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Military officials recognized this paradigm change and introduced the new practice all over Europe. One Romanian officer in the k. However, before the treaties were signed and state officials obliged to take care of the cemeteries, some local populations expressed their mourning at the graves of, to them, unknown soldiers.

In the cemeteries, dead soldiers were divided in separate sections according to army membership, but never by rank. Furthermore, some ossuaries contained collections of bones not separated by the side they had fought on. Their tragic participation in what was believed to be the worst war in history was perceived to be the most important fact in their lives and they were all commemorated regularly every 11 November.

It was not only the war of position, in which the front lines were constant. Military offensives and retreats, occupation, long marches and partisan fighting characterized the whole period. Mass killing, expulsions, ethnic migrations and resettlements, as well as widespread epidemics, changed the population structure and transformed entire cultural landscapes. In that respect, the death toll changed not only the funeral practices, but also communal identities. The fact that almost every village and town erected countless individual gravestones, memory marks and memory plaques, often containing long lists of the names of the fallen soldiers, reshaped the landscape and introduced new forms of community gatherings.

The primal need of an individual to mourn in silence was suspended by the loss of the body and the consequent inability of relatives to pay respect to the dead through traditional rituals.

Mourning the dead in the Middle East

The same experience of loss brought thousands of people closer together. As specific shrines, those places of memory and the commemoration ceremonies held in front of them represented constitutive elements of the new communal bonding. Whether in complete unity or in direct collision with the official narratives and symbols, local communities challenged the processes of individual and collective identity creation and transformation.

One could argue that through their remembrance of the dead, the living created their present. Bereavement and Mourning South East Europe , in: International Encyclopedia of the First World War, ed.

Mourning After Burial - “Memory Eternal

This text is licensed under: Bereavement and Mourning South East Europe. By Olga Manojlovic Pintar. Table of Contents 1 Introduction 2 Death and Remembrance 2. After Loss, What Then? The Politics of Mourning, Berkeley et al. Reshaping the Memory of the World Wars, Oxford et al.

Sites of Memory, Sites of Mourning. Scattered Graves, Ordered Cemeteries. The Balkan Wars The death toll in the Balkans far surpassed other regions of Europe: The war was more destructive in the East than in the West: Of Crosses, Winged Victories, and Eagles. East Central Europe 37 , pp.

Journal of Slovenian local history], no. Kolonizacija spomina, Politika in tekstualnost domobranskih spomenikov po letu [Colonization of Memory, Politics and Textuality of the Home-guard Monuments since ], in: Memory and Naming in the Great War, in: The Politics of National Identity, Princeton , p. Selected Bibliography Bokovoy, Melissa: Scattered graves, ordered cemeteries. The politics of commemoration in Habsburg central Europe, to the present, West Lafayette State mourning may occur on such an occasion.

In recent years, some traditions have given way to less strict practices, though many customs and traditions continue to be followed. It is a theoretical cycle consisting of five steps: The above five phases can be linear but often a mourner can flip back before starting to move forward. A good way to pass through grief is to understand what has happened and share the feelings and emotions with relatives or people who also are grieving. These steps do not necessarily follow each other. It is not an inevitable process.

Mourning is a personal and collective response which can vary depending on feelings and contexts. It starts with denial and ends with acceptance. Grief can be defined as the period following the death of someone close. This is both psychological and social:. Death can be a release in the case of a tyrannical person or when death terminates a long, painful illness. However, this release may add remorse and guilt for the mourner. In Ethiopia , an Edir var. They are entitled to receive a certain sum of money from this fund to help cover funeral and other expenses associated with deaths.


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White is the traditional color of mourning in Chinese culture , with white clothes and hats formerly having been associated with death. The traditional period of mourning was nominally 3 years, but usually 25—27 lunar months in practice and even shorter in the case of necessary officers. The emperor, for example, typically remained in seclusion only 27 days. The term refers to either primarily black Western-style formal wear or to black traditional Japanese clothing worn at funerals and Buddhist memorial services.

Other colors, particularly reds and bright shades, are considered inappropriate for mourning dress. If wearing Western clothes, women may wear a single strand of white pearls. Japanese-style mourning dress for women consists of a five- crested plain black silk kimono , black obi and black accessories worn over white undergarments, black sandals and white split-toe socks. Men's mourning dress consists of clothing worn on extremely formal occasions: It is customary for Japanese-style mourning dress to be worn only by the immediate family and very close friends of the deceased; other attendees wear Western-style mourning dress or subdued Western or Japanese formal clothes.

In Thailand people will wear black when attending a funeral. Black is considered the mourning color, although historically it was white. Widows may wear purple when mourning the death of their spouse. The Filipino practices for mourning have influences from Chinese , Japanese and folk Catholic beliefs.


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People may wear white or black. The color red is frowned upon in the time of mourning, it is believed that those who wear red within 9—40 days will die or suffer illness. The consumption of chicken during the wake and funeral is believed to bring death among the relatives.

Only in the Middle East

There is an initial nine-day mourning practice called Pasiyam , a novena is to be prayed by those who are mourning. During those days the spirit of the deceased is believed to be roaming. A Mass and a small feast are held to commemorate the dead during the day period, the 40th day as their judgment day.

The immediate family wear black. When the one-year period is over, the first death anniversary will signal the end of mourning celebrated by a feast. The custom of wearing unadorned black clothing for mourning dates back at least to the Roman Empire , when the toga pulla , made of dark-colored wool, was worn during mourning. Through the Middle Ages and Renaissance , distinctive mourning was worn for general as well as personal loss; after the St.

Women in mourning and widows wore distinctive black caps and veils, generally in a conservative version of the current fashion. The immediate family members of the deceased wear black for an extended time. Since the s, mourning practices for some cultures, even those who have emigrated to the United States, are to wear black for at least two years, though lifelong black for widows remains in Europe. In Belgium the Court went in public mourning after publication in the Moniteur Belge. The color of deepest mourning among medieval European queens was white.

In , Parisians were treated to the unusual spectacle of a royal funeral carried out in white, for Leo V, King of Armenia , who died in exile. In , Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands reintroduced white mourning after the death of her husband prince Henry. It has remained a tradition in the Dutch royal family.

In , the four daughters of Queen Juliana of the Netherlands all wore white to their mother's funeral. The custom for the Queens of France to wear deuil blanc [white mourning] was the origin of the White Wardrobe created in by Norman Hartnell for Queen Elizabeth later called Queen Mother. She was required to make a State visit to France while in mourning for her mother. Today, no special dress or behaviour is obligatory for those in mourning in the general population, although ethnic and religious faiths have specific rituals, and black is typically worn at funerals. Traditionally, however, there were strict social rules to be observed.

By the 19th century, mourning behaviour in England had developed into a complex set of rules, particularly among the upper classes. The entire ensemble was colloquially known as "widow's weeds" from the Old English waed , meaning "garment".

Observing Mourning Practices in Jordan | Middle East Moments

Special caps and bonnets, usually in black or other dark colours, went with these ensembles. There was mourning jewelry , often made of jet. Jewelry was also occasionally made from the hair of the deceased. The wealthy would wear cameos or lockets designed to hold a lock of the deceased's hair or some similar relic. Widows were expected to wear special clothes to indicate that they were in mourning for up to four years after the death, although a widow could choose to wear such attire for the rest of her life. To change the costume earlier was considered disrespectful to the deceased and, if the widow was still young and attractive, suggestive of potential sexual promiscuity.

Those subject to the rules were slowly allowed to re-introduce conventional clothing at specific times; such stages were known by such terms as "full mourning", "half mourning", and similar descriptions. For half mourning, muted colours such as lilac , grey and lavender could be introduced. Friends, acquaintances, and employees wore mourning to a greater or lesser degree depending on their relationship to the deceased.

Mourning was worn for six months for a sibling.

Parents would wear mourning for a child for "as long as they feel so disposed". A widow was supposed to wear mourning for two years and was not supposed to enter society for twelve months. No lady or gentleman in mourning was supposed to attend social events while in deep mourning.

In general, servants wore black armbands when there had been a death in the household. However, amongst polite company the wearing of a simple black armband was seen as appropriate only for military men, or others compelled to wear uniform in the course of their duties - a black arm band instead of proper mourning clothes was seen as a degradation of proper etiquette and to be avoided.

A suggested period of mourning with specific days and memorial events are as follows:

In the later interbellum period between World War I and World War II , as the frock coat became increasingly rare, the mourning suit consisted of a black morning coat with black trousers and waistcoat, essentially a black version of the morning suit worn to weddings and other occasions, which would normally include colored waistcoats and striped or checked trousers. Comrades of year-old Israeli Sgt.

Shor was one of five Israeli soldiers who died in clashes with a Palestinian commando that tried to reach Israel through a tunnel at Nahal Oz, near the border with Gaza, the Israeli army said. The mother, second from left, and aunt, center, of Palestinian girl, Layan al-Silk, mourn during her funeral in Gaza City, July 31, Eyal Algranati, center, and Danit Algranati, third from right, the father and mother of Israeli soldier Guy Algranati, and his sisters mourn during his funeral in Tel Aviv, July 31, Algranati was killed on Wednesday by a booby trap detonated as he and 2 other soldiers uncovered a tunnel shaft, the army said.

Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, facing international alarm over a rising civilian death toll in Gaza, said on Thursday he would not accept any ceasefire that stopped Israel completing the destruction of militants' infiltration tunnels. A Palestinian woman kisses the grave of her son, who medics said was killed during the Israeli offensive, at a cemetery in Beit Lahiyah in the northern Gaza Strip, July 28, Ora Degorker, left, the mother of Israeli soldier Barak Refael Degorker, who died after suffering wounds from mortar fire from Gaza, mourns during his funeral in Gan Yavne, near Ashdod, July 27, A Palestinian relative cries as he carries the body of a baby, who is one of the eight members of the same family killed in an Israeli strike, during their funeral in Beit Lahia in the northern Gaza Strip, July 19, Khenin was the first Israeli to be killed by a Hamas mortar as he offered food to Israeli soldiers working near the Erez border crossing between Israel and Gaza.