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David Lindenmayer , Jerry Franklin.

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This unique set of essays documents the drivers of the change in the logging industry and the resulting outcomes. It provides real-world insights from an international perspective into government policy, industry concerns, and conservation and biodiversity issues. Are forests different as a policy challenge?

Towards ecological forestry in Tasmania. Integrating wildlife conservation and wood productionin Victorian montane ash forests.


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Challenges to Temperate Forest Stewardship? Finnish Forestry in Transition?

Transitions to Ecological Sustainability in Forests? Email Format html text. In simpler terms, the concept can be described as the attainment of balance — balance between society's increasing demands for forest products and benefits, and the preservation of forest health and diversity. This balance is critical to the survival of forests, and to the prosperity of forest-dependent communities. For forest managers, sustainably managing a particular forest tract means determining, in a tangible way, how to use it today to ensure similar benefits, health and productivity in the future.

Forest managers must assess and integrate a wide array of sometimes conflicting factors — commercial and non-commercial values, environmental considerations, community needs, [4] even global impact — to produce sound forest plans. In most cases, forest managers develop their forest plans in consultation with citizens, businesses, organizations and other interested parties in and around the forest tract being managed.

Natural Forest Management

The tools and visualization have been recently evolving for better management practices. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, at the request of Member States, developed and launched the Sustainable Forest Management Toolbox in , an online collection of tools , best practices and examples of their application to support countries implementing sustainable forest management. Because forests and societies are in constant flux, the desired outcome of sustainable forest management is not a fixed one. What constitutes a sustainably managed forest will change over time as values held by the public change.

Criteria and indicators are tools which can be used to conceptualise, evaluate and implement sustainable forest management. Periodically measured indicators reveal the direction of change with respect to each criterion. Criteria and indicators of sustainable forest management are widely used and many countries produce national reports that assess their progress toward sustainable forest management.

There are nine international and regional criteria and indicators initiatives, which collectively involve more than countries. Within countries, at the management unit level, efforts have also been directed at developing local level criteria and indicators of sustainable forest management. The Center for International Forestry Research , the International Model Forest Network [12] and researchers at the University of British Columbia have developed a number of tools and techniques to help forest-dependent communities develop their own local level criteria and indicators.

There appears to be growing international consensus on the key elements of sustainable forest management. Seven common thematic areas of sustainable forest management have emerged based on the criteria of the nine ongoing regional and international criteria and indicators initiatives. The seven thematic areas are:.

This consensus on common thematic areas or criteria effectively provides a common, implicit definition of sustainable forest management. The seven thematic areas were acknowledged by the international forest community at the fourth session of the United Nations Forum on Forests and the 16th session of the Committee on Forestry. The CBD definition of the Ecosystem Approach and a set of principles for its application were developed at an expert meeting in Malawi in , known as the Malawi Principles.

The CBD definition is as follows.

Natural Forest Management

The ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. Application of the ecosystem approach will help to reach a balance of the three objectives of the Convention. An ecosystem approach is based on the application of appropriate scientific methodologies focused on levels of biological organization, which encompasses the essential structures, processes, functions and interactions among organisms and their environment.


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It recognizes that humans, with their cultural diversity , are an integral component of many ecosystems. The two concepts, sustainable forest management and the ecosystem approach, aim at promoting conservation and management practices which are environmentally, socially and economically sustainable, and which generate and maintain benefits for both present and future generations.

Growing environmental awareness and consumer demand for more socially responsible businesses helped third-party forest certification emerge in the s as a credible tool for communicating the environmental and social performance of forest operations. There are many potential users of certification, including: With third-party forest certification , an independent organization develops standards of good forest management, and independent auditors issue certificates to forest operations that comply with those standards.

Forest certification verifies that forests are well-managed — as defined by a particular standard — and chain-of-custody certification tracks wood and paper products from the certified forest through processing to the point of sale.

This rise of certification led to the emergence of several different systems throughout the world.