polish parasitic gaps are best analysed as pros. What additionally supports the claim that parasitic gaps within deleted VPs are pros, not true parasitic gaps, is the fact that they are sensitive to Condition B of the BT. Since parasitic gaps in deleted VPs are pronouns, not true parasitic gaps, they cannot be used as an argument in favour of claiming that parasitic gaps are licensed at LF.
Syntax Participles pples of transitive verbs can appear generally within NP, as in the destroyed house. Intransitives are more problematic: Conceptually, why is an aspectual condition imposed exclusively on unaccusatives?
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There is a second, empirical problem: Pples are thus associated structurally with BE and interpreted via BE, which licenses three interpretations: This mode of licensing applies to all verb classes; it discriminates between change-of-state unaccusatives, all predicable, and state unaccusatives, non-predicable. This condition, not telicity, predicts predicability: However, the French pples allow the perfective interpretation, since BE is selected to form perfective tenses.
Right now the linguists and rhetoricians are regarding a few theories of the metaphor. For instance, the slogan "Do not blame weather forecasters. It is not they who make the weather" has at least two degrees of understanding. And cognitive perception makes us come not to the literary sense of the phrase: The utterance "what is death for chrysalis, is birth for the butterfly" helps create a new attitude to the old problem - that is to reframe a problem.
A new angle of looking at a problem helps to elaborate a more rational method of its solving, decrease its importance, lessen the psychological value of the problem to a person. And this is done via the language, via the therapeutic metaphor. The psychotherapist's community show a broader understanding of a metaphor, as the linguistic one. For them each allegorical story, each story mirroring one's problems or providing a new insight into them is a metaphor. The pioneering approach and multicultural experience of usage such stories can be observed in the works of N.
The legends from Oriental folklore, religious sources, Bible, M. Among the methods of phenomenological psychotherapy there established in the last years and got its stable prominent position the method of bibliotherapy - the usage of the written texts created not specifically for the psychotherapeutic discourse as the means of psychotherapy. Yet the criteria for the selection of the texts thus remains indistincts and obscure. The purpose of our work was to evaluate the contribution of bibliotherapy to methods of treatment of patients with borderline disorders and to single out the main emotional, cognitive and behavioral effects of literary texts used as the means of bibliotherapy.
Abstracts - Linguistisches Kolloquium
The selected literary material included the texts, provoking the contemplation over the existential categories, viz. The artistic creativeness of the submitted material, its metaphoric essence evoke the reader's response, appeal to his creativity. Morphology Zu einigen Tendenzen in der italienischen Wortbildung: Viele dieser Bildungen sind ephemer, was die Erstellung einer semantischen Systematisierung erschwert.
- Abstracts - 34. Linguistisches Kolloquium;
- Highland Warrior (The Murrays Book 9).
- Pumps and Pipes: Proceedings of the Annual Conference;
- Burton upon Trent 1950 - 1953 (TALES AND TRAILS);
Eine Typologie kann z. Umstritten ist jedoch nach wie vor: Syntax For so long, most linguists have accepted as conventional wisdom that "all languages must have nouns and verbs. But while all languages must have a way of referring to things and a way of referring to actions, they are not necessarily grammaticized as noun and verb.
While in English the terms "noun" and "verb" refer to both the lexical-semantic and syntactic categories, in certain languages or language types, this is not the case. With the "verbal word" the term used by GIVON for the pretheoretical concept of "verb" being syntactically a noun in a language of this type, then the syntax of its verbal predications cannot but be nominal in character. Such nominal syntax of verbal predications is made evident in a language like Tagalog by the genitive marking of the noun that is immediately dominated by the verbal word.
The quasi-verb is not a pure real verb, for it is treated like a nomen in the sentence and its enlargements, according to their form, are considered as attributes and not as objects. Without the syntactic category verb, then such verbal predications are beyond the pale of verb-subject-object grammar and all that this entails with regard to such matters as predication type, voice system, discourse pragmatics, linguistic typology, etc.
These considerations, as well as other evidence supporting the analysis of the Tagalog verbal word as syntactically nominal, will be addressed in this paper. There are clear indications that this phenomenon also occurs in manyAustronesian languages cf. ALIEVA , and may well turn out to be a typological feature of Austronesian, which has been said to be the world's largest family of languages. It is clear that significant insights for the study of linguistic typology are bound to arise from the study of nominal syntax in verbal preications.
Although this study is based on Tagalog verbal predications, it addresses general linguistic issues of typology as well as the more specific aspects of theTagalog grammatical system and its bearing on our views of what the syntactic typology of Austronesian may well be. This may be due to the fact that "zero anaphora" in Tagalog occurs much more frequently than in the more familiar languages such as English, and often in quite unexpected places in text. There are differences as to which nominal functions are anaphorially deletable.
Furthermore, more grammatical functions per clause are deletable under anaphora or less usually, cataphora than would be permited in English. This is in turn made possible by the Tagalog "focus system" in which the verbal word contains the morphemic markers that encode the semantic-syntactic and pragmatic relations among the participants and the event. When this occurs, the reader must supply the identity of a nominal constituent that is retrievable from the context, usually the immediately preceding clause.
This device therefore creates a high degree of cohesiveness between successive sentences and at the same time draws the reader in as a collaborator in the creation of the text, resulting in higher degree of topic continuity as well as greater reader involvement with the story. Furthermore, the economy of form that results from "zero anaphora" engenders terseness that gives rise to a heightened sense of drama. These and other rhetorical effects, as thoroughly and insightfully discussed by Bresnahan, Naylor and Bresnahanm and Bresnahan and Naylor, will be addressed in this paper.
Stemming from this study is yet a broader and even more interesting observation on the ways in which a language or language family linguistically expresses certain pervasive cultural norms. It has been pointed out that in Japanese oral interaction, the first and second person pronouns are not used; they are "zero-pronomialized". Other examples from Indonesian and Thai have also been reported. Along with the Tagalog examples, they seem to point to "zero anaphora" as a linguistic device for the expression of the basic cultural ethic of "not laying the person on the line" and "preventive face-saving".
Yet this sort of cultural norm is not limited to Asian languages alone. It is probably a universal, with differences of degree in different cultures as well as differences in the kinds of linguistic devices used to exress it. Semantics Our aim is to show the relationship between semantic associations, antononomasia, hyperbole and simile and politics in the present Spanish press.
If we take into account that LAKOFF and JOHNSON consider that the truth depends on cultural and cognitive comprehension, we can argue that politic language uses the variants semantic associations to hide the truth, or, in other words, the central sense. We have made an analysis of sentences uttered by Spanish politicians which have appeared in the Spanish newspaper El Mundo.
We can easily discover that politicians impose their semantic associations in order to control the power and the socioeconomic structure. From our point of view, this paper is another contribution to applied linguistics integrating all the semantic and sintactic perspectives which include pragmatic and contextual strings. In meinem Beitrag geht es u. Morphology The term morphopragmatics refers to the study of the pragmatic information that certain kinds of morphemes carry.
Both derivational morphology and flexive morphology are relevant in morphopragmatic research. Evidence demonstrate that speakers make use of these two resources to produce certain kinds of perlocutive effects. In this work we shall focus on the pragmatics of derivational morphology. To this end, a body of data has been collected. The analysis of this data can reveal strategies of pragmatic communicative competence used in the morphological processes of creation of words by speakers of Spanish. A formalized version of these strategies should be included in a morphological linguistic theory in order to incorporate the structure of the formation of words.
The approach to the investigation of the structure of words which we are exploring here represents the convergence of different avenues of investigation. In our analysis of the body of data we will attempt to establish, from this perspective, a relationship which could explain the connection which is created between the output of an WFR and the interpretation received by the hearer, as well as the implied meaning of the speaker in the process of the application of the WFR.
It is a reflection of the mental process which determine how a language user is capable of combining form and meaning conflated within any of the usual systems of morphological rules BYBEE Different approaches to the study of texts from a linguistic perspective have been put forward e. According to these authors a text " The study of cohesion , for example, entails knowledge of syntax, semantics, morphology and phonetics, whilst intentionality and acceptability cannot be studied without serious knowledge of pragmatics.
Intentionality involves knowledge of information systems - as supplied by the functional approach to language in the form of FSP. Contextuality is very much dependent on knowledge of sociolinguistics and pragmatics while intertextuality has to do with the experience of previous texts literary and non-literary. Coherence can be regarded as the covering term for all these aspects while a certain amount of psycho-linguistics is also needed in order to understand the communicative value of a text.
The premiss of this paper is that as all those types of knowledge are involved in the understanding and production of a text, it can be argued that text linguistics can claim to be an umbrella-term for studying linguistics as such. It also means that an interdisciplinary approach to the study of language and linguistics will probably be more justified than the study of isolated disciplines. Text linguistics certainly does not claim to solve all the problems regarding the study of language, but it does claim that it can help considerably to solve many problems that have to do with the way language is used to communicate.
It therefore seems to be a very relevant component of linguistics, and not just merely another way of studying linguistics. Eine der problematischsten Formen des Wissenserwerbs war und ist immer noch der Fremdsprachenerwerb. Deshalb werde ich den Schwerpunkt meines Beitrags auf den Fremdsprachenerwerb fokussieren und versuchen, die beiden folgenden Fragen in ihren wichtigsten Aspekten und anhand von Beispielen zu beantworten: Wie sind diese noch nicht jedem bekannten Prinzipien des Konstruktivismus zu verstehen und wie sind sie konkret in der Fremdsprachendidaktik umzusetzen?
First, most of these advertisements are not just focus on one or two slogans, as compared to earlier advertisements, but on much longer texts, and this is also widely employed in many other advertisements in recent years. Secondly, these advertisements adopt the linguistic devices of metaphors, puns, irony, poetic effects etc. It is these particular figures of speech and styles that make the advertisements attractive and something literary, and thus arouse audience's attention.
Thirdly, these advertisements are ideologically significant The bookstore is no more to sell their books only, nor the department store just to persuade people to buy clothes in vogue. Rather, by reflecting modern lifestyles and current social concerns therein, they evoke popular frames such as intellectuals, elitism, communication, humanity, political issues, feminine awakening and corporation images, adding socio-cultural properties to the commodities being advertised, and leading the customers to recognize the prominent values.
In doing a functional and critical linguistic study of advertising discourse, this paper will not merely make us understand more about the relationship between language and social values and cultural elements, but it will also bring some new insights into various media discourse types influenced remarkably by contemporary socio-cultural interaction and other dominant forces and, effecting social structures and contributing to the achievement of social continuity and change.
Applied Linguistics Knowledge of grammar is essential for giving messages in a foreign language, but eventually learners are measured by the actual words and phrases they use. To produce meaningful and accurate language they need guidance on the ways words are arranged to express a particular meaning in a particular environment. New types of reference materials have appeared which undertake to describe the detailed patterns of usage. There remains, however, a huge gap between the generalities of grammar and the individuality of expression on which these books, understandably, concentrate.
The missing link can be produced by grammar of word-classes, i. The format suggested by the authors allows us to divide the broad classes in classical grammars, such as "link verbs", "mass nouns" or "qualitative adjectives" into sub-classes, then sub-sub-classes and so down to the usage-end.
The starting point and the central core of the process must be the Verb as the most syntax-sensitive type of word, the one that governs the syntactical pattern of a sentence.
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From here it moves to the position-depended word-types, first those which stand closest to the Verb then those which are "the farthest" from it in the pattern. These are the categories pertaining to different aspects of Grammar, Meaning, Collocation and Idiom, Variety and Purpose, i. This paper proposes that the distinction between the two in Japanese is not structural but depends solely on the contexts in which relative clauses are used.
Thus, example 2 below is ungrammatical: We must solicit opinions from every Junior-high school student in Japan who studies English. However, knowing that all Junior-high school students in Japan study English, the corresponding Japanese sentence below can only be interpreted as an appositive clause, or the equivalent of 2. As the corresponding translations indicate, despite that the two sentences are structurally identical, 4 is interpreted as restrictive but 5 as appositive. As a conclusion, this paper will argue that the differences between restrictive and appositive relative clauses in English and Japanese are due to their differences in word order and concepts of definiteness.
Viele Verkleinerungformen sind von Substantiven abgeleitet, die als solche gar nicht lexikalisiert sind dt. All these authors have tried to establish what determines whether a given verb phrase is interpreted as moving the narrative forward figure or as moving it sideways background. They all reach a similar conclusion: According to him, narratives are divided into discourse segments, and the boundaries between these segments are signalled by different types of discontinuities, among which we can find temporal discontinuities including flashbacks.
Within each segment, the temporal relations between the narrated events are determined by the aspectual oppositions mentioned above. In this paper I intend to carry out a thorough and detailed study of a short story written in English along these lines. First of all, I will divide the narrative into its discourse segments, using the clues provided by Nakhimovsky, paying special attention to discontinuities in time scale.
And second, I will establish the temporal relationships between events within discourse segments, and then determine whether it is indeed the aspectual class that determines them, or whether there are other factors. Applied Linguistics Starting from reflections upon the current attractiveness of the concept of Language Awareness, the paper presents a critical discussion of the vagueness of the concet itself and its potential benefit for L2 learners. The papers asks how far common gound can be established between a general educational goal of Language Awareness, and the specific issue of the role of explicit awareness of grammatical structure in TEFL.
While explicit awareness of grammatical structures was central to language learning in grammar-translation methodology, the so-called communicatve approach implied a need to become aware of aspects of language in contextual use, though it was not always clear which contextual facts one needed to be aware of. The paper dicusses some aspects of language use and usage and the implications of increased language awareness for language teachers and learners. Puns being a discourse phenomenon, they are liable to an analysis in Gricean terms. Puns, however, are also langue -related phenomena, in the sense that there are metalinguistic mechanisms underlying them: I wish to show that when implicata are established as a result of identifying a pun, one of them must be partially self-referential.
Let us take an example: That is what the author is playing on. In the case of ball , the initial sign conjures up a second, formally identical, sign, and one ends up with this formula: E1 C1 E1 C2 , where: Because she is not what she seems! In a case like this, a satisfactory Gricean account of the pun can only be given if one accepts that one of the implicata involves metalinguistic connotation.
Psycholinguistics The paper reports further analyses of the study aimed at interpretation of linguistic meanings by multilingual University students on the basis of neurological data dealing with hemisphere semantic systems access. Here, the concern is to examine each hemisphere contribution to the process of comprehension of polysemantic words both by bilinguals and trilinguals within sentence contexts.
Specifically the analyses seek to determine what kind of linguistic information and on what level could influence word-recognition in a sentence by multilingual subjects. Two major topics will form the centre of attention for presentation: Key issues in the design of the hemispheric system of exercises right- left-brain which is based on principles of cooperative learning and utilizes suppresion and self-controlled mechanisms will be raised and commented on in greater details. CHIARELLO'S point of view, we also hypothesized that both message-level and word-level processes necessarily involve controlled semantic processing which is the responsibility of the left and right hemi- sphere under bilingualism and trilingualism.
In this respect, of utmost importance is the level of processing depth and the structure of suppre- ssion mechanisms rejecting secondary word meanings at various levels of language comprehension. Our comparative analysis suggests that semantic selection is inseparably connected with the left hemisphere dominance both in bilinguals and trilinguals.
In other words, the activation of primary and secondary meanings of a word takes place in the left brain. Thus, the interpretation of contextual information by the right hemisphere is carried out between individual words in a sentence, namely using relations or secondary meanings of a word. Hence, the unique role of the right hemisphere in word-recognition secondary meanings will be discussed and statistical data presented. Die zentrale Frage lautet deshalb: Die Ergebnisse der Befragung von russischen Muttersprachlern im Mai sollten vor allem zwei Fragen beantworten: Applied Linguistics Each language has its own specific prosody, which is the first thing perceived when one hears a foreign language.
Studies of infant speech perception show that music and prosody of language are similary processed by contours. In the emerging language, the child sets rythm and intonation up. First, he perceives and produces musical elements of his maternal language which act as prototypes. When hearing a foreign language, he should behave in the same way: Therefore, an ear trained by musical education should be more efficient in perceiving and producing melody and rythm of a foreign language. There should be consequently an interaction between musical and linguistic education, and between listening and producing, especially in a classroom situation, where the teacher exagerates the prosody of the language to be acquired.
Thus, as soon as possible, babies are faced with two languages differing drastically in their prosody. The study deals with two ages groups: We also compare the foreign language performance in children with and without musical training, and finaly, the study tries to estimate the benefits of an early learning on a more general level.
Following his working principle ibid.: When we use the term modal expressions we are aware that modality is a very complex linguistic category that can be expressed in quite different ways. As the semantic characteristics of modal verbs have been extensively studied their use can relatively easily be related to their ideological dimension.
In our investigations we furthermore included main verbs, adjectives, adverbs, lexical affixes and certain sentence types, i. The text corpus was taken from the Guardian Weekly and covers home news and international news. It consists of 30 news reports and 30 editorials commenting the respective news. The decision for the text base was influenced by our desire to demonstrate that ideological subjectivity of the newspaper is not only behind editorials, but behind news reports as well.
Dabei wird insbesondere folgenden Fragen nachgegangen: Informanten realisierten Bedeutungen zu ermitteln, und welchen Beitrag kann die Linguistik zur Theoriebildung und Kommunikation in der Psychologie leisten? Nach dem Vergleich von einigen in der Psychologie vorgenommenen Definitionen und Erhebungen sprachlicher Daten mit den durch Linguisten vorgenommenen und semantischen Begriffsbestimmungen wird folgende These vertreten: Pragmatics An idiom is an expression whose overall figurative meaning cannot be derived from the meaning of its individual parts.
This remark suggests that idioms cannot be processed in the same way as expressions with literal meanings. One possible explanation for this phenomenon may be that an idiom is stored in the mental lexicon as a single lexical entry. Hence, retrieving the figurative meaning of the whole phrase is much faster than accessing the literal meaning of each individual word and then computing a literal meaning of that phrase.
However, the activation of the figurative meaning of an idiomatic expression depends greatly on a very important factor, which has not been taken into account until recently: Therefore, this paper studies idioms from the point of view of language processing and focuses on the on-line interpretation of these phrases, especially addressing the issue of when and how the meaning of the idiomatic expressions becomes available to the hearer during discourse comprehension. Applied Linguistics During the past decade, advances in the theory of U niversal G rammar have provided momentum for developing a theory of language acquisition accounting for the traditional problems in the field.
These advances also raised the possibility of a theory of UG as an alternative theory of S econd L anguage A cquisition. However, within this approach to SLA, there still remain a number of problematic issues. This research study aims to seek answers to some of the major questions which directly concerns the type of access to UG principles and parameters by investigating the acquisition of the head-direction parameter value for L2 by Turkish adult learners of English as a second language L2. If they are available, are they available in their entirety from the start, or do they unfold in a developmental sequence?
The study is conducted on 45 subjects, who were classified into three different levels of English language proficiency beginner, intermediate, advanced on the results of the Michigan Placement Test. The data are based on the performance of the subjects on three different tasks aimed to elicit the subjects' competence on L2.
Psycholinguistics In this paper I will present examples of several forms of language change, especially acquisition data. Significantly, these forms of language change exhibit parallels in their development, e. The acquisition data show that children begin the production of complex sentences with short, asyndetic, paratactic utterances. Then they form dependent sentences without conjunctions. In short utterances, conjunctions and demonstrative pronouns are produced, even though they are still missing in longer sentences.
Sometimes there are only sentence fragments. Correct morphology is used both in short utterances and in fragments. Over a period of several months an oscillation can be observed between correct markings, the correct number of items subject, verbs and the correct order of elements in complex sentences.
Schemata are often a first step on the way to complex regularity. The interaction of various linguistic levels, diachronic change resulting from synchronic variation, the influence of speakers and hearers as well as the situation and the conflicts that arise - all these aspects play a major role in the various approaches concerned with language change, e. I will offer a psychologically plausible explanation of these phenomena by way of a functionalist-cognitive approach: Information is understood to be processed in a network-like system which is influenced by functional factors and which results automatically in interaction of linguistic levels, transitions and the prototypical structure of concepts.
Structure arises and changes gradually. Old and new forms co-exist. Non-linguistic influences are always possible. Phonetics The purpose of this paper is to propose the underlying stress contours of English phrasal verbs. The target phrases are such two-word verbs as "call on" and "call up" with or without NP Obj. In actual speech, however, the underlying stress contours of English phrasal verbs could sustain modification due to the contexts in which the phrases are used.
Apparent exceptions are produced by semantic or phonological interaction. Psycholinguistics This paper is a summary of analyses carried out to identify linguistically relevant aspects of written output obtained from patients with various types of mental disorders. The paper discusses two lines of experiments. First, the results of a two-year study on the linguistic manifestation of presuicidal syndrome PSS are summarized. This section starts from the classical definition of presuicidal syndrome and explores the linguistic entities associated with the disorder in order to specify the characteristic features of PSS.
The texts for analysis were obtained from subjects who were asked to summarize the content of their hypnotic dream shortly thereafter. The texts were then analyzed from the point of view of form and content, and subsequently the results were used to formulate a hypothesis concerning the linguistic typology of patients with PSS. The validity of the hypothesis was tested one year later in a different setting where patients were asked to devise a possible ending for a situation described on paper.
Second, research into the linguistic phenomena involved in classifying various types of dementia are described.
This account of an on-going project is dedicated to outlining the set of linguistic phenomena that appear to be relevant for setting aside one type of mental disorder from the other. Diese wird in manchen Arbeiten als "Wackernagel-Position" bezeichnet. Diese Elemente als Klitika zu definieren, scheint ebenfalls nicht korrekt zu sein, da sie genau genommen als zweites Element im Satz - d.
Auch wenn im Spanischen keine Wortklasse zu finden ist, die die formalen und funktionalen Merkmale der dt. In diesem Vortrag werden die in den bisher aufgestellten kontrastiven Studien Dt. Daher ist auch die Einbeziehung von Kommunikations- und Interaktionsforschung bzw. Morphology Personal pronouns have always been considered to be one of the most problematic word classes. In this paper the number inflection of personal pronouns will be at issue. Suppletion appears to be widely distributed, however, other means of expressing pronominal plual inflection can be found.
Morphological plural formation is the central point of the argument. The provided analysis will show if there are any interdependencies in the language structure that determine the character of number inflection. The earlier typological generalizations of B. These universals state correlations between morphological plural markers used by pronouns and nouns.
Indeed, pronouns do follow the model of nouns in forming their plural form i. Tamil Dravidian or Sierra Popoluca Penutian , but this is not always the case. There are languages, such as Ainu isolated , Chukchi-Kamchatkan languages, Japanese Altaic , Hixkaryana Ge-Pano-Carib , Kilivila Austronesian , Tungus and Samoyed languages, where pronouns develop their own morphological means for building the plural form.
The improved version of the aforementioned universals is provided in the final part of this paper. Sociolinguistics Our analysis of the English element in European languages has shown that the adaptation of anglicisms on four levels does not end with the integration of English source words into the receiving languages. Analysing integrated anglicisms in six European languages two Slavonic: Croatian and Russian, two Germanic: German and Swedish, and two Romance: French and Italian , we have noticed that some anglicisms in the receiving languages behave as any other native word of the receiving language.
This means that anglicisms can go on adapting for a second time. The results of the second process can be analysed again on the levels on which the adaptation was carried out in the first stage. This proves that the process of adaptation has two phases.
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Both phases will be illustrated by the transfer of meaning. The first phase is governed by primary adaptation and the result is threefold: The second phase is governed by secondary adaptation and the result is twofold; the change is realised as: The results of the analysis prove that the application of primary and secondary adaptation represents a new contribution to the theory of contact linguistics. Phonetics There is a considerable amount of literature on downtrends but almost none on uptrends. The paper documents the phonetic and the phonology of uptrends hence upsweep in Baule, its formal phonetic and phonological representation.
This paper purports to show that a rise in F0 over sequences of H tones functions to distinguish between the prosodic word and the morphological word in Baule. Phonological processes are presented whose domain appear to be the prosodic word, lending credence to the claim that prosodic structure is a separate level within the grammar. The basic fact that needs to be captured is that a High tone at the end of a domain is higher than any preceding ones. In a High tone sequence, the first is the lowest and intermediate Highs are either equal in height to the first one or gradually rising to the peak at the end.
The concern of the paper is to provide a strong foundation for the theoretical discussion through the use of the phonetic data with greater emphasis on laboratory technique along the lines of CONNELL and LADD , in which the use of average values across multiple productions of the same or prosodically comparable sentences rather than measurements of single utterances has proved to be valuable. Such an output can be further smoothed by subsequent rules to produce the gradual rise. One would also require a way to lower the other non-final tones to produce some variants of the gradual.
However, a lowered High tone cannot to our knowledge be related to any other phenomenon in Baule, and this leaves us unable to argue for its status on independent grounds. The raised High or Super High tone, on the other hand, can be identified with the raised High that is used for focused and negative constituents The formal representation of the raised High in Baule is suggested by the fact that a High in Baule is not subject to downdrift, and this makes us suspect that such a tone will require a separate autosegmental tier for register tones, apart from the tier on which lexical High vs.
Low tonal contrasts are represented. One may not ignore the Obligatory Contour Principle, and represent a sequence of high-toned syllables as a series of high tones rather than a single high tone spread over several syllables if evidence is brought that after a raising the subsequent tones are also raised.
Umgangssprache, Rednersprache, Dichtung, ferner Fach- und Sondersprachen differenziert er das Lateinische in diachronischer, diatopischer und diastratischer Hinsicht. Whereas in Spanish, the head of the predicate can appear next to the verb, this is not the case in small clause constructions in the other languages: Vi borrachos a los marineros. The incorporation analysis is jeopardized by the fact that the incorporated head can be heavily modified or even coordinated. Alternatively, in the spirit of KAYNE , , I propose an account of the word order in 1a based on leftward movement of the operation predicate raising as an instance of remnant movement.
Furthermore, I hold this type of operation to be responsible for a number of "singular" Spanish structures in which the predicate precedes the subject, as in 2: Relevantly, I claim that in all these cases, there is a similar derivation that makes use of internal topic positions, which contrast with the outer topic positions in Rizzi's fine structure of the left periphery of the sentence. Thus, the parametrization within Romance would be that Spanish syntax, unlike that of the other Romance languages, is strongly driven by Topic movement, motivated in turn by the Topic Criterion which can be satisfied either by head movement or XP movement to the relevant Top projection.
Die untersuchte Sprache ist das Italienische. Semantische Tests Bestimmte Adverbien zeigen verschiedene semantische Werte je nachdem, ob sie ein pp oder ein A modifizieren. Ein besonders interessantes Verhalten zeigt hier bene: Semiotics The aim of this paper is an attempt to present an analysis concerning the categorization of reality i the range field of time. It's also an attempt to establish the temporal status of chosen pictograms sequences fo signs in their metaphorical usage in the Naxi pictography. Metaphor as an element of a structure of a pictogram and a kind of cognitive attitude plays a major role in the semiotic investigation describing the way of expressing a categorial meaning of time in the pictographic writing system of the naxi.
It is also worth to present the typology of the metaphorical temporal meaning - as a form of perceiving similarities both on the meaning of sign and objects described by pictograms. The semiotic investigation presented in this paper aims at interpretation of the metaphorical usage of the mimetic signs, and it includes: To emphasize the specific character of the Naxi pictography and so-called "picture of time" in it, it should be added that it is both the means of transmission and the transmission itself.
The way in which a metaphor of a Naxi pictogram functions composes a separate character, a different way of discribing reality. It means difference in transmission, i. The starting point of the analysis is an assumption that the Naxi pictography is a particular visual message, where both simple naturalistically stylized signs and combinations of signs implicate the language of transmission to be not a "verbal" but "mental" one. Research on the metaphorical expressions of time i the pictography shows basic temporal features, i.
Moreover, preliminary observations and research seem to entitle us to state the existence of particular notions ontological categories in Naxi pictographic scripts, as for examp[le notion of space, motion, quantity, quality, measure. In the present paper this author would like also to answer the questions whether the temporal metaphor in the Naxi pictography determine a change of a meaning or a change of a category? Diachronic Linguistics Als theoretischer Plan semantischer Rekonstruktion in Hinsicht auf das Wort einer altgermanischen Sprache tritt die Forschung der Besonderheiten der archaischen Semantik hervor.
In Bezug auf das sprachliche Denken wurde diese Idee schon von A. Solche Forscher wie M. Alle anderen Bestandteile des semantischen Komplexes verloren ihre Wichtigkeit im Kontext der gotischen Bibel.
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Einen wichtigen Hinweis bekommt man, wenn ein gotisches Lexem zwei oder mehr griechische Lexeme widergeben kann z. Computational Linguistics Several formalisms have been proposed to describe and represent linguistic knowledge i. The diversity of formalisms arises a crucial problem of evaluating and choosing the appropriates formalisms needed to develop an application. In this paper, we present a platform that helps to solve these problems. This platform is based on formal methods. Starting from a unified or pivot representation of the main linguistic formalisms, we develop an integration process of a varied knowledge described initially by different formalisms.
This process is very useful to the development of lingware that deal with different aspects of language i. Moreover, it guides the choosing process of the appropriate formalism, from the candidates ones, to develop a lingware, using a formal evaluation. We begin by reminding the interests of using formal methods in lingware engineering. After that, we discuss the unified or pivot representation of linguistic formalisms.
Thereafter, we present some formal criteria to the choice of the appropriate s formalism s to use in a lingware and we give some details of their use. Then, we present our approach to integrate a variety of linguistic knowledge, described initially by different formalisms. Finally, we detail the basis components of the platform that we propose. Applied Linguistics The specifics of the work stem from the specific audience that is addressed in the intensive German and English language courses in the Naval Academy.
These are adults, well educated, with broad general knowledge and extensive life experience, demanding to themselves and their instructors. Most of them need translation and interpretation in their professional duties, which creates an additional motivation. However, our teaching experience so far shows that this can only lead to limitation of vocabulary, learning of expressions and grammatical constructions by heart and mechanical solving of multiple choice tests on the basis of elimination. All of the above tends to create a psychological barrier in the students, a feeling of uncertainty and insecurity whenever they have to apply their language skills spontaneously and creatively.
This paper explores some of the exercises connected with translation and interpretation, their contribution to the conscious and unimpeded usage of various grammatical and lexical forms and their positive influence on the creative language acquisition. The authors lay no claim to encompassing all types of exercises, but rather concentrate on those that have proved to be successful in their practice. La grammaire universelle de R. Computational Linguistics We present a model which deals with categorization of situations and actions and generation of corresponding natural language utterances.
An acting, situated robotic agent describes manipulations of its environment from its own perspective. We follow a two-step approach cf. First, sensor data e. Thus, a coupling of non-linguistic sensor data and pre-linguistic concepeptual structure is achieved. In the second step, the activated concepts are fed into a parallel, incremental surface generator.
The resulting utterances are termed situation and action descriptions SADs , cf. They are based solely on sensor input; no deliberate or discourse information like plans, discourse model or complex memory contents is integrated. The scientific contribution of our work thus lies in 1 the presentation of an ontology in which the connection of conceptual and nonlinguistic information can be described and 2 the observation that a certain type of utterances, namely SADs, can be identified which is solely based on data extracted from the actual physical environment of a cognitive system.
The model has been implemented. It currently serves as a categorization and natural language generation component of a simulated assembly robot controlled by a behavior based architecture see MILDE et. Experiments show that every action of the robot is classified in a satisfying degree of granularity without regard to any plan the robot internally might follow. Semantics It is well-known that the English self-pronoun myself , themselves , etc. Most commonly a locally bound reflexive e. Mary likes herself , it can also, for example, be "logophoric" e.
Mary knows that John as well as herself may be indicted. Furthermore, these latter non-reflexive functions are in most dialects restricted to syntactic environments in which the predicate selecting the self-pronoun lacks a higher argument. This insight is captured in Pollard and Sag's Principle A, which essentially states that if a self-pronoun has a less oblique coargument, i. In this paper, we pick up where Pollard and Sag leave off. We propose a novel formulation of Principle A which determines the precise constraints on virtually all of the functions of self-pronouns in English. The architecture of this principle is such that the self-pronoun continues to be subject to a series of constraints whose applicability, like Pollard and Sag's Principle A, is dependent on the environment in which the self-pronoun is found.
Namely, if a self-pronoun is locally o-free, then the next concern is whether there is a higher thematic rather than syntactic argument available. If so, then the self-pronoun must be bound thematically; if not, then the next in a series of if-then statements is checked. To get the free app, enter mobile phone number. See all free Kindle reading apps. I'd like to read this book on Kindle Don't have a Kindle? Gabler Verlag; ed.
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