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Manual Intragènesi (Catalan Edition)

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Caribbean Spanish , rather than the velar fricative [x] , the result was a softer glottal sound [h] , like English h in hope. In standard European Spanish, as well as in many dialects in the Americas e. When followed by a consonant, it assimilates to that consonant's place of articulation, becoming dental, interdental, palatal, or velar. In these dialects, words such as pan 'bread' and bien 'well' may sound like pang and byeng to English-speakers.

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Because of this pronunciation, loanwords based on English words with final -ng sound similar to their original pronunciation: In the Americas, velar -n is prevalent in all Caribbean dialects, Central American dialects, the coastal areas of Colombia, Venezuela, much of Ecuador, Peru, and northern Chile. All varieties of Spanish distinguish between a "single-R" and a "double-R" phoneme.

The double-R phoneme is spelled rr between vowels as in ca rr o 'car' and r word-initially e. In most varieties it is pronounced as an alveolar trill [r] , and that is considered the prestige pronunciation. Two notable variants occur additionally: The trill is also found in lexical derivations morpheme-initial positions , and prefixation with sub and ab: In word -final position the rhotic will usually be: The pronunciation of the double-R phoneme as a voiced strident or sibilant apical fricative is common in New Mexico, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Bolivia, Chile, and Paraguay; in western and northern Argentina; and among older speakers in highland areas of Colombia.

Nonetheless, other researchers have pointed out that sibilant rr in the Americas may not be an autonomous innovation, but rather a pronunciation that originated in some northern Spanish dialects and then was exported to the Americas. Spanish dialects spoken in the Basque Country, Navarre, La Rioja, and northern Aragon [ citation needed ] regions that contributed substantially to Spanish-American colonization show the fricative or postalveolar variant for rr especially for the word-initial rr sound, as in Roma or rey.

In Chilean Spanish this pronunciation is viewed as undesirable, while in Panama it occurs among educated speakers. Furthermore, this opening of final mid vowels can affect other vowels earlier in the word, as an instance of metaphony:. In the remaining dialects, the mid vowels have nondistinctive open and closed allophones determined by the shape of the syllable or by contact with neighboring phonemes. Judaeo-Spanish often called Ladino refers to the Romance dialects spoken by Jews whose ancestors were expelled from Spain near the end of the 15th century.

For this reason, the letter s , when written single between vowels, corresponds to a voiced [z] —e. A related dialect is Haketia , the Judaeo-Spanish of northern Morocco.


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This too tended to assimilate with modern Spanish, during the Spanish occupation of the region. Tetuani Ladino was brought to Oran in Algeria. Spanish is a language with a " T—V distinction " in the second person, meaning that there are different pronouns corresponding to "you" which express different degrees of formality.

In most varieties, there are two degrees, namely "formal" and "familiar" the latter is also called "informal".

For the second person formal , virtually all Spanish dialects of Spain and the Americas use usted and ustedes singular and plural respectively. Each of the second-person pronouns has its historically corresponding verb forms, used by most speakers.


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Most voseo speakers use both the pronoun vos and its historically corresponding verb forms e. In any case, there is wide variation as to when each pronoun formal or familiar is used.

10 Spanish Dialects: How Spanish is Spoken Around the World - ALTA Language Services

Meanwhile, in several countries in parts of Middle America , especially, Costa Rica and Colombia , the formal usted is also used to denote a closer personal relationship. Many Colombians and some Chileans, for instance, use usted for a child to address a parent and also for a parent to address a child.

Meanwhile, in other countries, the use of formal rather than familiar second-person pronouns denotes authority. The corresponding verb is tutear a transitive verb , the direct object being the person addressed with the pronoun. The verb tutear is used even in those dialects whose familiar pronoun is vos and means "to treat with the familiar second-person pronoun". The area comprises the most populous part of Argentina the provinces of Buenos Aires and Santa Fe as well as an important part of Uruguay, including Montevideo, the capital.

In this region, vos is regarded as the conversational norm, but it is not used in public discourse or the mass media. Based on these factors, speakers can assess themselves as being equal, superior, or inferior to the addressee, and the choice of pronoun is made on this basis, sometimes resulting in a three-tiered system. Vos can be heard throughout most of Chile, Bolivia, and a small part of Peru as well, but in these places it is regarded as substandard.

A. Fausto (Alberto Fausto)

On the other hand, "pronominal voseo", the use of the pronoun vos —pronounced with aspiration of the final -s —is used derisively in informal speech between close friends as playful banter usually among men or, depending on the tone of voice, as an offensive comment. In Colombia, the choice of second person singular varies with location.

Intragènesi (Catalan Edition)

Today, however, this usage is unusual. In particular, it has been attributed to the egalitarianism of the right-wing Falange party. By contrast, Spanish leftists of the early 20th century would address their comrades as usted as a show of respect and workers' dignity. According to Joan Coromines , by the 16th century, the use of vos as a second person singular pronoun had been reduced to rural areas of Spain, which were a source of many emigrants to the New World, and so vos became the unmarked form in many areas of Hispanic America.

A slightly different explanation is that in Spain, even if vos as a singular originally denoted the high social status of those who were addressed as such monarchs, nobility, etc. Those who used vos were people of the lower classes and peasants. When the waves of Spanish immigrants arrived to populate the New World, they primarily came from these lower classes. Retrieved from " https: Catalan-language encyclopedias Wikipedias by language Internet properties established in Catalan-language websites 21st-century encyclopedias establishments in Catalonia.

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A. Fausto (Alberto Fausto)

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