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Snedigar None George F. Parsons John Lally Thos. Allen William Watson C. Young Paul George F. Evans Max Watson Chas. Hewitt Clair Engle Edwin J. Paulson Philip Becklund W. Gilbert Martin Sullivan W. Olsson Angelina Floyd B. Albert George cars ; 4 motorcycles ; Albany Alameda Co. Pop Chief of Police Lloyd G. Jester Municipal Attorney J. Young 9 employees; 3 patrol cars Alhambra Los Angeles Co.

Spencer Municipal Attorney J. Ogg 43 employees; 6 patrol cars; 5 motorcycles Anaheim Orange Co. Bouldin Assistant Chief T. Wilder Municipal Attorney Leo J. Friis 14 employees; 3 patrol cars; 2 motorcycles Arcadia Los Angeles Co. Ott Municipal Attorney James C.

Bone 16 employees; 3 patrol cars; 2 motorcycles Bakersfield Kern Co. Powers Assistant Chiefs Horace V. Greening Captain of Detectives Walter J. Johnson Head, Crime Preven Mrs. Lossing Juvenile Officer Albert E. Riedel Head, Policeivonien Mrs. Sickler Municipal Attorney F. Blair Chief of Detectives W. White Head, Traffic Div C. Garrison Municipal Attorney R. Waltz Probation Officer R. Sanner 58 employees; 10 patrol cars; 9 motor- cycles; 1 ambulance Burbank Los Angeles Co. Harper Municipal Allorncy I. Carmel 15 employees; 3 patrol cars; 2 motorcycles Calexico Imperial Co.

Turner Assistant Chief H. Hubbs Head, Traffic Div J. Andrews Municipal Attorney R. Pierson 17 employees; 2 patrol cars; 5 motorcycles Corona Riverside Co. Clayson 6 employees; 2 patrol cars Coronado San Diego Co. Lindsey Municipal Attorney M. Hilton 11 employees; 2 patrol cars; 1 motorcycle El Centre Imperial Co.

Chief of Police J. French Municipal Attorney E. Mitchell 2 patrol cars Fresno Fresno Co. Murphy Municipal Attorney CM. Ozias 86 employees; 22 patrol cars; 3 motor- cycles; 1 patrol wagon; 1 ambulance FuUerton Orange Co. Pearson Sergeant of Police J. Gregory Municipal Attorney R. Thompson 11 employees; 3 patrol cars Glendale Los Angeles Co. Browne Assistant Chief J. Carter Chief of Detectives W.

Hegi Chief, Patrol Div J. Carter Head, Crime Preven R. Williams Head, Records Div F. Williams Municipal Attorney Aubrey N. Irwin 78 employees; 11 patrol cars; 4 motorcycles; 1 ambulance Hanford Kings Co. Foster Assistant Chief J. Parker Municipal Attorney H. Baumgardner Municipal Attorney Geo. Lindelof 9 employees; 1 patrol car; 3 motorcycles Hayward iMameda Co. Wilson Municipal Attorney C. Grillin 31 employees; 4 patrol cars; 9 motorcycles; 1 ambulance Inglewood Los Angeles Co. Stevenson 30 employees; 3 patrol cars; 7 motorcycles Lodi San Joaquin Co.

Jackson Assistant Chief F. Dovey Head, Accident Preven.. Christiansen Head, Records Div L. Christiansen Municipal Attorney Lyman B. Sutter Probation Officer C. Cross Administrative Asst W. Parker Head, Crime Preven E. Slaughter Juvenile Officer E. Lester Head, Traffic Div B. Caldwell Head, Accident Preven. Nutt Head, Records Div H. Nutt Municipal Attorney Ray L. Miller Municipal Attorney Charles A. Ruby 12 employees; 2 patrol cars; 2 motorcycles Martinez Contra Costa Co. Carlin 14 employees; 2 patrol cars Maywood Los Angeles Co.

Garret Municipal Attorney H. Landrum Probation Officer A.

Silman 9 employees; 2 patrol cars; 1 motorcycle Modesto Stanislaus Co. Gilbert 22 employees; 4 patrol cars; 2 motorcycles Monrovia Los Angeles Co. Scott Captain of Police Earnest A. Bovee Municipal Attorney Paul F. Garber 13 employees; 2 patrol cars; 2 motorcycles Montebello Los Angeles Co. Maxwell Head, Traffic Div M. Peek Municipal Attorney Louis H. Burke 17 employees; 3 patrol cars; 2 motorcycles Monterey Monterey Co. Moore Municipal Attorney A. Riordan Municipal Attorney Roy E. Campbell 41 employees; 3 patrol cars; 1 ambulance Oakland Alameda Co.

Wallman Captain of Inspectors J. Anderson Head, Records Bur J. Goodnight Municipal Attorney F. Fernhoff employees; 55 patrol cars; 33 motor- cycles; 3 patrol wagons; 4 ambulances Ontario San Bernardino Co. Smith Assistant Chief R. Shipps Head, Records Div J. Shipps Municipal Attorney A. Mitchell 18 employees; 3 patrol cars Orange Orange Co.

Coltrane Head, Traffic Div V. Preyor 5 employees; 1 patrol car Pacific Grove Monterey Co. Zink Assistant Chief E. Dakin Head, Traffic Div L. Morgan Head, Crime Preven. Scares Municipal Attorney Harold P. Huls employees; 13 patrol cars; 17 motor- cycles; 1 ambulance Petaluma Sonoma Co. Peters Assistant Chief Al. Aretz Head, Traffic Div M. Pflaum Captain of Police Dan W. Jacobsen 20 employees; 5 patrol cars; 4 motor- cycles; 1 ambulance Pittsburg Contra Costa Co. Hamilton Head, Traffic Div Geo.

Eastwood Municipal Attorney E. Hunter Assistant Chief J. Morrison Assistant Chief A. Peterson Head, Traffic Div W. Patterson Municipal Attorney Paul B. Petersen Assistant Chief A. Jennings Municipal Attorney Thomas M. Carlson 35 employees; 9 patrol cars; 4 motorcycles Riverside Riverside Co. Brule Assistant Chief R. Thomas Head, Traffic Div H. Mathews 36 employees; 3 patrol cars; 4 motorcycles Roseville Placer Co. Zanolio Municipal Attorney L. Thomas Juvenile Officer H.

Darwin Head, Accident Preven.. Kistle Municipal Attorney H. Bradford employees; 17 patrol cars; 10 motor- cycles; 1 patrol wagon; 1 ambulance Salinas Monterey Co. Peterson Chief of Detectives Harry J. Macy Municipal Attorney Dayton L. Ault employees; 58 patrol cars; 31 motor- cycles; 2 patrol wagons; 2 ambulances San Fernando Los.

Mueller Assistant Chief O. Holmes Municipal Attorney Clyde R. Quinn Deputy Chief Chas. Skelly Captain of Inspectors. Handley Head, Big Brother Bur. Div Francis Latulipe Dir. Miller 1, employees; patrol cars; 65 motorcycles; 8 patrol wagons; 7 ambulances San Gabriel Los Angeles Co. Lopez Municipal Attorney H. Howard Hornbuckle Head, Identif. Parks Municipal Attorney M.

Wilson 20 employees; 2 patrol cars; 2 motorcycles San Rafael Marin Co. Lentz Assistant Chief Harry I. Fink Chief of Detectives Charles W. Wolford Head, Traffic Div B. Fred Hoelscher Lieut, of Detectives J. O'Brien Lieut, of Police M. Greeson Head, Accident Prcven.. McCandless Captain of Police B. Stowell Municipal Attorney H. Hutchinson Ella Brown L. Rober Howard Brown C. Fike Chief of Police Willard D. Bretz Assistant Chief John C. Gutting Municipal Attorney C. Higgins Assistant Chief E. Setzer Municipal Attorney Horace E.

Taulson Chief of Police II. Smith Visalia Tulare Co. Fluty Head, Traffic Div G. Qumn j ambulance 62 employees; 10 patrol cars; 6 motor- cycles; 2 patrol wagons Watsonville Santa Cruz Co. Graves Torrance Los Angeles Co. Smith Chief of Police S. Locke Assistant Chief Thos. McGaff Assistant Chief W. Forman Woodland Yolo Co. Beck Chief of Police C. Garrison Heads, Traffic Div F. Jensen Municipal Attorney J. Hannigan 8 employees; 1 patrol car; 2 motorcycles; Municipal Attorney Russell F.

O'Hara 1 patrol wagon Colorado State Capital: State Industrial School for Girls Mt. Pardons and Parole Ralph L. Carr, Governor ' Secretary of State. Haynie Arapahoe Littleton E. Bent Las Animas L. Cheyenne Cheyenne Wells F. Clear Creek Georgetown W. Costilla San Luis M. Delta Delta Ray R. Colburn Dolores Rico J. Douglas Castle Rock F. Meehan Elbert Kiowa G. Hinsdale Lake City H. Jackson Walden John D. Kit Carson Burlington R. La Plata Durango H. Logan Sterling Ray R.

Mesa Grand Junction Chas. Haywood Mineral Creede Wm. Ouray Ouray Jess M. Clements Frank Bruin W. Piatt 6 employees; 1 patrol car Boulder Boulder Co. Nelson Municipal Attorney George M. Harper Assistant Chief L. Rader Chief of Detectives LB. Mathews Head, Records Div S. Close Municipal Attorney Ben S. Wendelken 36 employees; 4 patrol cars; 2 motorcycles; 1 patrol wagon; 1 ambulance Denver Denver Co. Guthner Chief of Police A. Hanebuth Assistant Chief H. Williams Chief of Detectives James E. Childers Juvenile Officer L.

Cottrell Head, Policewomen Edith S. Pitt Head, Accident Preven.. Beckvermit Head, Records Div G. Dillon employees; 54 patrol cars; 20 motor- cycles; 2 patrol wagons; 2 ambulances Durango La Plata Co. Jordan Municipal Attorney H. Davies 6 employees; 3 patrol cars Fort Collins Larimer Co. Kelley Municipal Attorney Herbert A.

Alpert 8 employees; 2 patrol cars 1 Sheriffs in each county except Denver are designated by statute to serve as probation officers. Smith 12 employees; 2 patrol cars; 3 motorcycles La Junta Otero Co. Houghton Assistant Chief John S. Schey 6 employees; 1 patrol car; 2 motorcycles Loveland Larimer Co. Herrell Municipal Attorney Herman W. Seaman 5 employees; 1 patrol car Pueblo Pueblo Co. Rush 4 employees; 1 patrol wagon Sterling Logan Co. Harris Assistant Chief A. Mabry 11 employees; 1 patrol car Walsenburg Huerfano Co.

Hickey Major Frank M. Nichols Captain Walter F. Stiles Lieutenant-Inspector John J. Bureau Frank Chameroy Officer-in-Chg. Fairfield Bridgeport Edward A. Willis Hartford Hartford Wm. Alcorn Litchfield Litchfield Ernest E. Blodgett Middlesex Middletown B. Hoyt 1 Waterbury J New London. Maude Baker Harrison Hotchkiss E. Leslie Woods Richard C. Scully 11 employees; 1 patrol car; 2 motorcycles; 1 patrol wagon; 1 ambulance Bridgeport Fairfield Co.

Wheeler Captain of Detectives James H. Div Henry Jeglinski 1 Males between ages of 16 to 25 years. Connecticut has no state parole board, paroles and probation being granted by the directors of the various state penal institutions. Chief of Police Prosecuting Attorney. Murphy patrol cars Pop. Knie Municipal Attorney Edward J. Carroll Probation Officer F.

Watson 15 employees; 2 patrol cars Fairfield Fairfield Co. Bennett Municipal Attorney Herbert L. Flanagan Captain, Patrol Div T. Paul Burke Probation Officer Mrs. Bronson 80 employees; 10 patrol cars; 11 motor- cycles; 1 patrol wagon Hamden New Haven Co. Butler Assistant Chief Henry L. Hart Head, Traffic Div T. Sullivan Head, Records Div T. Sullivan Municipal Attorney Vincent W. Dennis Probation Officer Wm. Lynch 84 employees; 18 patrol cars; 7 motor- cycles; 2 patrol wagons KiUingly Windham Co. Barron Municipal Attorney Geo. Lessner Probation Officer Thomas A. Conran 23 employees; 2 patrol cars; 2 motorcycles Meriden New Haven Co.

Carroll Assistant Chief Walter L. Kurcon Captain of Detectives. Kurcon Head, Traffic Div G. Kosicky Probation Officer Patrick M. Kidney 22 employees; 2 patrol cars; 2 motor- cycles; 1 ambulance Milford New Haven Co. Gallbronner Municipal Attorney Omar W. Hart Captain of Police Geo. Murphy Municipal Attorney Edward G. Buckley Municipal Attorney Charles I. Allen 7 employees Putnam Windham Co. Breault Municipal Attorney A. Basile Probation Officer Mrs.

Willard 6 employees; 1 patrol car; 1 motorcycle Southington Hartford Co. Brennan Captain of Police Martin C. Ryan Juvenile Officer Wm. Reilly 95 employees; 6 patrol cars; 5 motorcycles; 1 ambulance; 2 traffic trucks Stratford Fairfield Co. Meade Municipal Attorney Wm. Blodgett 32 employees; 4 patrol cars Vernon ToUand Co. Abbott Assistant Chief James A. Patterson Municipal Attorney Jos.

Manfreda Probation Officer John P. Coyle 9 employees; 1 patrol car Waterbury New Haven Co. William Duggan Head, Identif. Loomis Chief of Police Thos. Grady AcVg Chief of Police. Machette Probation Officer John O'Neill 36 employees; 9 patrol cars; 4 motorcycles; 23 employees; 1 patrol car; 1 motorcycle 1 patrol wagon Windham Windham Co. Tuttle Municipal Attorney Arthur T. Mulcahy Wethersfield Hartford Co. Simpson Municipal Attorney John F. Leslie Woods 7 employees; 1 patrol car; 1 motorcycle 5 employees; 1 patrol car; 1 motorcycle Delaware State Capital: Fader Captain Henry C.

State Parole Officer County Bldg. Robertson ' State prisoners housed in county jails. Kent Dover Grier Minner W. Kavanaugh Chief of Police Frank J. Jordon Chief of Detectives James C. Ingram Municipal Attorney David F. Anderson Probation Officer Clarence A.

Head, Crime Preven Juvenile Officers. Hayes Head, Policewomen Rhoda J. Milliken Head, Accident Preven.. Larsen Head, Records Div A. Cone Tallahassee Attorney General G. Finley Chief Clerk B. Smith 1 Appointed by the Attorney General of the state. State Board of Pardons Gov. Tampa Holmes Bonifay Indian River. Green John Scott A. Anderson Rex Sweat H. Law Doyle Schumacher J. Frick Walter Watford A. Cassady Bob King F.

Hutcher Gordon Morehead C. Grady Burton Roy D. Lanier Bleecker Forbes J. Adkins Murray Sams O. Turner Harvey Pinson Mrs. Amlong Municipal Attorney M. Wilson 5 employees; 1 patrol car Bradenton Manatee Co. Heckman Head, Records Div L. Solie Municipal Attorney Morton B. Adams 16 employees; 4 patrol cars; 3 motorcycles Daytona Beach Volusia Co. Johnson Municipal Attorney Thos. Tappey 38 employees; 6 patrol cars; 4 motorcycles Fort Lauderdale Broward Co. Clements Municipal Attorney S. Roberts Captain of Police H. Brown Chief of Detectives E. Acosta Head, Traffic Div L. Sherman Cannon Head, Identif.

Sanders Assistant Chief S. Schlappich Municipal Attorney C. McCoy 9 employees; 1 patrol car; 1 motorcycle Pop. Manning Miami Dade Co. Barker Head, Records Div H. Young Municipal Attorney J. Yocum Municipal Attorney J. Robillard 41 employees; 12 patrol cars; 11 motor- cycles; 1 patrol wagon Ocala Marion Co.

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Chief of Police Assistant Chief. Robert Smith car; 2 motorcycles; Pop. Shaw Campbell Thornal cars; 6 motorcycles; Pop. Sapp patrol car Assistant Chief A. Bobe Municipal Attorney Ernest E. Mason 48 employees; 5 patrol cars; 5 motorcycles; 1 patrol wagon St. Stuart Municipal Attorney E. Calhoun 12 employees; 1 patrol car; 2 motorcycles St. Mitchell Municipal Attorney Harry I. Young 58 employees; 7 patrol cars; 7 motorcycles; 1 patrol wagon Sanford Seminole Co.

Howard Municipal Attorney Fred R. Wilson 9 employees; 2 patrol cars; 1 motorcycle Sarasota Sarasota Co. Garner Municipal Attorney J. Powledge Lieut, of Police E. Eklund Head, Traffic Div E. Woodruff Chief of Detectives W. Milburn Municipal Attorney Paul W. Potter 36 employees; 6 patrol cars; 4 motorcycles Winter Haven Polk Co. Sinclair Municipal Attorney H. Mayo Lieutenant, 1st Division 0. Whiteside Lieutenant, 2nd Division W. Training School for Girls Atlanta Mrs. Sheriff Atkinson Pearson M. Ben Hill Fitzgerald J.

Garden Berrien Nashville N. Garrett Bleckley Cochran J. Lilly Bryan Clyde H. Neville Burke Waynesboro J. Lewis Cos Vinson O. Fulton Nelson Tift Mrs. Tyler Sec Tift Co. Jeff Davis Hazlehurst Geo. Rowland Jones Gray J. Flanders Lee Leesburg W. Forrester Liberty Hinesville P. Lincoln Lincoln ton W. Dawson Lowndes Valdosta J. Marion Buena Vista J. Crow Monroe Forsyth L. Paulding Dallas Ned Williams H. Hutchens Peach Fort Valley J. Pulaski Hawkinsville Jim Hill M. Boyer Putnam Eatonton J.

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Connor Stephens Toccoa F. Talbot Talbotton John M. Gray Harry England G. HiUyer Alex Storey S. Kitchens Ed Jones C. Sears Lat Vandiver J. Ray Assistant Chief E.

Williford Municipal Attorney S. Lippitt 19 employees; 3 patrol cars; 2 motorcycles Americus Sumter Co. Autry Head, Traffic Div T. Davis Municipal Attorney H. Jones 9 employees; 1 patrol car; 1 motorcycle Athens Clarke Co. Rucker Probation Officer Henry C. Tuck 21 employees; 3 patrol cars; 2 motorcycles Atlanta Fulton Co. Div Head, Records Div. Ragsdale employees; 34 patrol cars; 29 motor- cycles; 2 patrol wagons Augusta Richmond Co. Wilson Assistant Chief George R.

Folds Head, Traffic Div F. Fallaw Chief of Detectives W. Redd Head, Accident Preven. Beckum Municipal Attorney W. Lynn Assistant Chief R. Humphrey 7 employees; 2 patrol cars Brunswick Glynn Co. Register Assistant Chief O. Burch Head, Traffic Div C. Bisson Municipal Attorney B. Nightengale 16 employees; 4 patrol cars; 2 motorcycles Carrollton Carroll Co. Boyd Municipal Attorney B. Boykin 6 employees; 1 patrol car Cartersville Bartow Co. Chief of Police L. Payne Assistant Chief H. Davis 5 employees ; 2 patrol cars Cedartown Polk Co.

Edwards 7 employees; 1 patrol car Columbus Muscogee Co. Cornett Chief of Detectives H. Adair Head, Traffic Div E. Tucker 6 employees; 1 patrol car Dalton Whitfield Co. Butler Assistant Chief C. Keown Municipal Attorney I. Adams 10 employees; 1 patrol car Decatur DeKalb Co. Swords Municipal Attorney B. Burgess 10 employees; 2 patrol cars; 1 motorcycle East Point Fulton Co. Tyler Assistant Chief J. Westbrook Assistant Chief E. Bagwell Municipal Attorney W. Whelchel 10 employees; 2 patrol cars Griffin Spalding Co. Harper Municipal Attorney J.

Futral 18 employees; 2 patrol cars; 1 patrol wagon La Grange Troup Co. INlathews Assistant Chief W. Mayer 18 employees; 2 patrol cars Macon Bibb Co. Watkins Head, Traffic Div W. Arrington Head, Policewomen Mrs. Smith Head, Records Div J. Smith Municipal Attorney E. Maynard 73 employees; 7 patrol cars; 10 motor- cycles; 1 patrol wagon Marietta Cobb Co. Banks Dupre 12 employees; 2 patrol cars Pop. Riddlespurger Moultrie Colquitt Co. Municipal Attorney Probation Officer w. McWaters Newnan Coweta Co. Chief of Police Municipal Attorney A.

Freeman Probation Officer A. Powers 9 employees; 1 patrol car; 1 motorcycle Rome Floyd Co. Harris Assistant Chief R. Foy Captain of Police John J. McCarthy Valdosta Lowndes Co. Doney Chief of Police. Kemp Municipal Attorney Spence W. Hancock Chief of Police W. Yawn Captain of Police J. Richards Captain of Police R. Morgan Municipal Attorney W. Alexander Municipal Attorney F. Bottolfsen Boise Attorney General J. Box , Boise Commissioner Harry M. Rayner Deputy Commissioner Howard E. Rossiter Asa Athay O. Baldwin Harold Meyer Frank E. Furchner Roy Van Winkle C. Haddock Fred EweU E.

McLeod Hugh Adair F. Thurston Margaret Giesler B. Probate courts have exclusive jurisdiction over juvenile offenders under 18 , except in felony cases, and are responsible for adult probation, the judges naming agents to serve in each case. Pace Sidney Close Geo. Shull Earl Winters W. Wayne Flacke Bud Taylor E. Moody Robert Isley A. OgUvie Joe Williams A. Parker Jerry Logue A. Drake Perce Hall B. Hawkins Murray Estes E. Ray Milo Axelsen J. Sweeley Randall Wallis J. Tucker William Patt E.

Steele Henry Nichols A. Anderson Thomas Preston O. Jackson Hampton Taylor G. Peterson Emerson Hill J. Cramer 11 employees; 1 patrol car; 1 patrol wagon Nampa Canyon Co. Balderston Assistant Chief W. Probate courts have exclusive Jurisdiction over juvenile offenders under 18 , except in felony cases, and are responsible for adult probation, the judges naming agents to serve in each case. Pugmire Assistant Chief Arthur L. Oliver Chief of Detectives G. Nelson Municipal Attorney Ralph H. WiUiams Assistant Superintendent L.

Taylor Cliief Radio Engineer T. Lowe employees; patrol cars; motorcycles; 5 ambulances State Bureau or Criminal Identification and Investigation Springfield Superintendent T. Charles School for Boys St. State Parole Board Springfield W. County Agencies and Officials County Co. Brearton Cass Virginia Harry H. Colburn Champaign Urbana Bert S. Hamill Christian Taylorville V. Wineland Clinton Carlyle B. Dilsaver Cook Chicago Thos. Courtney Crawford Robinson Clarence T. Bradbury Cumberland Toledo James W. Cutright De Kalb Sycamore Wm.

Williams Douglas Tuscola Bruce T. Walters 48 Probation Act. Dora Sims John Kincard Geo. Young Edwin Carlson Mrs. Costley Claude Hawkins Mrs. Cook Edward Hines H. Chapin Otis Brittain E. Damisch Daniel Bergan Robt. Paulsgrove Lester Edinger W. Ammann Clarence Rasor W.

Curran Leo Gilliland A. Neese Alonzo Walker I. Hudson Harry Marshall Robert T. Encyclopedia of law enforcement Vols. Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement. Sullivan, Larry E, et al. Have you created a personal profile? Login or create a profile above so that you can save clips, playlists, and searches. Please log in from an authenticated institution or log into your member profile to access the email feature. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Criminal justice, Administration of Encyclopedias. Security is now and has always been the primary function of government. All societies require some form of law enforcement capability to function effectively. Throughout history, governments of all types have relied on either public police agencies or informal means to effect conformity to social norms, standards, and laws. Given how essential law enforcement is to society, it is surprising how little we really know about how it actually functions.

The job of law enforcement is always complex and sometimes dangerous. Police function under much public scrutiny, yet the complexities of what police do and why they do it rarely come to our attention. Readers of this encyclopedia will be introduced to the vagaries and nuances of the field, because it is critical to have a more informed citizenry so that when issues concerning public safety come to our attention, as they do on an almost daily basis, we can judge the situation fairly and wisely. We cannot strictly equate policing with law enforcement in general, but what we do know on the subject is primarily based on policing in large urban settings.

So far, few reference works have been published on law enforcement in the federal, state, local, rural, or private sectors. Our knowledge of international and comparative law enforcement is almost nonexistent, and policing in Western democracies can be qualitatively different from policing in emerging countries or other areas using different legal systems. In many countries, law enforcement—indeed, government itself—is almost entirely lacking.

In worst-case scenarios, police are used primarily as a force of terror to keep dictators in power. Regimes fall and rise daily, and people find themselves in lawless and violent states. In the early 21st century alone, we can think of such states as Afghanistan, Iraq, Somalia, and Haiti, to name only a few, that find themselves without effective policing powers. Although there is a plethora of studies on crime and punishment, law enforcement as a field of serious research in academic and scholarly circles is only in its second generation.

When we study the courts and sentencing, prisons and jails, and other areas of the criminal justice system, we frequently overlook the fact that the first point of entry into the system is through police and law enforcement agencies. My work in the field of crime and punishment has driven this fact home with a sense of urgency. Approximately , men and women work in law enforcement in the United States alone, and they are held to higher standards than the rest of us, are often criticized, and function under intense public scrutiny. Ironically, they are the most visible of public servants, and yet, individually, they often work in near obscurity.

But their daily actions allow us to live our lives, work, play, and come and go. Our understanding of the important issues in law enforcement has little general literature on which to draw. Currently available reference works on policing are narrowly focused and sorely out of date. Not [Page xx] only are there few general works on U. Policing has changed dramatically over the past century, but our general understanding of it comes primarily from the news media and police television shows and movies.

The public seems to gain much of its knowledge of policing from popular television shows such as Law and Order and the CSI: Crime Scene Investigation series. What we see on television is simplistic and conflates within its minute hour a year's worth of police work. Those of us in the academic field of criminal justice research see an urgent need for providing students and the general interested public balanced information on what law enforcement does, with all of its ramifications. Because democracy can remain strong only with an informed public, our goal is to provide the necessary information for an understanding of these institutions dedicated to our safety and security.

To this end, we have gathered a distinguished roster of authors, representing many years of knowledge and practice in the field, who draw on the latest research and methods to delineate, describe, and analyze all areas of law enforcement. The criminal justice field is burgeoning and is one of the fastest growing disciplines in colleges and universities throughout the United States.

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The Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement provides a comprehensive, critical, and descriptive examination of all facets of law enforcement on the state and local, federal and national, and international stages. This work is a unique reference source that provides readers with informed discussions on the practice and theory of policing in a historical and contemporary framework.

Each volume treats subjects that are particular to the area of state and local, federal and national, and international policing. Many of the themes and issues of policing cut across disciplinary borders, however, and a number of entries provide comparative information that places the subject in context. The Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement is the first attempt to present a comprehensive view of policing and law enforcement worldwide. It is fitting and appropriate that we present this information in an encyclopedia, traditionally and historically the gateway to the world of knowledge, a gateway that leads to further studies for those who want to pursue this fascinating and important field.

The encyclopedia is the most comprehensive, durable, and utilitarian way in which to present a large body of synthesized information to the general public. These seminal compendia attempted to present an entire body of knowledge to its readers. The modern encyclopedias broke new ground in the transmission of ideas, and over the centuries, they have been updated and improved.

Some editions have become classics in themselves, such as the 11th edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica. Specialty encyclopedias are more a phenomenon of the modern age. The field of criminal justice has matured in the past generation, and its monographs and journals present a large body of specialized research from which to draw.

The subspecialty of law enforcement, however, has not received the focused treatment of a comprehensive reference work until now. The study of policing and law enforcement has come a long way since the first attempts at police professionalism at the turn of the 20th century. At that time, we also saw the initial professional publications in policing by way of such partisan, anecdotal police histories as Augustine E.

Flinn's History of the Chicago Police in In no way can we call these works scholarly, although they did give us a glimpse into the activities of the local police departments. It was only with the age of general crime commissions, beginning in the s and culminating in the President's Commission on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice in , that we saw the development of a large body of data on police activities. And it was also in the s that the first College of [Page xxi] Police Science was founded at the City University of New York , which became the John Jay College of Criminal Justice in , the foremost college of its kind in the world.

Within the decade, journals devoted to the scholarly study of the police were founded, and thus, this academic subspecialty of criminal justice was on the road to professional respectability. In the past 40 years, the field of law enforcement has grown and evolved rapidly. Law enforcement or lack thereof is a complex social and political process that affects everyone. Explanations of its role in society are basic to our understanding of the proper maintenance of social order.

Older reference works on policing were limited given the few available sources on which they drew. But a large enough body of scholarly work now exists that a reference work such as this encyclopedia can provide coverage of most U. Police and law enforcement officers do a variety of things in a day and need to draw on a body of knowledge that includes law, sociology, criminology, social work, and other disciplines.

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This encyclopedia attempts to answer all the questions on what an officer or an agency, here and abroad, does, but also attempts to explain the reasons for an officer's proper and improper actions. In numerous articles, we also show the development of policing, its functions, the impact of technology and modern culture on law enforcement, and the impact that court decisions have on every facet of the field.

Law enforcement worldwide was profoundly affected by the terrorist attacks on New York and Washington on September 11, , and many of the field's methods, concepts, principles, and strategies have changed because of the ubiquity of terrorism. Most of the relevant articles in this encyclopedia reflect these changes.

As a reference work, it will be essential reading for anyone interested in the field of law enforcement. The Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement offers the professional, the student, and the lay user information unavailable in any other single resource. Its aim is to bring interdisciplinary treatment to the myriad topics that touch on all facets of law enforcement. To this end, the editors have assembled more than specialists in the field—academics and practitioners alike—to provide the most current treatment on more than topics.

These entries range from simple descriptive essays on federal law enforcement agencies to the most sophisticated analysis of contemporary theories of policing. The broadening of the field of law enforcement affected the process of selection of topics. Some selections were driven by theoretical interests, whereas others were practical and more specific. Our goal is to survey the entire field of law enforcement and to be as comprehensive as possible. For ease of use, we have divided the volumes into three areas of law enforcement: Each volume contains a master index.

The longest entries cover key issues in law enforcement, large federal agencies, and major countries of the world. Many of the short entries are descriptive, especially when covering a small federal agency police force, or for a smaller country that provides little information on its law enforcement bureaucracy or that has an insignificant law enforcement presence. Other entries are analytical and cover the most up-to-date theories and philosophies of law enforcement. The main focus of each entry is on currency, although some historical background is usually covered by the author.

A glance at the tables of contents gives a good idea of the many perspectives from which a reader can view a given topic. For instance, a brief look at the essay on police accountability leads the reader to investigate the whole panoply of law enforcement, including police impact on constitutional rights, use of force, civilian oversight, theories of policing, and other areas. Given the interrelatedness of these topics, most authors, when possible, treat their subjects using cross-disciplinary or comparative methods. Some authors give a practical viewpoint of law enforcement, whereas others use empirical research and discuss theories and concepts.

In general, the encyclopedia combines the disciplines of criminology, sociology, history, law, and political science to [Page xxii] elucidate the most contemporary and up-to-date view of law enforcement as it is practiced and studied in the world today. As it now stands, it is the most invaluable tool for all who work in or are interested in the field because it brings together in one work the most recent research and practice of law enforcement.

Some of the subjects are controversial, but we have requested that authors cover alternative views evenhandedly and fairly. We did not include any biographical entries, which can be found in the myriad biographical sources available today. But in order to present the most comprehensive coverage possible, important personages are included in the subject entries. All relevant legal cases affecting law enforcement are cited in the text and in the bibliographies. The discussion of legal cases is especially useful for the generalist not trained in the law, and we have attempted to explain these court cases and laws succinctly and concisely.

Bibliographies to guide the reader to documentation on the subject and further research are included after each entry. The bibliographies include relevant books, journal articles, scholarly monographs, dissertations, legal cases, newspapers, and Web sites. A comprehensive reading list is presented at the end of each volume as well.

The Reader's Guide classifies the articles into 24 general subject headings for ease of use. For instance, under Terrorism, we have grouped such subjects from Chemical and Biological Terrorism on both the local and national levels to an essay on foreign terrorist groups. Entries are organized alphabetically and are extensively cross referenced. The international volume, in addition to presenting all available information on policing in most of the countries of the world, also includes analytical essays on such subjects as Community Policing, Police and Terrorism, History of Policing, and Women in Policing.

It has been a great pleasure working with Sage Publications on this project. I owe a deep debt of gratitude to the administrators, faculty, students, and staff of the John Jay College of Criminal Justice, whose support made this work possible. I could not have worked with three better editors: Haberfeld for Volume 3. I also want to thank the members of our editorial board for their valuable assistance during all stages of the project. I owe special thanks to our project manager, Nickie Phillips, for her excellent handling of the numerous technical details that a project of this magnitude entails.

None of this could have been done without the assistance of the outstanding librarians of the Lloyd Sealy Library of the John Jay College of Criminal Justice. To them, I owe a deep and lasting debt of gratitude. He holds an M. S from the Catholic University in Washington, D.

He was also a Fulbright Scholar at the University of Poitiers in France where he studied medieval history and literature. Prior to his appointment at John Jay in , he was the Chief of the Rare Book and Special Collections Division at the Library of Congress where he had responsibility for the nation's rare book collection.

He first became involved in the criminal justice system when he worked at the Maryland Penitentiary in Baltimore in the late s. That experience prompted him to begin collecting literature written by felons and to write the book The Prison Reform Movement: Forlorn Hope and He based his book, Bandits and Bibles: Convict Literature in Nineteenth Century America , on these prison writings. He is the author, co-author, or editor of over fifty books and articles in the fields of American and European history, penology, criminal justice, art history, and other subjects, including the above books and Pioneers, Passionate Ladies, and Private Eyes: Schurman and the New-York Historical Society: A Bicentennial History He serves or has served on a number of editorial boards, including the Encyclopedia of Crime and Punishment , the Handbook of Transnational Crime and Justice , and the journal Book History.

He has consulted on the development of criminal justice libraries and on rare book and manuscript [Page xxiv] collections. At John Jay College, in addition to directing the largest and best criminal justice library in the world, he teaches graduate- and doctoral-level courses in Advanced Criminology, Punishment and Responsibility, and the Philosophical and Theoretical Bases of Contemporary Corrections. She was born in Poland and immigrated to Israel as a teenager. She holds two bachelor's degrees, two master's degrees, and a Ph.

During her army service in the Israel Defense Force, in which she earned the rank of sergeant, she was assigned to a special counter-terrorist unit that was created to prevent terrorist attacks in Israel. Prior to coming to John Jay, she served in the Israel National Police, in which she earned the rank of lieutenant. She has also worked for the U. Her research interests and publications are in the areas of private and public law enforcement, specifically training, police integrity, and comparative policing her research involves police departments in the United States, Eastern and Western Europe, and Israel.

She has also done some research in the area of white-collar crime, specifically organizational and individual corruption during the Communist era in Eastern Europe. For 3 years from to , she was a member of a research team, sponsored by the National Institute of Justice, studying police integrity in three major police departments in the United States. Between and , she was also a principal investigator on a research project in Poland, sponsored by the National Institute of Justice, where she studied the Polish National Police and its transformation to community-oriented policing.

She has received additional grants from the PSC-CUNY Research Foundation to continue her research in Poland, with particular focus on the balancing act between the public perceptions of the new police reform and rampant accusations of police corruption and lack of integrity. Haberfeld has recently published a book on police training, Critical Issues in Police Training ; presented numerous papers on training-related issues during professional gatherings and conferences; and written a number of articles on police training, specifically on police leadership, integrity, and stress.

In addition, she has been involved in active training of police officers on issues related to multiculturalism, sensitivity, and leadership, as well as provided technical assistance to a number of police departments in rewriting procedural manuals. From to , she was involved in developing, coordinating, and teaching a special training program for the NYPD. Her most recent involvement in Eastern Europe includes redesigning the basic academy curriculum of the Czech National Police, with the emphasis on integrity-related training.

As publisher of one of the nation's leading publications in policing, she has chronicled the trends and developments that have shaped and transformed law enforcement in America during the last three decades. A well-known expert in policing, she is often cited in the mainstream press. Under Rosen's leadership, Law Enforcement News has followed the increased use of science and technology in the criminal justice system and has reported [Page xxv] extensively on crime rates, use of force, pursuits, police integrity and oversight, standards and training, and minority relations.

It regularly covers both state and federal court decisions and legislation that affect criminal justice policy and practice. Law Enforcement News has influenced a generation of police leadership. The newspaper's articles are frequently reprinted in college and professional texts. The publication's reporting has been a factor in the development of legislation and public policy in such areas as health and safety issues, bias-related crime, higher education for police, psychological screening of police recruits, and the police response to the mentally ill.

The paper has earned major national awards for its coverage of policing on tribal reservations and the impact of the September 11, , terrorist attacks on law enforcement practitioners. Her annual analysis of policing that appears in the publication's Year-in-Review issue is widely cited and appears in the Appendix to Volumes 1 and 2.

Rosen received her B. Dorothy Moses Schulz is Professor at John Jay College of Criminal Justice at the City University of New York, where she teaches courses in criminal justice, police history, police administration, and women in policing. Schulz joined the faculty of John Jay College in after a career in policing.

She was one of the first women to hold a supervisory rank in any rail or transit police agency, and among her assignments was serving as the commanding officer of New York City's Grand Central Terminal, the midtown Manhattan landmark through which about three quarters of a million people pass daily. Before beginning her career in policing, she was a reporter and copy editor for a number of municipal newspapers and a freelance editor for a variety of magazines and book publishers.

A well-known expert on historical and current issues involving women in policing, she is the author of From Social Worker to Crimefighter: Women in United States Policing , which traces the more than year history of women in policing. The book describes how the fluctuating fortunes of feminism helped early policewomen but how in the s women were forced to reject their historical roles when they sought a wider presence in law enforcement. Her new book, Breaking the Brass Ceiling: Women Police Chiefs and Their Paths to the Top , highlights the women—police chiefs and sheriffs—who have made it to the very top rank of law enforcement.

A frequent speaker at police and academic meetings, Schulz received a B. In and , she assisted the New York City Police Museum on exhibits documenting the history of women in the department. Schulz has also retained her involvement with rail and transit policing. From to she was the principal investigator on the Transit Cooperative Research Program's Guidelines for the Effective Use of Uniformed Transit Police and Security Personnel , the largest transit policing grant funded in the United States, and she has overseen a number of Federal Transit Administration triennial audits of urban transit system police departments.

She is completing research for a book on the history of railroad policing in America. Schulz has delivered papers at meetings of the American Society of Criminology, the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, and the American Historical Association and has published in a number of police and historical journals. She was a coeditor of police topics for Crime and the Justice System in America: An Encyclopedia and has contributed articles to other reference publications, including the Encyclopedia of Crime and Punishment , the Encyclopedia of Homelessness , the Encyclopedia of New York State , and the Encyclopedia of Women and Crime.

CQ Press Your definitive resource for politics, policy and people. Back Institutional Login Please choose from an option shown below. Need help logging in? September 15, DOI: Email Please log in from an authenticated institution or log into your member profile to access the email feature. Manning Northeastern University Stephen D.

Skogan Northwestern University [Page iii]. View Copyright Page [Page iv]. A Sage Reference Publication. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN cloth 1. Jerry Westby Associate Editor: Benjamin Penner Editorial Assistant: Vonessa Vondera Production Editor: Denise Santoyo Developmental Editor: Yvette Pollastrini Systems Coordinator: Leticia Gutierrez Copy Editor: Pamela VanHuss Cover Designer: List of Contributors — Volume 1.

Police Foundation Bailey, Frankie Y. Radford University Byrne, Dara N. Frederick, Maryland Police Dept. Guidance Software Drylie, James J. Indiana University Heffernan, William C. Louis Klockars, Carl B. Northeastern University Mastrofski, Stephen D. Louis University Rowland, John St. Emory University Sullivan, John P. Niagara University Taylor, Ralph B. Law Enforcement Memorial Association Inc. List of Contributors — Volume 2. Police Foundation Archbold, Carol A.

Marquette University Baggett, Ryan K. Excelsior College Bolz, Frank A. Indiana University Martin, Vertel T. Yale University Newbold, Katherine M. XG Consultants Group Inc. Utica College Richter, Michelle Y. Vincents Hospital Ruegger, Stephen E. John's University Tatum, Becky L. List of Contributors — Volume 3. John's University Domingo, Jannette O. Master Bibliography — Volume 1. LEAA case hurts tax sharing. Tactics for armed encounters.

Southern state penal systems, — Social Problems 30 5 — http: An ethnography of an upper-level drug dealing and smuggling community. Texas , U. When deadly force is not enough. The Futurist , p. The civil commitment of sex offenders in light of Foucha v. Montana vigilantes and the origins of Montana 51 2—19 Policies and training Research in Brief.

National Institute of Justice. Measuring police use of force relative to suspect resistance. Police Executive Research Forum. Contemporary readings 2nd ed. Effective community policing performance measures. Justice Research and Policy 3 2 79—94 http: Instruments of deadly force. Alpert , and A.

The five principles of leadership. Fourth Amendment first principles. Harvard Law Review — http: Amber Alert sweeps the nation. American Probation and Parole Association. American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors. Retrieved February 20, , from http: Corruption, police, security and democracy: Volumes I and II. Office of International Criminal Justice.

Perspectives on the Fourth Amendment. Minnesota Law Review 58 — Creighton , U. The illusion of order [Book review]. An unsuccessful attempt at joint operations GGD Hicks , U. What cops need to know to mentally and physically prepare for and survive a gunfight. Performance evaluation in work settings. Annual Review of Psychology 49 — http: An introduction to basic and advanced ridgeology.

Lago Vista , U. A psychological assessment of crime profiling. Aviation and Transportation Security Act , Pub. The new science of catching killers. The Mollen Commission report: Keeping students in school. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Crisis intervention and the investigation of forcible rape. Police Chief 5 68—74 A study in orgaizational deviance. Technology as an occasion for structuring. Administrative Science Quarterly 31 78— http: The law of arrest, search and seizure for private citizens and private police.

Journal of Criminal Justice Education 7 — http: The tactical choices of police patrol officers. Journal of Criminal Justice 14 — http: The management of violence by police officers. Criminology 27 1—25 http: Learning the skills of policing. Law and Contemporary Problems 47 35—59 http: The origins of crime detection and the murder case that launched forensic science.

A survey of administrative perceptions and strategies. National Association of Student Personnel Administrators. Outcomes associated with the integration of open gay and lesbian personnel in the San Diego police department. Center for the Study of Sexual Minorities in the Military. Retrieved February 12, , from http: Bell's LEAA plan would give the states spending leeway. Moral poverty… and how to win America's war against crime and drugs.

Community policing works at Michigan State University. Journal of Security Administration 16 1 43—52 Privatization and community in criminal justice. New York University Press. New Mexico Statistical Analysis Center. National Clearinghouse for Mental Health. National Institute of Mental Health. A theory of the police. A review of background factors, current practices, and possible role models. Oelgeschlager, Gunn and Hain. The production of crime rates. American Sociological Review 35 — http: University of Chicago Press. Investigation and prosecution of organized crime.

Hot spot areas and hot places of liquor-related crime. Eck , and D. The use and abuse of informants in the American justice system. Los Angeles Police Department. Tactics, procedures and techniques. The coproduction of police services in the community. Unpublished master's thesis, University of South Florida. A theory of the educational needs of law enforcement officers. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 1 17—24 http: Boy Scouts of America v. Dalem , U. United States , U.

Police corruption and community relations: Police Studies 15 4 — Two models of the Fourth Amendment. Michigan Law Review 83 — http: Maryland , U. Brain fingerprinting gets court OK. Law Enforcement News 29 5 , April Crime-victim evaluation of police investigative performance. Journal of Criminal Justice 19 3 — http: Who are the complaint-prone officers? An examination of the relationship between police officers' attributes, arrest activity, assignment, and citizens' complaints about excessive force. Journal of Criminal Justice 29 — http: Toward a pattern theory of crime.

Clarke , and M. How America's top cop reversed the crime epidemic. High policing and low policing: Remarks about the policing of political activities. Social Problems 30 — http: Child abuse and neglect reporting laws: Understanding interests, understanding policy. Behavioral Sciences and the Law 12 49—64 http: Street politics and the transformation of a New York gang. Law Enforcement News , pp. Mississippi , U. Police discretion and the dilemmas of reform. Klockars , and S. Community volunteers in action.

Race and getting hassled by the police: Police Studies 17 1 1—11 Operationalizing theoretical concepts for field research. Extending the police role: Implications of police mediation as a problem-solving tool. Police Quarterly 2 2 — http: Lesbians and gay men in law enforcement. Observing goals, objectives, and recent trends.

American Journal of Criminal Justice 24 1 67—79 http: Bureau of Justice Assistance. Ten years of research and evaluation: A report to the attorney general. Bureau of Justice Statistics. Reentry trends in the United States. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, City University of New York.

APCO Bulletin , pp. Minding the Badge published quarterly by the Mental Health Association , pp. A history of New York City to The advanced bounty hunter. The changing criminal justice response. Policing there and here: Reflections on an international comparison. International Journal of the Sociology of Law 24 — http: California Attorney General's Office. California Attorneys for Criminal Justice v. Butts , F. Carney , U. Greenwood , U. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University. Center for the Studies of Sexual Minorities in the Military.

Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement

Canadian Law Reform Commission. New York Times Magazine , p. Predicting serial killers' home base using a decision support system. Journal of Quantitative Criminology 16 — http: Race, community context and confidence in the police. American Journal of Police 15 1 3—22 http: Electronic surveillance and privacy in the digital age: A history of warfare against civilians: Why it has always failed and why it will fail again. Carroll Buracher and Associates, Inc. Double-entry bookkeeping and the rhetoric of economic rationality. American Journal of Sociology 97 3 31—69 http: The era of August Vollmer, — University of California Press.

Carter proposes to streamline LEAA, aid war on crime in public housing. Drug-related corruption of police officers: Journal of Criminal Justice 18 85—98 http: The evolution of higher education in law enforcement: Preliminary findings from a national study. Journal of Criminal Justice Education 1 59—85 http: Formal education and police officer performance. Journal of Police Science and Administration 5 89—96 Forensic tools and technology. Florida , U. Maroney , U.

A sociological analysis of the law of vagrancy. Social Problems 12 1 67—77 http: Policing the ghetto underclass. Social Problems 41 — http: University of Toronto Press. New look, and attitude, for Philly SVU. Law Enforcement News 29 5 Lessons in prevention and preparedness. Law enforcement's shift from a corporeal environment to the intangible, electronic world of cyberspace.

Federal Bar News and Journal 41 7 — Should police be free to live where they chose? Police 2 62—65 Martinez , U. The practice of dual arrests in domestic violence situations: Does it accomplish anything? Mississippi Law Journal 70 Conflict of rights and keeping order. Chicago Community Policing Evaluation Consortium.

Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority. Child-snatchings are news, but a problem? California , U. Deterring crime and building community. Department of Housing and Urban Development. City of Chicago v. Morales , U. City of New York. Retrieved October 31, , from http: Can traffic radar lead to cancer? Law Enforcement News 17 Complex job in changing times: Law enforcement in Indian country is anything but easy. Law Enforcement News 22 1 , April The relationship between multicultural training for police and effective law enforcement.

Crime, punishment and classification. The citizen police academy: A recipe for improving police-community relations. Journal of Criminal Justice 24 3 — http: A history of fingerprinting and criminal identification. The need for physical fitness. How to protect your business, customers and employees.

Manuscript submitted for publication. Police officers, attorneys and judges. Opportunities in the National Guard. Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies. Commission on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice. Balancing the autonomy of threatened witnesses versus a defendant's right of confrontation: The waiver doctrine after Alvarado. San Diego Law Review 39 — Georgia , U.

The unforgettable classic account of the Watts riot. New Hampshire , U. Cooper Institute of Aerobic Research. Dupnik , F. From terror to reform. University Press of America. Dispute Resolution Magazine 7 1 17 a. Training patrol officers to mediate disputes. The evolution of the American militia, — University of Nebraska Press. Some effects of police response time. Policy issues and analysis pp. National Fire Protection Association. Council of State Government. American Criminal Law Review: A Symposium, Prosecutorial Discretion 13 — Gaines , and G. News media participation in law enforcement activities.

Reasons , and J. The story of the Watts tragedy. Lawmakers jolted in midst of campaign: The Commission's urgent tone focuses the minds of politicians, but the drive to enact reforms is competing with the drive to Nov. Los Angeles Times , p. The eyewitness, psychology, and the law. Television and the case of Cagney and Lacey.

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  8. University of North Carolina Press. Time 81 , November Justification for no obligation: Views of black males toward crime and the criminal law. Issues in Criminology 9 69—87 , Fall. Store police, shoplifters, and civil recovery. Social Problems 38 — http: Pittsburgh's experience with a federal consent decree.

    Vera Institute of Justice. A look at two professional frontier lawmen: Scarborough and Frank M. Journal of the West 34 8—12 The struggle for control. De Cresce , R. Bureau of National Affairs. De Forest , P. Recapturing the essence of criminalistics. Science and Justice 39 3 — http: An introduction to criminalistics.

    Providing comfort to citizens. Report to the National Institute of Justice. Ethics in policing 4th ed. Delaware River and Bay Authority Police. Retrieved March 9, , from http: Del Carmen , R. Dunham , and G. Contemporary readings 3rd ed. National survey of the extent and nature of psychological services in police departments. Research and Practice 19 4 — http: Tools of organized crime and terrorism. Retrieved June 11, , from https: Developments in the law: Legal responses to domestic violence. An infringement on Fourth Amendment rights. University of Baltimore Law Forum 28 3—11 Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.

    Development of the American criminal identification system, — International Association of Chiefs of Police. Forensic Science Communications , 2 3 Available: The study and redesign team behind the new uniform crime reporting system. Law Enforcement News 14 p. Law Enforcement News 19 pp.