As for where the character came from, Dr. In that appearance, Dr. Since her first appearance, Dr. Okay, but before we get into it, was Haber really the inspiration for the original Dr. Poison in issue 2. While there is no direct evidence connecting Dr. Poison with Haber, Marston was alive when chemical weapons made their debut. Firsthand accounts of the gas were stuff of nightmare — a sickly looking yellow-green gas rolling across the landscape turning any vegetation brown and wilted, flowing down into depressions and pits in the ground, ultimately drifting down into the trenches where the Allied soldiers waited.
So does Haber equal Dr. Haber was somewhere in your head, influencing the creation. If you can remember him from a chemistry class or a YouTube video, you may already have a sense for who Haber is. Poison, is a complex individual that resists the broad-brushing of turning him into a simple villain. Chemistry was the hot science in the early 20 th century and in many ways, World War I was a chance for the leading industrial nations to show off their technologies to the rest of the world. Lost to most history and chemistry texts, in fact, is the rivalry Haber had with the French chemist Victor Grignard who also studied gas weapons.
The whole world was headed in that direction. Haber just got there first. Before he became known for his work with chemical agents Haber, in collaboration with Carl Bosch invented the Haber-Bosch process, a means to literally pull nitrogen out of the air with the use of a metal catalyst under high temperatures and pressures. For their work on the process that is a benefit to all mankind, Haber and Bosch were awarded the Nobel Prize in and , respectively.
However — all that nitrogen coming from the air attracted the attention of the German Army which needed the element for nitrogen-based explosives during the Great War. When the Great War came, Haber saw himself as a German first and a chemist second in opposition to his friend, Albert Einstein, who was critical of Germany , and told the Germany government he would do whatever his country needed to help in the war effort. Poison, Haber was not seen as a traditional war hero by the leadership of the German military.
These were generals and soldiers of the Victorian Era — gentlemen first, soldiers second. With the military finally behind him, Haber threw himself and his lab at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry into the business of making a poison gas for the troops. By April of , Haber had his perfect concoction and was on the front at Ypres in Belgium.
There he waited for weeks until the winds were just right, and on April 22 nd at sunrise, released over tons of the gas from canisters keeping with the spirit of The Hague Convention which outlawed gas projectiles. Denser than air, the gas drifted like a low, yellow wall towards the French trenches. Hundreds to thousands depending upon your source of French and Algerian soldiers died from exposure.
While the gas use did not lead to an immediate victory for the Germans, it emboldened Haber and the German High Command to view gas weapons in a favorable light. Haber oversaw another attack at Ypres, this time on Canadian troops, and by May 2 nd , had been promoted to a uniform-wearing captain and was headed home to Berlin for a party in his honor.
He was living a celebrated existence at this point — a party on the 2 nd , and then on May 3 rd , he was headed to the Eastern front to oversee a gas attack on the Russians. Each of the three gases used in World War I are horrible, and while both German and Allied armies rapidly developed gas mask technology to minimize the effects of the gases, over a million people died from poison gases in World War I between their debut at Ypres in and the end of the war in November of Strictly from the chlorine gas side of things, inhalation of the gas is a horrible way to go, thanks to the reaction that happens in the lungs:.
Recalling chemistry — HCl is hydrochloric acid. Since it was therefore in a state to absorb a much greater quantity of phlogiston given off by burning bodies and respiring animals, the greatly enhanced combustion of substances and the greater ease of breathing in this air were explained. Lavoisier's researches included some of the first truly quantitative chemical experiments. He carefully weighed the reactants and products of a chemical reaction in a sealed glass vessel so that no gases could escape, which was a crucial step in the advancement of chemistry.
Thus, for instance, if a piece of wood is burned to ashes, the total mass remains unchanged if gaseous reactants and products are included. Lavoisier's experiments supported the law of conservation of mass. Mikhail Lomonosov — had previously expressed similar ideas in and proved them in experiments; others whose ideas pre-date the work of Lavoisier include Jean Rey — , Joseph Black — , and Henry Cavendish — The elements included light; caloric matter of heat ; the principles of oxygen, hydrogen, and azote nitrogen ; carbon; sulfur; phosphorus; the yet unknown "radicals" of muriatic acid hydrochloric acid , boric acid , and "fluoric" acid; 17 metals; 5 earths mainly oxides of yet unknown metals such as magnesia , barite , and strontia ; three alkalies potash , soda , and ammonia ; and the "radicals" of 19 organic acids.
The acids, regarded in the new system as compounds of various elements with oxygen, were given names which indicated the element involved together with the degree of oxygenation of that element, for example sulfuric and sulfurous acids, phosphoric and phosphorous acids, nitric and nitrous acids, the "ic" termination indicating acids with a higher proportion of oxygen than those with the "ous" ending.
Similarly, salts of the "ic" acids were given the terminal letters "ate," as in copper sulfate, whereas the salts of the "ous" acids terminated with the suffix "ite," as in copper sulfite. The total effect of the new nomenclature can be gauged by comparing the new name " copper sulfate " with the old term "vitriol of Venus. This marked the beginning of the anti-phlogistic approach to the field. Antoine Lavoisier is commonly cited as a central contributor to the chemical revolution. His precise measurements and meticulous keeping of balance sheets throughout his experiment were vital to the wide spread acceptance of the law of conservation of mass.
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His introduction of new terminology, a binomial system modeled after that of Linnaeus , also helps to mark the dramatic changes in the field which are referred to generally as the chemical revolution. However, Lavoisier encountered much opposition in trying to change the field, especially from British phlogistic scientists.
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Joseph Priestley , Richard Kirwan , James Keir , and William Nicholson , among others, argued that quantification of substances did not imply conservation of mass. One of Lavoisier's allies, Jean Baptiste Biot , wrote of Lavoisier's methodology, "one felt the necessity of linking accuracy in experiments to rigor of reasoning. Despite opposition, Lavoisier continued to use precise instrumentation to convince other chemists of his conclusions, often results to five to eight decimal places. Nicholson, who estimated that only three of these decimal places were meaningful, stated:.
If it be denied that these results are pretended to be true in the last figures, I must beg leave to observe, that these long rows of figures, which in some instances extend to a thousand times the nicety of experiment, serve only to exhibit a parade which true science has no need of: The "official" version of Lavoisier's Easter Memoir appeared in In the intervening period Lavoisier had ample time to repeat some of Priestley's latest experiments and perform some new ones of his own.
In addition to studying Priestley's dephlogisticated air, he studied more thoroughly the residual air after metals had been calcined. He showed that this residual air supported neither combustion nor respiration and that approximately five volumes of this air added to one volume of the dephlogisticated air gave common atmospheric air. Common air was then a mixture of two distinct chemical species with quite different properties. Thus when the revised version of the Easter Memoir was published in , Lavoisier no longer stated that the principle which combined with metals on calcination was just common air but "nothing else than the healthiest and purest part of the air" or the "eminently respirable part of the air".
The same year he coined the name oxygen for this constituent of the air, from the Greek words meaning "acid former". He held that all acids contained oxygen and that oxygen was therefore the acidifying principle. Lavoisier's chemical research between and was largely concerned with developing his own new theory of combustion. That year Lavoisier also began a series of experiments on the composition of water which were to prove an important capstone to his combustion theory and win many converts to it. Many investigators had been experimenting with the combination of Henry Cavendish 's inflammable air, which Lavoisier termed hydrogen Greek for "water-former" , with dephlogisticated air oxygen by electrically sparking mixtures of the gases.
All of the researchers noted the production of water, but all interpreted the reaction in varying ways within the framework of the phlogiston theory. In cooperation with mathematician Pierre Simon de Laplace , Lavoisier synthesized water by burning jets of hydrogen and oxygen in a bell jar over mercury. The quantitative results were good enough to support the contention that water was not an element, as had been thought for over 2, years, but a compound of two gases, hydrogen and oxygen. The interpretation of water as a compound explained the inflammable air generated from dissolving metals in acids hydrogen produced when water decomposes and the reduction of calces by inflammable air combination of gas from calx with oxygen to form water.
Despite these experiments, Lavoisier's antiphlogistic approach remained unaccepted by many other chemists. Lavoisier labored to provide definitive proof of the composition of water, attempting to use this in support of his theory. Working with Jean-Baptiste Meusnier , Lavoisier passed water through a red-hot iron gun barrel, allowing the oxygen to form an oxide with the iron and the hydrogen to emerge from the end of the pipe. Lavoisier developed a new apparatus which utilized a pneumatic trough, a set of balances, a thermometer, and a barometer, all calibrated carefully.
Thirty savants were invited to witness the decomposition and synthesis of water using this apparatus, convincing many who attended of the correctness of Lavoisier's theories. This demonstration established water as a compound of oxygen and hydrogen with great certainty for those who viewed it.
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The dissemination of the experiment, however, proved subpar, as it lacked the details to properly display the amount of precision taken in the measurements. The paper ended with a hasty statement that the experiment was "more than sufficient to lay hold of the certainty of the proposition" of the composition of water and stated that the methods used in the experiment would unite chemistry with the other physical sciences and advance discoveries.
This work represents the synthesis of Lavoisier's contribution to chemistry and can be considered the first modern textbook on the subject. The core of the work was the oxygen theory, and the work became a most effective vehicle for the transmission of the new doctrines.
It presented a unified view of new theories of chemistry, contained a clear statement of the law of conservation of mass , and denied the existence of phlogiston. This text clarified the concept of an element as a substance that could not be broken down by any known method of chemical analysis, and presented Lavoisier's theory of the formation of chemical compounds from elements.
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It remains a classic in the history of science. The relationship between combustion and respiration had long been recognized from the essential role which air played in both processes. Lavoisier was almost obliged, therefore, to extend his new theory of combustion to include the area of respiration physiology. The result of this work was published in a memoir, "On Heat. By measuring the quantity of carbon dioxide and heat produced by confining a live guinea pig in this apparatus, and by comparing the amount of heat produced when sufficient carbon was burned in the ice calorimeter to produce the same amount of carbon dioxide as that which the guinea pig exhaled, they concluded that respiration was in fact a slow combustion process.
Lavoisier stated, "la respiration est donc une combustion," that is, respiratory gas exchange is a combustion, like that of a candle burning. This continuous slow combustion, which they supposed took place in the lungs, enabled the living animal to maintain its body temperature above that of its surroundings, thus accounting for the puzzling phenomenon of animal heat.
Lavoisier continued these respiration experiments in — in cooperation with Armand Seguin. They designed an ambitious set of experiments to study the whole process of body metabolism and respiration using Seguin as a human guinea pig in the experiments. Their work was only partially completed and published because of the disruption of the Revolution; but Lavoisier's pioneering work in this field served to inspire similar research on physiological processes for generations to come. Lavoisier's fundamental contributions to chemistry were a result of a conscious effort to fit all experiments into the framework of a single theory.
He established the consistent use of the chemical balance , used oxygen to overthrow the phlogiston theory, and developed a new system of chemical nomenclature which held that oxygen was an essential constituent of all acids which later turned out to be erroneous. Lavoisier also did early research in physical chemistry and thermodynamics in joint experiments with Laplace.
They used a calorimeter to estimate the heat evolved per unit of carbon dioxide produced, eventually finding the same ratio for a flame and animals, indicating that animals produced energy by a type of combustion reaction. Lavoisier also contributed to early ideas on composition and chemical changes by stating the radical theory, believing that radicals , which function as a single group in a chemical process, combine with oxygen in reactions.
He also introduced the possibility of allotropy in chemical elements when he discovered that diamond is a crystalline form of carbon. He was also responsible for the construction of the gasometer, an expensive instrument he used at his demonstrations. While he used his gasometer exclusively for these, he also created smaller, cheaper, more practical gasometers that worked with a sufficient degree of precision that more chemists could recreate. He was essentially a theorist, and his great merit lay in his capacity to take over experimental work that others had carried out—without always adequately recognizing their claims—and by a rigorous logical procedure, reinforced by his own quantitative experiments, expounding the true explanation of the results.
Overall, his contributions are considered the most important in advancing chemistry to the level reached in physics and mathematics during the 18th century. During his lifetime, Lavoisier was awarded a gold medal by the King of France for his work on urban street lighting , and was appointed to the French Academy of Sciences From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Lavoisier disambiguation. Combustion Identified oxygen Identified hydrogen Stoichiometry. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
May Learn how and when to remove this template message. University of Chicago Press. About these "elements", Lavoisier speculates: It is extremely probable that barytes, which we have just now arranged with earths, is in this situation; for in many experiments it exhibits properties nearly approaching to those of metallic bodies.
Antoine Lavoisier - Wikipedia
It is even possible that all the substances we call earths may be only metallic oxyds, irreducible by any hitherto known process. Lavoisier with Robert Kerr, trans. The original passage appears in: Cuchet, , vol. A Chronicle of the French Revolution. Retrieved 25 July Supplement to a bibliography of the works of Antoine Laurent Lavoisier, — With an introduction by F. Lavoisier in the year one.
The Mother of Modern Chemistry". Science, Administration, and Revolution. University of Pennsylvania Press. Aykroyd 12 May Lavoisier, Priestley and Cavendish. Science, Administration and Revolution. Archived from the original on 2 May Retrieved 20 April In September a law was passed ordering the arrest of all foreigners born in enemy countries and all their property to be confiscated.
Lavoisier intervened on behalf of Lagrange, who certainly fell under the terms of the law. On 8 May , after a trial that lasted less than a day, a revolutionary tribunal condemned Lavoisier and 27 others to death. For Duveen's evidence, see the following: Journal of Chemical Education. Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier — Chemist and Revolutionary. Prentice-Hall , p. The History of Science Society. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition , Vol. The Johns Hopkins University Press. National Historic Chemical Landmarks. Archived from the original on 23 February Retrieved 25 March Retrieved 1 July Duveen and Herbert S.
Exhibited at the Grolier Club New York, Presses Universitaires de France. The Story of Antoine Lavoisier. Lavoisier — The Crucial Year.