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Amazon Advertising Find, attract, and engage customers. Amazon Drive Cloud storage from Amazon. Alexa Actionable Analytics for the Web. AmazonGlobal Ship Orders Internationally. Amazon Inspire Digital Educational Resources. Amazon Rapids Fun stories for kids on the go. Amazon Restaurants Food delivery from local restaurants. ComiXology Thousands of Digital Comics. East Dane Designer Men's Fashion. Shopbop Designer Fashion Brands. Withoutabox Submit to Film Festivals. I will write to Cardazzo straightaway Galleria del Naviglio, Via Manzoni, Milano and ask him to send you a copy, if possible.
Qui il Cavallino non ne ha copia. During those eighteen years, the relationship of Italian authors to Joyce changed: In this respect, the translations from Joyce, 33 [Peccato. Every age re-accentuates in its own way the works of its most immediate past. The historical life of classic works is in fact the uninterrupted process of the social and ideological re-accentuation.
Thanks to the intentional potential embedded in them, such works have proved capable of uncovering in each era and against ever new dialogizing backgrounds ever newer aspects of meaning; their semantic content literally continues to grow, to further create out of itself. First of all, it indicates an important shift in translation practices: I thank Luca Daino for pointing out this to me. Giuliani thus summarized the tools available to his contemporaries: Nowadays we can resort to: What relation does his poetry bear to his achievements in narrative?
All of these questions find a partial answer in the prismatic portrait of an author that we get when we work on the reception of his work in another country: Viesseux, Fondo de Angelis 1. University of Texas Press. Caselli, Daniela, and Daniela La Penna, eds. Literary Cultures in Italian and English. University of Florida Press. Fabb, Nigel and Morris Halle. La poesia di James Joyce: Edizioni di storia e letteratura.
Poesie da un soldo. In Joyce , Franca Ruggeri first edition Lernout, Gert and Wim Van Mierlo, eds. The Reception of James Joyce in Europe. Per Giovanni Pozzi, ed. O Besomi et al. In Tutte le poesie. Edited by Giorgio Zampa, That submerged doughdoughty doubleface: Pomes Penyeach di James Joyce: Poetiche francesi in Ulysses tra prosa e poesia.
James Joyce in America.
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The Case of William Carlos Williams. The Elective Translations from English of the s and s. Due teorie generative della forma metrica e il verso di Eugenio Montale. Versace, Stefano and Gary Thoms. The largest urban ethnic group after the Italian is the Slovene group, who in the past and to some extent also today was especially concentrated in certain districts.
Given the significant presence of Slovenes in the bustling emporium that was Trieste, it is not surprising that the place was perceived as a vital part of the Slovene national territory, its economic hub and an important centre of Slovene culture with a thriving publishing industry and a lively theatre scene. The cultural significance of the city, which was not only bigger but also more cosmopolitan than the German-dominated and more provincial Ljubljana, is illustrated by the fact that shortly before the First World War, a suggestion was put forward for the first Slovene university to be founded there Tuma Trieste, on the other hand, was incorporated into Italy.
This period brought an end to its special status in trading and tax policies, which meant that its period of greatness was over. In addition to economic decline, the city, like the region as a whole, began to face severe political problems associated with the rise of Italian Fascism which was implacably opposed to multiculturalism and multilingualism in general, as well as to translation from other languages into Italian even though translational exchange in the opposite direction, from Italian into other languages, was considered desirable.
During the decades which followed, Trieste went through a process of Italianization resulting in a considerable decrease in the number of Slovenes, together with that of other ethnic groups, compared to the number of Italians.
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However, the surrounding areas which historically were Slovene-speaking and present a natural continuation of the Slovene ethnic territory on the other side of the border, have preserved their ethnic character to a larger degree, a fact that is today reflected in the official bilingual status of the area, although not of the city itself. Nonetheless, communication in Slovene in official settings has recently been on the increase in Trieste, as exemplified by its use at meetings of the Regional Council of Friuli—Venezia Giulia which has its base in the city, and by enhanced interpreting activity.
It may be assumed that in Trieste official bilingualism is now gaining ground, slowly becoming institutionalized at least in certain types of formal situations, with greater institutionalization of the Slovene language bringing greater linguistic equality and ultimately conferring on the minority language a higher status Meylaerts However, as shown by numerous officially bilingual environments around the world, even the status of official bilingualism cannot put an end to various sorts of hidden or overt conflicts between the two ethnic communities endeavouring either to maintain or subvert the power relations between their languages see Simon a: One might want to call such cities bilingual, but the term is misleading.
Languages that share the same terrain rarely participate in a peaceful and egalitarian conversation: Other languages also enter the conversation.
Linguistically divided or dual cities have their origins in conquest, when a stronger language group comes to occupy or impinge upon a pre-existent language — which may have itself displaced another before it. Empires are especially effective creators of dual cities: In spite of political manipulations and divisions, Slovenes and Italians have managed to live with each other in the city as well as in its surroundings for centuries.
Since the second half of the nineteenth century, the two ethnic communities have enjoyed a rich cultural life. Part of that is a remarkable literary output which, with respect to the rest of Italian and Slovene literature, is considered distinct enough — in linguistic terms as well as in terms of the approaches adopted in dealing with individual themes and topics — to constitute two literary subsystems of their own and be referred to as Triestine literature It. As pointed out by Angelo Ara and Claudio Magris According to Ara and Magris It is difficult to assess whether a similar analytic character is also a defining feature of Slovene Triestine literature, which on the whole shows important differences compared to its Italian counterpart.
However, within Slovene literature, it undoubtedly constitutes a subsystem of its own since its texts present not only distinctive linguistic features but are often characterized by a breadth of vision akin to cosmopolitanism, rare elsewhere, as well as by a thematization of issues related to the social position of an ethnic minority and its relationship to the dominant culture. Within the German literary system, their works are considerably less important compared to the value ascribed to certain texts by Italian Triestine authors in the corpus of Italian literature.
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Apart from minor German writers whose life and work were in one way or another inseparably linked to the city of Trieste, there is also the figure of Rainer-Maria Rilke whose Duineser Elegien Duino Elegies were begun in when he was a guest at the castle of Duino on the north-western Triestine riviera. There is yet another literary giant whose personal and literary biography is linked to Trieste and, in fact, inextricably so: James Joyce, who spent well over a decade in the city. This was for him a particularly formative time and the linguistic and cultural hybridity of Trieste may have fundamentally encouraged his explorations of linguistic heterogeneity as an essential element of his mature fiction Simon a: Notwithstanding the importance of the years Joyce spent in Trieste for his literary development, he too cannot be counted among Triestine authors in a strict sense, since his work is primarily anchored in a different literary tradition and Trieste was but a stop-over, although a long and significant one, on his literary and personal journey.
The situation is, of course, very different for Triestine authors writing in Italian or in Slovene, many of whom spent their entire lives in the city or its immediate surroundings, or remained strongly connected with that environment. Their attachment to the Triestine milieu is often directly reflected in the geographical, historical, and social settings of their textual worlds. In several cases, their works, which display distinctive thematic and linguistic features, are of high literary value and are considered an integral part of the canon of Italian and Slovene literature respectively.
It may be worth mentioning that several Italian-speaking authors from Trieste and the area chose to write in dialect, including Virgilio Giotti, active in the first half of the last century, who is recognized as a notable dialect poet at a national level, as well as Lino Carpinteri and Mariano Faraguna, who co-authored a number of humorous prose texts and plays some decades later. However, the most prominent Triestine writers, both Italian and Slovene, did not express themselves primarily in dialect, although their language is often strongly impregnated with features alien to standard Italian and standard Slovene.
The classical Italian Triestine prose writers Italo Svevo and Scipio Slataper , and the poet Umberto Saba are particularly well-known and representative.
On the Slovene side, the foremost figures of Triestine literature are Vladimir Bartol , whose novel Alamut originally published in achieved wide popularity in France, Spain, and Italy at the end of the last century, Alojz Rebula b. Nekropola , in which his concentration-camp experience is narrated. The theme of suffering and humiliation in time of war is complemented by another subject grounded in an equally concrete experience, namely the life of an ethnic minority. Given the fact that Italian and Slovene Triestine literatures are tied to the same physical and, to a degree, cultural space, it is surprising that the latter has received only limited attention from researchers.
If initially the motivations for not taking the works by Slovene Triestine authors into due account were largely political and social, more recently the relative lack of attention can be explained in large part by the language barrier.
The majority of researchers interested in the multilingual and multicultural dimension of Triestine literature and its relevance to translation appear to have no direct or only very limited access to literary texts in Slovene, which as a result have been considered at best merely in passing. In fact, language has been an obstacle for a number of scholars, including Katia Pizzi as well as Angelo Ara and Claudio Magris, whose bonds with the city are particularly strong and whose research work on the identity of Trieste Ara and Magris remains a cultural history milestone.
Until recently there has been relatively little translation of Italian Triestine literature into Slovene, and only a few works of Slovene Triestine literature have been translated into Italian or found their way to Italian readers. What is more, the overall volume of Slovene translations of Italian literature is considerable; in fact, Italian literature figures among the literatures which have received a relatively large amount of translational attention although less than, for example, German, English or French.
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Likewise, Slovene literature — in spite of representing less than 0. The rather low degree of mutual translation of literary works in the Trieste area is particularly intriguing when one considers that for centuries, especially within its largely bilingual Slovene community, translation in its various forms has been very important in day-to-day communication, on an individual as well as on a societal level. Similar phenomena were observed in the works of Italian Triestine writers, notably Italo Svevo see Simon a: Both cities, one for a long time predominantly German-speaking and the other, in the past as well as now, Italian-speaking, were surrounded by territories that were linguistically very different from them, the former Czech- and the latter Slovene-speaking.
The literary language of these writers displays uncertainties and exploits their expressive potential with the help of the contact codes present in the environments where they have lived. Language use by these authors contrasts rather starkly with how the same languages are employed in literary and non-literary texts produced in more central and linguistically less hybrid areas. Literatures which are considered geographically marginal can also be linguistically marginal. Their separation from the rest of Italian and Slovene literatures is a product not of physical isolation but rather of their being grounded in a multilingual environment.
There is yet another reason for the uneasiness certain Triestine Italian writers feel with respect to standard Italian. The double strangeness of traditional literary Italian to Triestine writers derives, then, from the different sorts of bilingualism or often, indeed, diglossia characterizing the city: By contrast to Italian Triestine literature, the dichotomy between dialect and standard language is of less consequence for Slovene Triestine authors, but there are nonetheless other important shared traits: It appears that despite being contiguous or even partially overlapping, the two literary subsystems have led largely separate lives.