Meine Mutter Schaue ich mir heute ab und zu alte Kinderfotos an, ein Vater wahrscheinlich auf denen der Jogginganzug gerade den Trainings- DDR im Intershop er- anzug vertrieben hat, und betrachte uns in Hose nun schon lange den elenden Bettlaken- ar, trug ich sie mit Stolz anziigen, dann iiber- Die Fiinf-Mark-Treter hiePen Fiinf-Mark-Treter, ks und rechts leuchtfar- kommen mich noch well sle kelnen Namen angefarbenen und einen einmal die alten Ge- und keine Herkunft hatten und jeder mir ein alterer Freund, fuhle.
Da ist sie plotz- sle kannte, jeder Dingern seinen Lebens- lich wieder, diese Pein, sle trug. During this section, she continues to sporadically blend scrapbook elements to confer her reunification experience as universal. She creates a collection of school artifacts such as worksheets and programs for events. Hensel blends these persona, visual artifacts with her memories to illustrate how her East German education was linked intimately with the principles of GDR society.
Interestingly, Hensel uses this moment to reflect on her personal experience, choosing not to speak in general terms. Hensel thus comments on GDR society through her own female perspective, something never employed under Fritsche. Nachmittags haute ich 1. Cvticrrvdi Alhvn man alarmieren sollte, denn na- n es Oberlebende gab, darunter 1 im Bett- zum Abendbrot hatte mi mit Jagerschnitzel gegeben - ich das Abendrot mein Kinder- erfarben, wusste ich, jetzt ging es im Viertel brannten schon, und lich weit weg.
Ich bekam Angst, 1. Pages after her personal insights into war and GDR society, Hensel focuses more generally on her perceptions of universal educational experiences. For Hensel and her classmates, the long-standing traditions slowly crumbled away, creating a lack of stability that characterized her entire youth. The Jugendweihe represents a unifying moment for her and her peers. Wir durften treten und wurden an die Scheiben der Westautos heute, als Hohe- segaste nicht urn Flugtickets, Auf- punkt unseres bisherigen Lebens, in die groBe Gemein- Wrigley's Spearmint oder Huba schaft des werktatigen Volkes aufgenommen und zu nit einem abgebrochenen Merce- einer sozialistischen Personlichkeit gemacht.
Hensel juxtaposes the image of a unified society, aided with the image of the Jugendweihe pamphlets, with one of an East German culture completely altered by the reunification: Als die Mauer dann weg war, war alles anders. Die meisten von ihnen hatten drei oder vier Kinder. As elaborated earlier in this thesis, the reunification and Westernization of society had a profound effect on the East German family structure. Westernization sought to create a more nuclear family, with mothers being forced into staying at home. The influence of West Germany also introduced to East Germans the convenience capitalism- and its excess- into the previously resource restricted GDR.
Yet, with the narrative devices she previously employs, Hensel again relies upon assuming a collective perspective to describe what ultimately is her personal experience. While she chooses not to add pictorial support to her argument, Hensel still narrates in a disjointed style. With this narrative style, Zonenkinder seeks to create a singular commentary on the East German experience supported by her personal memory.
This focus illustrates how the changes in interpersonal dynamics reflect the overall feelings of change in the community and socialization. She remarks on the divide that remained between Westerners and Easterners, even after the Berlin Wall fell. Yet, these moments still necessitated constant integration as her Eastern, Communist upbringing was not easy to dismiss- as any aspect of ones childhood cannot be.
The work mixes this narration with some of the scrapbook elements widely employed in Die Mauer ist gefallen. Hensel more sparingly uses pictures and historical snippets, which serves to show how she is torn between focusing her novel on macro- level, societal issues and the more nuanced, feminist issues of family, community, and relationships. Still, Hensel grapples with her relationships and community on a scale not found with Fritsche.
But because of her implementation of some scrapbook elements, she inherently ties her relationships and experiences into the greater context of the changing society. To the unsuspecting reader, the work appears as a poor example of scrapbooking in autobiography. Yet, the work does utilize a very important aspect of scrapbooking, primarily its structure. Thus, this disjointed autobiography allows for Rusch to explore different aspects of her life. The most feminist of the three works, Rusch uses this style to emphasize the community and interpersonal elements of GDR experience. Instead of attempting to address broader societal issues and aspects, as with Fritsche and Hensel, Rusch focuses primarily on her very personal memories, especially her matrilineal relationships.
By not relying upon generic, mass-produced materials, Rusch does not subvert her voice. She thus allows on her own perspectives to drive the narrative. In this way, Meine freie deutsche Jugend clearly identifies with the feminist traditions on autobiography.
In this way, Rusch breaks the previously discussed work on GDR experience through creating a narrative less focused on generalizations and mass-produced pieces of history. Rusch deviates from the other two works by honing her novel in on her individualized experience.
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She presents her personal experience with a fragmented narrative style similar to that of scrapbooking. Rusch creates her novel through pieces of independent and loosely linked short stories. Her narration maintains a scrapbook structure through less cohesion, which she uses to highlight major, personal life events. She then loosely orients these personal life events with general GDR history and societal aspects common throughout the collective memory. The narrative structure of Meine freie deutsche Jugend utilizes a scrapbook-like framework, composed of individual short stories that jump erratically from one to the other.
Rusch does not, however, use on this fragmented narrative style to subvert her voice to mass- produced elements of society. Meine freie deutsche Jugend does not contain any pictoral elements. Because of this lack of overpowering, generalized artifacts, Rusch strengthens the focus on her individual voice and experience.
This allows the autobiography to be the most feminist of the three discussed in this chapter.
Like a scrapbook, Rusch merely creates and assembles the pieces without necessarily linking them together. Even when not focusing on her matrilineal relationship, Rusch still emphasizes throughout the work the importance of all her relationships. The later chapters, which lack the earlier familial emphasis, depict Rusch and her friends exploring the newly opened world.
The story begins, however, by Rusch framing her experience of the 9th of November around her mother and father. Am Morgen des 9. Mein Vater verpasste das alles, weil er auf einem Jazz-Konzert war. Als er gegen drei Uhr nach Hause kam, legte er sich sofort ins Bett. Ich weckte ihm um sechs per Telefon mit den Worten: Instead of writing on the general reaction throughout GDR society, Rusch concerns herself only with how the reunification affected her family.
Rusch choosing to call her father first while explaining why she did not call her mother since she was recovering. For Rusch the fall of the Berlin Wall was an important moment for her and her family first and foremost, society second. Her ordering of family and community above society is a common theme throughout the work of Meine freie deutsche Jugend. Unlike Fritsche and Hensel, Rusch does not attempt to speak on the shared feelings or collective moment of this personal experience.
She instead focuses on her memories and emotions of the night. When choosing to discuss her reactions to the fall of the Berlin Wall, Rusch avoids speaking on behalf of all East Germans. Das war das Ende. Montagsdemos, Neues Forum, Friedenwachen, alles umsonst. Die Mauer war gefallen und der Weg zu Aldi offen. Und die passte nicht in meinen Plan. Ich glaubte tapfer an eine eigenstandige DDR. Der Gedanke an ein Deutschland war mir fremd. Es ware unsere Aufgabe, ihn zu reformieren und auf den richtigen Weg zu bringen. Darum blieben wir hier, das war der Grund, warum wir nicht in den Westen gingen.
She does not, however, attempt to comment on shared experience. Rusch utilizes this historical moment to comment on her personal perspective on the GDR, which was influenced by her parents. She also focuses on her personal memories of the moment. Without implying this as a universal feeling, Rusch shows that for her and her family, a unified Germany was never anticipated. In using the events of 9th of November in this way, Rusch highlights her focus and caring for her East German community as well as her family.
In talking about this widely experienced cultural event in such a concentrated manner, Rusch projects her unique, female voice into the cultural memory of the fall of the Berlin Wall. When her friend tells her so casually that the apartment was fine except for the cockroaches, Rusch is shocked. Und ich sah es schlagartig vor mir: She avoids using generalizations, although the anecdote would certainly provide the opportunity to delve deeper into spying by the East German state.
Rusch utilizes fragmented writing through a constant a variation in tone and voice. For example, she bookends the darker vignettes of her childhood with lighter, more frivolous short stories. This allows the novel to provide more personal depth than Fritsche or Hensel allow. Rusch uses succinct vignettes to investigate heavy personal issues, such as how the Stasi impacted her life. Some stories appear more mundane, such as being followed in the woods or receiving a package with the contents of it already confiscated. This vignette addresses a dark aspect of GDR society through the tightly focused lens on Rusch and her matrilineal relationships.
In doing so, the story exemplifies the feminist nature of the work. Er war 42 Jahre alt.
From Stasi prison to parliament and back again - omyhukocow.tk
Through telling this story, Rusch instead highlights the matrilineal conflicts tied into her identity. Rusch uses her autobiography in the traditional sense to highlight the matrilineal relationships and tensions that created her individual voice and self. Meine Mutter wurde schlecht. Dann rief sie mich an. Ich setzte Kaffee auf. By only using personal pronouns sparsely, Rusch subverts her voice and memories to the narrative and pain of her mother. Rusch goes back and forth as to how plausible it is that her grandmother was an informant: Aber nicht meine Oma. Wir waren ihre Familie. Hatte sie erst ihren Mann bespitzelt und dann ihre Tochter?
Wie weit kann ein emotionaler Betrug gehen? Was kann man noch glauben, wenn das stimmte? Rusch honestly discloses a painful piece of family history between two the lighthearted vignettes so as to highlight the fragmented nature of memory and her narration. Her mother discovers instead that her friend was IM Buche. The friend explained that she had no reasoning for divulging information to the Stasi.
Wegen der abgebuchten Informationen. Ich hatte ein Guthaben, die haben abgebucht. The story ends with Rusch, her mother, and her grandmother together and strong in their bond. Zuerst lachte sie schallend. Dann wurde sie ernst. Sie hob ihres, sah uns an und sagte: While the content of the story relates to a dark aspect of GDR society, Rusch chooses to keep the focus tightly honed in on her personal memories.
In doing so, she presents a convincing feminist autobiography. Many of the later vignettes depict Rusch traveling to the West, specifically realizing her dream of visiting France. During her first winter break she drove with friends to France, remarking on the ease of the boarder crossing88 While Meine freie deutsche Jugend begins with an emphasis on her familial relationships, it ends with a chapter on traveling to Paris. Instead, she looks towards the West and all it offers for the next phase of her life.
Additionally, this way of ending the story further ties into the theme of scrapbooking, in that no coherent theme or first person narrative emerges. Instead, the difference between the family history provided in the first vignette and the travel story of the last displays the disjointedness of the work as a whole. Meine freie deutsche Jugend illuminates the limitations of scrapbooking as a tool for feminist autobiography.
Rusch masterfully weaves a personal history together with independent vignettes. Her avoidance of pictorial, mass produced elements allows for a more personally focused story that elevates her personal self. This intermingling allows for Rusch to provide several distinct pieces of her childhood.
These memories do not seek to create a total whole or speak on the whole of GDR experience. Conclusion In emphasizing the importance of her personal relationships, Meine freie deutsche Jugend aligns with the feminist traditions of autobiography. Rusch frames her stories around community and interpersonal elements, specifically issues relevant to her matrilineal relationships. This differs greatly from the approach of the previous two authors.
Hensel attempts to focus on these familial elements and often mentions her parents, although she talkes about them in an abstract and generalized manner. Hensel also attempts to speak on behalf of her peers. In the process, she subverts her voice and personal experiences to present a generalized East German experience reinforced by mass-produced, pictorial elements of the GDR. Fritsche deviates the farthest from the feminist autobiographical tradition. In employing scrapbooking elements, specifically a wide variety of generic and widely spread visual materials, Fritsche creates a disjointed picture of the GDR.
Hensel appears caught between the two extremes. With these works in mind, it becomes clear that scrapbooking of female East German experience prohibits the female voice from freely expressing individual experience. The film was popular across the East-West divide, both within Germany and abroad.
It also raised controversy for its handling of the memory and relics of the disappearing GDR. Many film critics and scholars claim the film caters to nostalgic thinking. As mentioned in the previous chapter, telling stories about memories remain important tools for former East Germans to reconcile the effects of unification.
While the autobiography was a clear form of expression for female experience of the GDR, film provides the dominant form of media for discussions of masculine perspective. Reasserts this idea of the male experience dominating East German cinema. At its core, the film addresses the relationship between a son, Alex, and his mother, Christine.
To accomplish this feat, he believes that he must preserve and maintain the dying East German state. Here lies the central crux in reading Goodbye, Lenin! Alex himself acclimates well to invading culture and rules of capitalism, bribing friends, neighbors, and strangers to help in his recreation of the East. Wolfgang Becker claimed to intentionally avoid making a nostalgic film, yet many have sought to place that label on the film against his wishes. David Clarke London ;New York: He thus conforms to the theories on male centered narratives.
Alex struggles to recreate an improved East German state. Indeed, both characters embrace capitalism. Christine mutely adapts to the changes of Berlin, despite the capitalistic elements being hidden from her. In the end, Alex admits to creating a thing that never existed. He therefore does not delve into nostalgia but instead historical revisionism. As one of the most famously proclaimed Ostalgie films, Goodbye, Lenin! The film may deal with feelings of Ostalgie, but it presents characters that all embrace capitalism.
Even Christine, who drives the Ostalgie elements of the film, Christine admits before her death that her perfect devotion to communism was merely an act of protection. This admission essentially renders her nostalgic character a lie. With his efforts, Alex subverts the female perspectives and opinions of his mother, sister, and girlfriend while allowing for his male experience of the unification to dominate. He effectively buries the female experience under his extravagant efforts to preserve the dying East. For more, see Chapter One of this thesis.
Ostalgie becomes a tool in the film for Alex to harp on the male experience of the reunification. This focus on his own experiences and interpretations of the reunification never acknowledges the feminine perspectives surrounding him. Alex never consults the ideas and wishes of Christine, his sister Ariane, or even his girlfriend Laura.
When Ariane and Laura protest his increasingly more extreme actions for creating a better the East Germany, Alex completely ignores their ideas. More so than Alex himself, his mother, sister, and girlfriend all embrace Westernization with various degrees. Alex choosing to ignore their voices, however, relates directly into theories of masculine film. When looking at the tradition of masculinity and the East German, post-wall experience, male directors and actors tend to focus more on the individual experience of men.
Female experience is only explored in relation to how it affects the male protagonist. Alex exemplifies this trend. He efforts directly opposes to the expressed and hidden wishes of all the female characters surrounding him. Unlike the female perspectives explored in the first chapter, post-unification cinema illuminates a particular facet of the East German male experience: The feminine perspective certainly varied. A wide variety of issues surrounding the female self were presented. Fritsche sought to present a history of both GDR society and the impact of reunification on the East German state.
Rusch, the most feminist of the works, explores the impacts of GDR society and reunification on her life and the relationships surrounding her. The masculine perspective in film, however, differs greatly. The male perspective as it appears in the many East German films focuses on the individual struggles common to masculine characters.
The works selected for this chapter, certainly grapple with the past. These figures do not so much delve to memories of their lives within the GDR, such as the female autobiographies do, but how the differences in their past and the unstable present affect them. The masculine characters discussed here struggle to adapt to a West because of their past experiences within the GDR.
In this chapter, three similar Ostalgie films are analyzed, all of which attempt to explore the damaged male perspective of the effects of German unification. In stark juxtaposition to Wege in die Nacht, East German director Peter Timm depicts the triumphs of a struggling East German male after embracing capitalism in Der Zimmerspringbrunnen Timm presents a lighthearted comedy about the personally and professionally impotent Hinrich, who overcomes his unemployment and hist status as a loser by exploiting the Ostalgie movement.
By competing on the free market of Western society, Hinrich becomes not only professionally successful but also wins back the love of his wife. He tries to retrieve some of his long-gone East German life while navigating realities of the West. Ultimately, Martin manages to survive while still finding success hard to come by. For all three protagonists, masculinity collapses along with the Berlin Wall. For all three damaged men, the unified German state and the forces of capitalism imposes subvert their free agency as individuals.
Each film explores the protagonists and their attempts to adjust to Westernization, all with various results. The ways in which these films imagine the crisis of East German masculinity differs. His inability to embrace capitalism and relinquish his loyalties to the disappearing GDR leads to his eventual downfall. He embraces capitalism, playing by its rules to profit off his fellow East Germans who, like Walter, remain reluctant to let the GDR go. This attitude allows Hinrich to succeed in both his professional and personal life in a way that Walter never could.
In Berlin is in Germany, Martin toggles between the influences of laizze-faire capitalism and the overbearing state. The lures of a comfortable life through capitalism and the limitations imposed by state bureaucracy, both from the dead GDR and unified Germany, push and pull Martin throughout the film.
In the end, Martin is left in a state of little to no resolution. Each of these films exemplifies three clear struggles, all resolved in different ways for the three very different protagonists. This Western imposition destroys a distinctly East German masculine identity, and each of the three characters react differently.
Because of this emasculation, all three men seek to reassert themselves as fathers, husbands, and breadwinners, leading to tensions between them and their wives. This second struggle between the male protagonist and his respective romantic relationship plays a pivotal role in the crumbling of the East German masculine identity. Finally, these issues with emasculation and love eventually lead to a third struggle, namely attempts by these individual men to overcome the limits to their agency within the changing social context.
All three have varying degrees of success or lack thereof. Walter collapses totally under the elimination of the East German state while Hinrich achieves success through fully embracing the capitalist system. Martin falls somewhere between these two extremes. Melodrama If the female East German voice materializes itself in the form of autobiography and scrapbooking, these damaged male protagonists represent a male-centric melodrama. Of the three films chosen for this chapter, all of which have been addressed to various degrees in the scholarship on Ostalgie and post-reunification cinema, all share qualities common to male-driven melodramatic narratives.
Melodrama, however, emerged from a feminine film tradition. Masculinities in European and Hollywood Cinema, ed. Wallflower Press, , This trope has appeared in Hollywood films of the s and 90s as a reaction to both the Feminist movement and to illustrate the pressures of masculinity on men who fail to live up to these norms. The key aspect of this trope is the ability of these men to overcome the force emasculating them to begin once again pristine masculine figures. As common in the melodrama tradition, these male figures also feel damaged because a lack of self-worth and their broken relationships with their wives, friends, and, in the case of Martin, his child.
Traditional definitions of the melodramatic genre vary. The term itself carries a sense of ineffable vagueness, making it hard to pin down its exact, universal attributes. Woo and the Pleasures of Male Melodrama. Gates also goes into an extensive history of melodrama, pointing out its original roots in not just female-centric dramas but in action-oriented, violent male driven films.
This is also key to understanding how masculine films portraying violence can still adhere to the melodrama genre. Indiana University Press, Doane speaks in depth to the difficulties in defining melodrama, a form that strives to make its subtext obvious and understandable to all. Barry Keith Grant Austin, Tex. University of Texas Press, , 4.
From Stasi prison to parliament and back again
With melodrama, a director depicted an inter-personal crisis while subtly critiquing the social structures throwing the individuals into said turmoil. Pinkert draws upon these ideas from the work of Eric Santner. Furthermore, unlike Hollywood post-war melodramas, which functioned as a way to encourage women to relinquish their wartime jobs and return to domestic life, DEFA melodrama rewarded the female protagonist for resisting fascism and capitalism by reinforcing her role as a socialist citizen and worker.
University of North Carolina Press, , The tradition of post-war East German cinema often focused on a male subject in crisis and a strong female character. In the socialist context, the female character could not be portrayed as a threat to masculinity but instead must play a role in the solution of the masculinity in crisis. While personal crises affect all three protagonists, they all struggle to adopt the capitalistic version of masculinity, which places enormous pressure on the masculine figure to be an indispensable husband, father, and breadwinner.
Not all of these emasculated figures, however, overcome their struggles. Lexington Books, , 3. This tradition certainly carries over into the struggles depicted in Wege in die Nacht, which hails back to film noir style of the early DEFA films while also delving into the melodramatic masculinity in crisis. Clarke delves further into this idea of a distinctly East German masculinity, one that was threatened by the cultural colonialism of capitalism.
Clarke argues that because East German women were mostly employed, though in no way always equally to men, East German men were not pressured to be sole breadwinners like males are in the capitalist system. The primary force emasculating the protagonists, the replacement of communist East Germany with a Western, capitalistic reunified Germany, provides the characters with a choice.
In order to overcome their personal crises, Walter, Hinrich, and Martin must work to either adapt to capitalism and the Western notions of masculinity or perish under the pressures of adjustment. All three of wives in these films defy harsher realities for East German women after reunification.
After , women from East Germany faced high unemployment rates and suffered worse than their male counterparts. Although they all having varying degrees of successful, the three women are gainfully employed while their husbands struggle to overcome unemployment. The relationships between all three protagonists and their wives present a special case of East German masculinity in crisis.
These men feel various degrees of emasculation not only by the imposition of capitalist masculinity, but also their inability to be breadwinners. Furthermore, the ability of all three wives to defy the odds and overcome Western notions of the nuclear family, and thus their roles as strictly stay-at-home wives and mothers, seeks to further illustrate the ineptitude of the struggling protagonists. Not only does society threaten these heterosexual, East German male figures, but also the success of their wives further threatens their places in the newly developing Germany.
By the unemployment rate for East German women was twice as high as for men and the imposition of Western, capitalistic ideals of the nuclear family pushed many women to stay at home as mothers, dropping out of the labor force completely. Unemployed and reliant upon his wife for income, Walter becomes emasculated through the obvious role reversals between him and his wife.
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He makes no attempts to find a job in the new capitalist system and seeks to gain a sense of belonging through his late night vigilante rides throughout Berlin. Walter resorts to violence to express his discontent by attempting to assert power in an otherwise powerless situation. Walter uses them as a proxy for his violence. Eventually Walter becomes unsatisfied with vicarious violence.
Palgrave MacMillan, , 4. Much has been written on the use of violence by emasculated figures to reassert their masculinity. His suicide becomes the penultimate expression of his status as a completely damaged male. The GDR forbid portrayals of violent deaths and suicides in cinema since these deviated from the allowed heroic deaths caused by enemies of the state. In Der Zimmerspringbrunnen, Hinrich exemplifies the cinematic loser who overcomes his state of powerlessness. Like Martin and Walter, Hinrich also experiences a disappointment in the wake of reunification.
Like Wege in die Nacht, the film remains securely grounded in the present and makes few overt references to the past. The audience remains unsure if Hinrich was successful in the GDR. What is clear, however, is that his current issues stem from the struggles of reunification.
Unlike Walter, Hinrich attempts to find employment. When he does land a job as a traveling salesman, he is still criticized by his wife, who embraces capitalism. Her and her friends do not view the job as prestigious enough. His wife provides a steady income through her job as an architect. Her success pressures Hinrich even more thrive as a husband and a successful breadwinner. Before his prison sentence, Martin was planning to escape the GDR with his pregnant wife. After accidentally killing the neighbor, Martin is convicted of first-degree murder. After reunification, the capitalist system does seek to help Martin and his sentence is reduced to manslaughter.
The unified German state does provided him with a safety net. Despite the state helping to aid in his adjust, Martin finds himself constantly struggling against the Westernized reality of Berlin. During his decade in prison, his wife begins a life with a West German man. The state of the reunification threatens his role as both as a husband and father.
Martin is juxtaposed by the two other characters, who together present extremes of the post-unification East German male. Peter, like the struggling Walter, has no job prospects and contemplates committing suicide before Martin intervenes. Martin runs up to the roof of the building that Peter wants to jump from. All of East Berlin overlooks Peter as he contemplates suicide. The developing East Berlin skyline reminds Peter of the change and instability of reunified Germany that he has failed to adapt to. Later, after Martin talks him down from jumping, Peter references his dwindling job prospects as his reason for contemplating suicide.
His unemployed state makes him undesirable to women. Peter explains how sitting in a bar, a woman asked him what his occupation was. Du weisst, wie Frauen sind. Hast du nicht, bist du nicht. Martin talks Peter down from committing suicide. Romance, Family, and the Masculine Crisis Beyond the conflicts between the damaged male protagonists and greater society, the heterosexual male in crisis also experiences an inability to maintain the balance and health of his relationships, specifically with his wife.
For all three protagonists, it is either explicitly stated or implied that the status of their romantic relationships before the unification was somewhat healthy and conformed to traditional East German standards. All three of the wives hold employment, although this was a common aspect of GDR life that prior to did not necessarily threaten the East German heterosexual male. After the reunification, all three wives in the films shift roles from contributors to sole breadwinners. This tension drives the second key aspect of the struggling East German male: The ability on the part of these male protagonists to fix their relationships relies upon their relationship with both the state and capitalism.
When viewing these men in relation to their familial relationships, a huge contrast emerges. On one end, we see the success of Hinrich in Der Zimmerspringbrunnen. Es hat die Herrschenden satt. Aber der Honecker-Lehrling wird nun, da er in dessen Amt sitzt, der Geister, die er damit rief, nicht froh. Das ZK feuerte auf seiner Die hat sich auf die Seite des Volkes geschlagen.
Das ZK feuerte die bis Da waren's nur noch zehn. Jahrestag der DDR am 7. Oktober; damals war Krenz noch nicht, wie dann in Leipzig, zum Friedensengel mutiert. Die tapfere Geste kostete ihn fast die politische Karriere. Die pikierten Prager Genossen forderten seine Entfernung. Soweit folgt ihm wohl der Genosse Krenz. Zu den neuen Oppositionsgruppen im Land hat Modrow eine locker-positive Einstellung. Inzwischen stagniere die Solidarnosc, und der kommunistischen Gewerkschaft gehe es zunehmend besser. On 1 December , the former municipality Schernberg was incorporated by Sondershausen.
Until it was part of the principality of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen. Sondershausen Palace marketplace with "Alte Wache" and castle look over the marketplace look over the town, Stockhausen Palace St. Matthias Church in Stockhausen Geography Sondershausen is situated in North Thuringia and lies in low mountain range between Hainleite in the north and Windleite in the south. The highest mountain is the Frauenberg to the west of the town.
A little river called Wipper flows through Sondershausen. Around the town there are mixed forests especially with beech trees. Subdivisions The city districts are: Wolf-Christian von Ditfurth born March 14, is a German author and historian. In January , he joined the SPD, remaining a member for two years.
As a journalist, Ditfurth has published numerous articles in Der Spiegel. Since also been a writer of sensational and detective novels. A member of the Ditfurth family, his father Hoimar von Ditfurth was a journalist, doctor, popular television presenter and writer, while his sister, Jutta Ditfurth, is a journalist and politician. Retrieved July 25, Vera Lengsfeld 11 November Christian von Ditfurth rechnet mit der SPD ab.
Retrieved 13 July From to he studied education and psychology Diplom at Bundeswehr University Munich. After finishing his studies Schmillen left the military and used to work for the members of the German Bundestag Alfred Mechtersheiner and later Vera Lengsfeld. From to he was head of office and personal assistant to the chief of the parliamentary group in the German parliament, Joschka Fischer.
When the later was appointed foreign minister in , Schmillen joined the German Foreign Ministry, again as Fischer's personal assistant and head of his office. From to he served as head of the policy pl Angelika Barbe born Angelika Mangoldt, 26 November is a German biologist who became a politician. He has practiced law since in Berlin. In the late s he was involved in the student movement. From to , he was a member of the SPD.
He was also a member of the "Socialist Lawyers' Collective" for ten years, and rose to national fame defending militants of the urban guerrilla group Red Army Faction and other defended political activists. A list of notable members of the Christian Democratic Union. Location of constituency in Berlin Berlin Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg- - Prenzlauer Berg East is one of the single member constituencies used for the German parliament, the Bundestag. History and boundaries The constituency, numbered constituency 84 by the German electoral authorities, contains the whole of the Berlin borough of Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg.
The constituency also includes the eastern section of Prenzlauer Berg in the borough of Pankow. The constituency was created for the first time for the election when the number of constituencies in Berlin w The Fall of the Soviet Empire. Zeit Online in German. Die Zeit in German.