Alkanes - Multiple choice Quiz on the structure and naming nomenclature.
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The following notes have basic reaction conditions, reagents and general equations as well as detailed notes on the mechanisms indicated. Free radical mechanism for cracking hydrocarbons to give shorter alkanes and alkenes. Ionic mechanism for cracking hydrocarbons. Electrophilic addition of hydrogen bromide [HBr conc. Electrophilic addition of sulphuric acid AND electrophilic addition of water [acid catalyst] to form alcohols. Free radical polymerisation to give poly alkene polymers e.
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Hydrogenation to give saturated alkanes. Nucleophilic substitution by cyanide ion to give a nitrile [S N 1 or S N 2]. Elimination of hydrogen bromide to form alkenes [E1 and E2]. The delocalization effect has been experimentally determined by measuring the heat of formation of the double bond containing compound alone and comparing it with the heat of formation of the sum of all the double bonds in the compound individually. The result of these measurements shows that the heat of formation of the whole molecule is lower than that of the sum of the heat of formation of its constituent double bonds measured singly.
In other words, they are more stable. Aromatic compounds are especially stable due to this bond delocalization and resonance effect. State the principles of resonance. Not all resonant structures are equally significant to the compound. There are a few principles involved that can help you determine how significant a resonance structure is.
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The resonant form with the lowest overall charge is the most significant. The resonance forms with a full octet are more significant than those lacking a full outer shell. Stabilization of positive charges: Forms where positive charges are acting on the least electronegative atom are the most significant. Stabilization of negative charges: Forms where negative charges are acting on the most electronegative atom are the most significant.
The most significant resonance structure has the most covalent bonds. Draw a Lewis structure of the molecule. A Lewis structure is a simplified representation of a molecule.
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It shows how atoms are bound together and their valence electron states. Single bonds are represented with a line connecting the two atoms bound. Double bonds are represented by two lines and triple bonds by three. Valence electrons electrons in the outer shell of the atom  are represented by dots next to the atom. O 3 has three oxygens all bound together. The oxygen in the middle is bound to the other two oxygens by one single bond and one double bond.
Identify the bonds that can alternate to form resonant structures.
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Molecules that have resonant structures actually exist in a hybrid state between the different structures formed by the variations in bonds. While you may draw the various Lewis structures as separate molecules, that is just a way to pictorially represent them.
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Know what they do, make a list, and remember them. Make a chart of reactions of a specific class of compounds to master organic chemistry. You can start with benzene. The most important thing is to do it by yourself. Did you know that more than half of organic chemistry is based on acid-base reaction? You can call them Electrophile and Nucleophile if you like. The Lewis Concept of Acids and Bases teaches us a very important concept in organic chemistry. That is, the ability to predict where the charge is most stable.
It is important because in any reaction, the molecule tries to get its more stable form. If we can predict where the charge is most stable, we can predict what direction the reaction will take, and what the product is. There are; however, certain aspects of the course that require memorization — like nomenclature terms, reagent names and acronyms, functional groups, and so on.
While some students might get the hang of it after a few weeks of the course, others might have to resort to flash cards or other memory-centered devices in order to remember the course material.
Getting together to do your work with your fellow students is a fantastic idea. It involves discipline, doing problems, focusing on learning concepts, and staying on top of the material. By following these 7 tips, you will feel fresh, have a clear mind and have the best chance of getting an A on the exam.
Remember — organic chemistry makes up a big chunk of the JEE Advanced question paper. Learning the right way is the best way to love organic chemistry. You can also check out an interesting ways to understand organic chemistry.