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The United States Bill of Rights was drafted and ratified there. George Washington was inaugurated at Federal Hall. During the 19th century, the city was transformed by immigration , a visionary development proposal called the Commissioners' Plan of which expanded the city street grid to encompass all of Manhattan, and the opening of the Erie Canal in , which connected the Atlantic port to the vast agricultural markets of the Midwestern United States and Canada.

New York grew as an economic center, first as a result of Alexander Hamilton 's policies and practices as the first Secretary of the Treasury. In , water was piped from a reservoir to supply the city for the first time. The Great Irish Famine — brought a large influx of Irish immigrants, and by the Irish comprised one quarter of the city's population. This period started with the inauguration of Fernando Wood as the first mayor from Tammany Hall , an Irish immigrant-supported Democratic Party political machine that dominated local politics throughout this period and into the s.

During the American Civil War — , the city was affected by its history of strong commercial ties to the South ; before the war, half of its exports were related to cotton, including textiles from upstate mills. Together with its growing immigrant population, which was angry about conscription , sympathies among residents were divided for both the Union and Confederacy at the outbreak of war. Tensions related to the war culminated in the Draft Riots of by ethnic white immigrants, who attacked black neighborhood and abolitionist homes.

After the Civil War, the rate of immigration from Europe grew steeply, and New York became the first stop for millions seeking a new and better life in the United States, a role acknowledged by the dedication of the Statue of Liberty in From to , the larger cities were the focus of national attention. The skyscrapers and tourist attractions were widely publicized. Suburbs existed, but they were largely bedroom communities for commuters to the central city. San Francisco dominated the West , Atlanta dominated the South , Boston dominated New England ; Chicago , the nation's railroad hub, dominated the Midwest United States ; however, New York City dominated the entire nation in terms of communications, trade, finance, popular culture, and high culture.

More than a fourth of the largest corporations in were headquartered in New York City. In , the modern City of New York was formed with the consolidation of Brooklyn until then an independent city , Manhattan , and outlying areas. The Borough of Brooklyn incorporated the independent City of Brooklyn, recently joined to Manhattan by the Brooklyn Bridge ; the Borough of Queens was created from western Queens County with the remnant established as Nassau County in ; and the Borough of Richmond contained all of Richmond County.

Municipal governments contained within the boroughs were abolished, and the county governmental functions were absorbed by the city or each borough. The Bronx had a steady boom period during —, with a population growth by a factor of six from , in to 1. The Great Depression created a surge of unemployment, especially among the working class, and a slow-down of growth.

On June 15, , over 1, people, mostly German immigrant women and children, were killed when the excursion steamship General Slocum caught fire and sank. It is the city's worst maritime disaster. In response, the city made great advancements in the fire department, building codes, and workplace regulations.

Throughout the first half of the 20th century, the city became a world center for industry, commerce, and communication, marking its rising influence with such events as the Hudson-Fulton Celebration of The city was a destination for internal migrants as well as immigrants. The Harlem Renaissance flourished during the s and the era of Prohibition. New York City's ever accelerating changes and rising crime and poverty rates were reduced after World War I disrupted trade routes, the Immigration Restriction Acts limited additional immigration after the war, and the Great Depression reduced the need for new labor.

The combination ended the rule of the Gilded Age barons. As the city's demographics temporarily stabilized, labor unionization helped the working class gain new protections and middle-class affluence, the city's government and infrastructure underwent a dramatic overhaul under Fiorello La Guardia , and his controversial parks commissioner, Robert Moses , ended the blight of many tenement areas, expanded new parks, remade streets, and restricted and reorganized zoning controls. For a while, New York City ranked as the most populous city in the world, overtaking London in , which had reigned for a century.

Despite the effects of the Great Depression, some of the world's tallest skyscrapers were built during the s. These included Art Deco masterpieces that are still part of the city's skyline today, such as the iconic Chrysler Building , Empire State Building , and 30 Rockefeller Plaza. The construction of the Rockefeller Center occurred in the s and was the largest-ever private development project at the time.

Both before and especially after World War II, vast areas of the city were also reshaped by the construction of bridges, parks and parkways coordinated by Robert Moses , the greatest proponent of automobile-centered modernist urbanism in America. Demands for new housing were aided by the G. Bill for veterans, stimulating the development of huge suburban tracts in eastern Queens and Nassau County. The city was extensively photographed during the post—war years by photographer Todd Webb.

New York emerged from the war as the leading city of the world, with Wall Street leading the United States ascendancy. Citizen rebellion stopped a plan to construct an expressway through Lower Manhattan. After a short war boom, The Bronx declined from to , going from predominantly moderate-income to mostly lower-income, with high rates of violent crime and poverty.

The Bronx has experienced an economic and developmental resurgence starting in the late s that continues into today. The transition away from the industrial base toward a service economy picked up speed, while the jobs in the large shipbuilding and garment industries declined sharply. The ports converted to container ships, costing many traditional jobs among longshoremen. Many large corporations moved their headquarters to the suburbs or to distant cities.

At the same time, there was enormous growth in services, especially finance, education, medicine, tourism, communications and law. New York remained the largest city and largest metropolitan area in the United States, and continued as its largest financial, commercial, information, and cultural center. Like many major U. Street activists and minority groups such as the Black Panthers and Young Lords organized rent strikes and garbage offensives, demanding improved city services for poor areas.

They also set up free health clinics and other programs, as a guide for organizing and gaining "Power to the People. In , the city government avoided bankruptcy only through a federal loan and debt restructuring by the Municipal Assistance Corporation, headed by Felix Rohatyn. The city was also forced to accept increased financial scrutiny by an agency of New York State. In , the city was struck by the twin crises of the New York City blackout of and serial slayings by the Son of Sam.

The s began a rebirth of Wall Street , and the city reclaimed its role at the center of the worldwide financial industry. Unemployment and crime remained high, the latter reaching peak levels in some categories around the close of the decade and the beginning of the s. Neighborhood restoration projects funded by the city and state had very good effects for New York, especially Bedford-Stuyvesant , Harlem, and The Bronx.

The city later resumed its social and economic recovery, bolstered by the influx of Asians, Latin Americans, and U. In the late s, the city benefited from the success of the financial sectors, such as Silicon Alley , during the dot com boom , one of the factors in a decade of booming real estate values. New York was also able to attract more business and convert abandoned industrialized neighborhoods into arts or attractive residential neighborhoods; examples include the Meatpacking District and Chelsea in Manhattan and Williamsburg in Brooklyn.

New York's population reached an all-time high in the census ; according to census estimates since , the city has continued to grow, including rapid growth in the most urbanized borough, Manhattan. During this period, New York City was a site of the September 11 attacks of ; 2, people who were in the towers and in the surrounding area were killed by a terrorist attack on the World Trade Center , an event considered highly traumatic for the city but which did not stop the city's rapid regrowth. It flooded low-lying areas of Brooklyn, Queens, and Staten Island.

Electrical power was lost in many parts of the city and its suburbs. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. History of New York City prehistory— History of New York City — List of former municipalities in New York City. History of New York City —present. Jackson — historian List of newspapers in New York in the 18th century. Bureau of the Census —present ".

Population History - Highly Urbanized Boroughs — ". Black and White Manhattan: History on the Half Shell , New York: Burrows and Mike Wallace, Gotham: Oxford University Press, The European Discovery of America. The Northern Voyages Retrieved on September 13, ". The Epic of New York City. In the Shadow of Slavery: African Americans in New York City, The University of Chicago Press. The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2 March Retrieved 1 March The attack on Fort Mimms resulted in the death of settlers and became an ideological rallying point for the Americans.

The Indian frontier of western Georgia was the most vulnerable but was partially fortified already. From November to January , Georgia's militia and auxiliary Federal troops — from the Creek and Cherokee Indian nations and the states of North Carolina and South Carolina — organized the fortification of defences along the Chattahoochee River and expeditions into Upper Creek territory in present-day Alabama. The army, led by General John Floyd , went to the heart of the "Creek Holy Grounds" and won a major offensive against one of the largest Creek towns at Battle of Autosee , killing an estimated two hundred people.

Jackson suffered enlistment problems in the winter. He decided to combine his force with that of the Georgia militia. However, from January 22—24, , while on their way, the Tennessee militia and allied Muscogee were attacked by the Red Sticks at the Battles of Emuckfaw and Enotachopo Creek. Jackson's troops repelled the attackers, but outnumbered, were forced to withdraw to his base at Fort Strother. Jackson's force increased in numbers with the arrival of U.

Army soldiers and a second draft of Tennessee state militia and Cherokee and Creek allies swelled his army to around 5, In March they moved south to attack the Creek. The most of western Georgia and part of Alabama was taken from the Creeks to pay for expenses borne by the United States.

The Treaty also "demanded" that the "Red Stick" insurgents cease communicating with the Spanish or British, and only trade with U. The Creek promised to join any body of 'troops that should aid them in regaining their lands, and suggesting an attack on the tower off Mobile. Although he gave an angry reply to Jackson, Manrique was alarmed at the weak position he found himself in.

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He appealed to the British for help, with Woodbine arriving on July 28, and Nicolls arriving at Pensacola on August Captain William Percy tried to take the U. After the Americans repulsed Percy's forces, the British established a military presence of up to Marines at Pensacola. In November, Jackson's force of 4, men took the town. Jackson's army of 1, regulars and 3, to 4, militia, pirates and other fighters, as well as civilians and slaves built fortifications south of the city.

At the end of , the British launched a double offensive in the South weeks before the Treaty of Ghent was signed. On the Atlantic coast, Admiral George Cockburn was to close the Intracoastal Waterway trade and land Royal Marine battalions to advance through Georgia to the western territories. The British suffered high casualties: It was hailed as a great victory across the U.

Philip endured ten days of bombardment from Royal Navy guns, which was a final attempt to invade Louisiana; British ships sailed away from the Mississippi River on January However, it was not until January 27, , that the army had completely rejoined the fleet, allowing for their departure. Tammany in a decisive victory. Under the orders of his commanding officers, Cockburn's forces relocated many refugee slaves, capturing St. Simons Island as well, to do so. During the invasion of the Georgia coast, an estimated 1, people chose to relocate in British territories or join the military.

In mid-March, several days after being informed of the Treaty of Ghent, British ships finally left the area. By , both sides had either achieved their main war goals or were weary of a costly war that offered little but stalemate. They both sent delegations to a neutral site in Ghent, Flanders now part of Belgium. The negotiations began in early August and concluded on December 24, when a final agreement was signed; both sides had to ratify it before it could take effect. Meanwhile, both sides planned new invasions.

In the British began blockading the United States, and brought the American economy to near bankruptcy, [] [] [] [] forcing it to rely on loans for the rest of the war. American foreign trade was reduced to a trickle. The parlous American economy was thrown into chaos with prices soaring and unexpected shortages causing hardship in New England which was considering secession. Although American privateers found chances of success much reduced, with most British merchantmen now sailing in convoy, privateering continued to prove troublesome to the British, as shown by high insurance rates.

At last in August , peace discussions began in the neutral city of Ghent. Both sides began negotiations warily. It was understood the British would sponsor this Indian state. The British strategy for decades had been to create a buffer state to block American expansion. Britain demanded naval control of the Great Lakes and access to the Mississippi River. The Americans refused to consider a buffer state and the proposal was dropped. American public opinion was outraged when Madison published the demands; even the Federalists were now willing to fight on.

The British had planned three invasions. One force burned Washington but failed to capture Baltimore, and sailed away when its commander was killed. In northern New York State, 10, British veterans were marching south until a decisive defeat at the Battle of Plattsburgh forced them back to Canada. Wellington said that he would go to America but he believed he was needed in Europe.

I think you have no right, from the state of war, to demand any concession of territory from America You have not been able to carry it into the enemy's territory, notwithstanding your military success and now undoubted military superiority, and have not even cleared your own territory on the point of attack.

You cannot on any principle of equality in negotiation claim a cessation of territory except in exchange for other advantages which you have in your power Then if this reasoning be true, why stipulate for the uti possidetis?

The 10 Things You Didn’t Know About the War of | History | Smithsonian

You can get no territory: The Prime Minister, Lord Liverpool, aware of growing opposition to wartime taxation and the demands of Liverpool and Bristol merchants to reopen trade with America, realized Britain also had little to gain and much to lose from prolonged warfare especially after the growing concern about the situation in Europe. The main focus on British foreign policy was the Congress of Vienna, during which British diplomats had clashed with Russian and Prussian diplomats over the terms of the peace with France, and there were fears at the Britain might have go to war with Russia and Prussia.

Now each side was tired of the war. Export trade was all but paralyzed and after Napoleon fell in France was no longer an enemy of Britain, so the Royal Navy no longer needed to stop American shipments to France, and it no longer needed to impress more seamen. It had ended the practices that so angered the Americans in The British were preoccupied in rebuilding Europe after the apparent final defeat of Napoleon. British negotiators were urged by Lord Liverpool to offer a status quo and dropped their demands for the creation of an Indian barrier state, which was in any case hopeless after the collapse of Tecumseh's alliance.

This allowed negotiations to resume at the end of October. British diplomats soon offered the status quo to the U. Prisoners were to be exchanged and captured slaves returned to the United States or paid for by Britain. At this point, the number of slaves was approximately 6, Britain eventually refused the demand, allowing many to either emigrate to Canada or Trinidad. On December 24, the diplomats had finished and signed the Treaty of Ghent. The treaty was ratified by the British three days later on December 27 [] and arrived in Washington on February 17, where it was quickly ratified and went into effect, thus finally ending the war.

The terms called for all occupied territory to be returned, the prewar boundary between Canada and the United States to be restored, and the Americans were to gain fishing rights in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. The Treaty of Ghent failed to secure official British acknowledgement of American maritime rights or ending impressment.

However, in the century of peace until World War I these rights were not seriously violated. The defeat of Napoleon made irrelevant all of the naval issues over which the United States had fought. The Americans had achieved their goal of ending the Indian threat; furthermore the American armies had scored enough victories especially at New Orleans to satisfy honour and the sense of becoming fully independent from Britain.

British losses in the war were about 1, killed in action and 3, wounded; [9] 3, British died from disease. American losses were 2, killed in action and 4, wounded. While the number of Americans who died from disease is not known, it is estimated that about 15, died from all causes directly related to the war. In addition, at least 3, American slaves escaped to the British lines.

Many other slaves simply escaped in the chaos of war and achieved their freedom on their own. The British settled some of the newly freed slaves in Nova Scotia. In the United States, the economy grew every year —, despite a large loss of business by East Coast shipping interests.

Per capita GDP grew at 2. Money that would have been spent on foreign trade was diverted to opening new factories, which were profitable since British factory-made products were not for sale. The Boston Manufacturing Company , built the first integrated spinning and weaving factory in the world at Waltham, Massachusetts, in During the 19th century the popular image of the war in the United States was of an American victory, and in Canada, of a Canadian victory. Each young country saw its self-perceived victory as an important foundation of its growing nationhood.

The British, on the other hand, who had been preoccupied by Napoleon's challenge in Europe, paid little attention to what was to them a peripheral and secondary dispute, a distraction from the principal task at hand. In British North America, the War of was seen by Loyalists as a victory, as they had claimed they had successfully defended their country from an American takeover.

A long-term consequence of the Canadian militia's success was the view widely held in Canada at least until the First World War that Canada did not need a regular professional army. Army had done poorly, on the whole, in several attempts to invade Canada, and the Canadians had fought bravely to defend their territory. But the British did not doubt that the thinly populated territory would remain vulnerable in a third war. By the 21st century it was a forgotten war in Britain, [] although still remembered in Canada, especially Ontario.

Today, American popular memory includes the British capture and the burning of Washington in August , [] which necessitated its extensive renovation. The fact that before the war, many Americans wanted to annex British North America, was swiftly forgotten, and instead American popular memory focused on the victories at Baltimore, Plattsburg and New Orleans to present the war as a successful effort to assert American national honour, the "second war of independence" that saw the mighty British empire humbled and humiliated.

Navy became popular heroes with plates with the likeness of Decatur, Steward, Hull, and others becoming popular items. Ironically, many were made in England. The navy became a cherished institution, lauded for the victories that it won against all odds. Marines had acquired a well-deserved reputation as excellent marksmen, especially in ship-to-ship actions. Historians have differing and complex interpretations of the war. Neither side wanted to continue fighting since the main causes had disappeared and since there were no large lost territories for one side or the other to reclaim by force.

Who won the War of 1812? (6/18/2012)

Insofar as they see the war's resolution as allowing two centuries of peaceful and mutually beneficial intercourse between the U. These writers often add that the war could have been avoided in the first place by better diplomacy. It is seen as a mistake for everyone concerned because it was badly planned and marked by multiple fiascoes and failures on both sides, as shown especially by the repeated American failures to seize parts of Canada, and the failed British attack on New Orleans and upstate New York.

However, other scholars hold that the war constituted a British victory and an American defeat. They argue that the British achieved their military objectives in by stopping the repeated American invasions of Canada and retaining their Canadian colonies. By contrast, they say, the Americans suffered a defeat when their armies failed to achieve their war goal of seizing part or all of Canada. Additionally, they argue the U. Even tied down by ongoing wars with Napoleonic France, the British had enough capable officers, well-trained men, and equipment to easily defeat a series of American invasions of Canada.

In fact, in the opening salvos of the war, the American forces invading Upper Canada were pushed so far back that they ended up surrendering Michigan Territory. The difference between the two navies was even greater. While the Americans famously shockingly for contemporaries on both sides of the Atlantic bested British ships in some one-on-one actions at the war's start, the Royal Navy held supremacy throughout the war, blockading the U.

Yet in late , the British offered surprisingly generous peace terms despite having amassed a large invasion force of veteran troops in Canada, naval supremacy in the Atlantic, an opponent that was effectively bankrupt, and an open secessionist movement in New England. He considers that the British offered the United States generous terms, in place of their initially harsh terms which included massive forfeiture of land to Canada and the American Indians , because the "reigning Liverpool ministry in Britain held a loose grip on power and feared the war-weary, tax-exhausted public".

The war was also technically a British victory "because the United States failed to achieve the aims listed in its declaration of war". A second minority view is that both the U. Risjord argues that the main motivation was restoring the nation's honour in the face of relentless British Aggression toward American neutral rights on the high seas, and in the Western lands.


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The results in terms of honour satisfied the War Hawks. Most Republicans thought it did. In the beginning they called the contest a "second war of independence", and while Britain's maritime practices never truly threatened the Republic's independence, the war did in a broad sense vindicate U.

But it ended in a draw on the battlefield. The lessons of the war were taken to heart. Anti-American feeling in Great Britain ran high for several years, but the United States were never again refused proper treatment as an independent power. American naval historian George C. Daughan argues that the US achieved enough of its war goals to claim a victorious result of the conflict, and subsequent impact it had on the negotiations in Ghent.

Daughan uses official correspondences from President Madison to the delegates at Ghent strictly prohibiting negotiations with regards to maritime law, stating: Madison's latest dispatches [arrived July 25—27, ] permitted them [the delegates] to simply ignore the entire question of maritime rights. Free trade with liberated Europe had already been restored, and the Admiralty no longer needed impressment to man its warships. The president felt that with Europe at peace the issues of neutral trading rights and impressment could safely be set aside in the interests of obtaining peace Thus, from the start of the negotiations, the disagreements that started the war and sustained it were acknowledged by both parties to be no longer important.

The British permanently stopped impressing Americans, although they never publicly rescinding the possibility of resuming that practice. The US delegates at the meeting understood it to be a dead issue after the surrender of Napoleon. Henry Clay wrote to the delegates in October , "for in our own country, my dear sir, at last must we conquer the peace. You have not been able to carry Why Stipulate for uti possidetis?

He cites the Edinburgh Review , a British newspaper who had remained silent about the war with America for two years wrote "the British government had embarked on a war of conquest, after the American government had dropped its maritime demands, and the British had lost. It was folly to attempt to invade and conquer the United States. To do so would result in the same tragedy as the first war against them, and with the same result.

Historians have different views on who won the War of , and there is an element of national bias to this. Only US historians follow the minority view that the US was the victorious party in the war. Historians generally agree that the real losers of the War of were the Indians called First Nations in Canada. The big losers in the war were the Indians. As a proportion of their population, they had suffered the heaviest casualties. Worse, they were left without any reliable European allies in North America The crushing defeats at the Thames and Horseshoe Bend left them at the mercy of the Americans, hastening their confinement to reservations and the decline of their traditional way of life.

Throughout the war the British had played on terror of the tomahawks and scalping knives of their Indian allies; it worked especially at Hull's surrender at Detroit. By Americans had killed Tecumseh and broken his coalition of tribes. Jackson then defeated the Creek in the Southwest. Historian John Sugden notes that in both theatres, the Indians' strength had been broken prior to the arrival of the major British forces in Notwithstanding the sympathy and support from commanders such as Brock, [] Cochrane and Nicolls , the policymakers in London reneged in assisting the Indians, as making peace was a higher priority for the politicians.

At the peace conference the British demanded an independent Indian state in the Midwest, but, although the British and their Indian allies maintained control over the territories in question i. The withdrawal of British protection gave the Americans a free hand, which resulted in the removal of most of the tribes to Indian Territory present-day Oklahoma. The Treaty of Ghent technically required the United States to cease hostilities and "forthwith to restore to such Tribes or Nations respectively all possessions, rights and privileges which they may have enjoyed, or been entitled to in "; the United States ignored this article of the treaty and proceeded to expand into this territory regardless; Britain was unwilling to provoke further war to enforce it.

A shocked Henry Goulburn , one of the British negotiators at Ghent, remarked:. Till I came here, I had no idea of the fixed determination which there is in the heart of every American to extirpate the Indians and appropriate their territory. About half of the Creek territory was ceded to the United States, with no payment made to the Creeks. This was, in theory, invalidated by Article 9 of the Treaty of Ghent.

Without this support, the Indians' lack of power was apparent and the stage was set for further incursions of territory by the United States in subsequent decades. Neither side lost territory in the war, [h] nor did the treaty that ended it address the original points of contention—and yet it changed much between the United States of America and Britain.

The Treaty of Ghent established the status quo ante bellum ; that is, there were no territorial losses by either side. The issue of impressment was made moot when the Royal Navy, no longer needing sailors, stopped impressment after the defeat of Napoleon in spring ended the war. Napoleon unexpectedly returned in , after the final end of the war of Except for occasional border disputes and some tensions during the American Civil War , relations between the U.

It demilitarized the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain, where many British naval arrangements and forts still remained. The treaty laid the basis for a demilitarized boundary. It remains in effect to this day. Although Britain had defeated the American invasions she was in no mood to have more conflicts with the United States since her attention was to her growing Indian possessions. Indicative of forbearance, or at least improved relations, Britain never seriously challenged the US over land claims after From the s, because of the burgeoning industrial power of the US, Britain had designs on getting the US on her side in a hypothetical European war.

Border adjustments between the U. Eastport , Massachusetts, was returned to the U. A border dispute along the Maine—New Brunswick border was settled by the Webster—Ashburton Treaty after the bloodless Aroostook War , and the border in the Oregon Country was settled by splitting the disputed area in half by the Oregon Treaty. A further dispute about the line of the border through the island in the Strait of Juan de Fuca resulted in another almost bloodless standoff in the Pig War of The line of the border was finally settled by an international arbitration commission in The nation also gained a psychological sense of complete independence as people celebrated their "second war of independence".

No longer questioning the need for a strong Navy, the U. Navy became the heroes of their generation in the U. Several war heroes used their fame to win election to national office. Andrew Jackson and William Henry Harrison both took advantage of their military successes to win the presidency, while Richard Mentor Johnson used his wartime exploits to help attain the vice presidency. During the war, New England states became increasingly frustrated over how the war was being conducted and how the conflict was affecting them. They complained that the U. The increased taxes, the British blockade, and the occupation of some of New England by enemy forces also agitated public opinion in the states.

They did not call for secession but word of the angry anti-war resolutions appeared at the same time that peace was announced and the victory at New Orleans was known. The upshot was that the Federalists were permanently discredited and quickly disappeared as a major political force. This war enabled thousands of slaves to escape to British lines or ships for freedom, despite the difficulties.

The planters' complacency about slave contentment was shocked by their seeing slaves, who risked so much to be free. After the decisive defeat of the Creek Indians at the battle of Horseshoe Bend in , some Indian warriors escaped to join the Seminoles in Florida. The remaining Creek chiefs signed away about half their lands, comprising 23,, acres, covering much of southern Georgia and two thirds of modern Alabama.

The Creeks were now separated from any future help from the Spanish in Florida, or from the Choctaw and Chickasaw to the west. During the war the United States seized Mobile, Alabama, which was a strategic location providing oceanic outlet to the cotton lands to the north. Jackson invaded Florida in , demonstrating to Spain that it could no longer control that territory with a small force.

Thus indirectly the War of brought about the acquisition of Florida To both the Northwest and the South, therefore, the War of brought substantial benefits. It broke the power of the Creek Confederacy and opened to settlement a great province of the future Cotton Kingdom. Pro-British leaders demonstrated a strong hostility to American influences in western Canada Ontario after the war and shaped its policies, including a hostility to American-style republicanism. Additionally, work began on the Halifax citadel to defend the port against foreign navies. From to , the Rideau Canal was built to provide a secure waterway not at risk from American cannon fire.

The Native Americans allied to the British lost their cause. The British proposal to create a "neutral" Indian zone in the American West was rejected at the Ghent peace conference and never resurfaced. After the natives, who lost most of their fur-gathering territory, became an undesirable burden to British policymakers who now looked to the United States for markets and raw materials. British agents in the field continued to meet regularly with their former American Indian partners, but they did not supply arms or encouragement and there were no American Indian campaigns to stop U.

Abandoned by their powerful sponsor, American Great Lakes-area Indians ultimately migrated or reached accommodations with the American authorities and settlers. Bermuda had been largely left to the defences of its own militia and privateers before U. It originally was intended to be the winter headquarters of the North American Squadron, but the war saw it rise to a new prominence. As construction work progressed through the first half of the 19th century, Bermuda became the permanent naval headquarters in Western waters, housing the Admiralty and serving as a base and dockyard.

The military garrison was built up to protect the naval establishment, heavily fortifying the archipelago that came to be described as the "Gibraltar of the West". The war is seldom remembered in Great Britain. The massive ongoing conflict in Europe against the French Empire under Napoleon ensured that the War of against America was never seen as more than a sideshow to the main event by the British.

While the land campaigns had contributed to saving Canada, the Royal Navy had shut down American commerce, bottled up the U. Navy in port and heavily suppressed privateering. British businesses, some affected by rising insurance costs, were demanding peace so that trade could resume with the U. However, the two nations quickly resumed trade after the end of the war and, over time, a growing friendship.

This was the principal rationale for Britain's long-term policy of rapprochement with the United States in the nineteenth century and explains why they were so often willing to sacrifice other imperial interests to keep the republic happy. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the British-American War from to For the Franco-Russian conflict, see French invasion of Russia. For other uses of this term, see War of disambiguation.

War of Clockwise from top: Navy and Revenue Cutter Service at war's start: Havre de Grace Craney Island St. Naval battles of the War of Origins of the War of Canadian units of the War of Timeline of the War of Ohio in the War of Battle of New Orleans. Results of the War of War of portal History of Canada portal.

After this battle, most of the tribes abandoned their association with the British. Black freedom fighters of the War of ". Retrieved September 4, The War of , A Short History. University of Illinois Press. Command of the Ocean. Retrieved June 5, National Archives and Records Administration.

Retrieved October 1, Retrieved July 1, Office of the Historian. United States Department of State. Retrieved April 26, Felix Grundy of the Old Southwest. Expansionism and the War of ", Diplomatic History , Michigan Historical Review, 13 2 , 1— Journal of American Studies. To the Hartford Convention: Congress stages fiery debates over whether to declare war on Britain". Retrieved September 21, The New York Times. Retrieved July 30, Province of Upper Canada". Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved June 20, Retrieved May 23, Why Still Matters". Council on Foreign Relations.


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Archived from the original on July 2, Retrieved June 23, Higher Education Publications, Inc. Journal of the Early Republic. University Press of Florida. University of Nebraska Press Fort Mims and the Redstick War of — University of Alabama Press, Rethinking the Creek War and the War of University of Alabama Press Battle for the Southern Frontier: The Creek War and the War of Retrieved November 11, Retrieved September 7, Archived from the original on March 4, Retrieved September 26, The War of ".

Retrieved January 11, The Royal Marine Artillery — Royal United Services Institution. Black Liberation on Cumberland Island in University of Georgia Press, Lillian Ione Rhoades MacDowell The Story of Philadelphia. Retrieved February 8, Encyclopedia of the New American Nation. Williamson, "What Was the U. Origins of the Militia Myth". Archived from the original on May 4, Archived from the original PDF on November 6, Retrieved February 14, Retrieved March 10, The United States Marines: A History, Fourth Edition. Competing Memories of the Anglo-American Conflict ".

Turner, The War of Conservatives, War Hawks and the Nation's Honor. A History of the English-speaking Peoples volume 3. Rutland, James Madison Encyclopedia p British Association For American Studies. Canada and the United States: University of Georgia Press. The Enduring Vision Adams, Henry []. Akenson, Donald Harman The Irish in Ontario: A Study in Rural History. Allen, Robert S Renewing the Chain of Friendship". His Majesty's Indian allies: British Indian policy in the defence of Canada, — The War of Benn, Carl; Marston, Daniel Wars That Forged a Nation.

Berton, Pierre , The Invasion of Canada: Berton, Pierre []. Flames Across the Border: America as a Military Power: From the American Revolution to the Civil War. Boswell, Randy December 9, Bowler, R Arthur March American Review of Canadian Studies. His Life and Times. Brown, Roger Hamilton The Republic in Peril illustrated ed. In Halpenny, Francess G. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. V — online ed. Burt, Alfred LeRoy The Twilight's Last Gleaming: Britain, America and the Victorian origins of the special relationship. Geoffrey February 1, Manifest Destiny and the Expansion of America.

Carroll, Francis M A Good and Wise Measure: The Search for the Canadian-American Boundary, — Warfare and Armed Conflicts: Cogliano, Francis D A Political History 2nd ed.

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The Era of Good Feelings. The War of , conflict and deception: Egan, Clifford L April Three Decades of Historical Writing". Secular Morality and International Security: American and British Decisions about War. University of Michigan Press. International Maritime Economic History Association. The Age of Fighting Sail. Fraser, Robert Lochiel VIII — online ed.

The Naval War of A Survey of Changing Interpretations". Mississippi Valley Historical Review. Encyclopedia of the War of Hickey, Donald R Hickey, Donald R July Still a Forgotten Conflict? The Journal of Military History. Writings from America's Second War of Independence. Literary Classics of the Unites States.

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Don't Give Up the Ship! Myths of The War of The Incredible War of The Causes of the War of University of Pennsylvania Press. Howe, Daniel Walker What Hath God Wrought. Nationalism and Ethnic Politics. To 14th ed. Britain Against America in the Naval War of Western Ontario and the American Frontier.

The Wars of America. Journal of Negro History. The American Historical Review. Archived from the original on January 28, The Maritime History of Massachusetts, — Frontier Forts of Iowa: Indians, Traders, and Soldiers, — University of Iowa Press. A History of American Expansionism. England and The United States, — Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.

A history of United States foreign-policy. Army in the War of An Operational and Command Study. Michigan State University Press. The British at the Gates: G P Putnam's Sons. Andrew Jackson and the Course of American Empire, — Statesman for the Union. The Battle of New Orleans: Andrew Jackson and His Indian Wars. Conservatives, War Hawks, and the Nation's Honor". William and Mary Quarterly. A Historical and Geographical Encyclopedia. Roosevelt, Theodore []. New York and London: Smith, Dwight L Persistence of a British Idea".

Battle for the Bay: Canada, the West Indies, and the War of ". Politics, Diplomacy, and Warfare in the Early American republic, — Conflict for a Continent. The Oxford encyclopedia of the modern world. Centennial history of Missouri the center state one hundred years in the union. The Andrew And The Onions: The University of North Carolina Press.

Sugden, John January Recounted Mainly from Contemporary Records. Atlas of Great Lakes Indian History. University of Oklahoma Press. The Epic History of the Founding of the U. The Civil War of Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. A Political, Social, and Military History [3 volumes]".

A Political, Social, and Military History. Spencer Tucker; James R. Arnold; Roberta Wiener; Paul G. The Encyclopedia of the War of Updyke, Frank Arthur The diplomacy of the war of Johns Hopkins University Press. Upton, David November 22, Archived from the original on September 6, Retrieved September 23, War and the Making of Liberal America, — The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Henry Holt and Company. Williams, William Appleman The Contours of American History. Willig, Timothy D Restoring the Chain of Friendship: British Policy and the Indians of the Great Lakes, — University of Nebraska Press. Space, Time, and Freedom: The Quest for Nationality and the Irrepressible Conflict, — Woodsworth, Samuel July 4, The War of and the Brokering of an Uneasy Peace. Bibliography of the War of